Space Technology : The Exploration And Development Of Space Exploration

Argumentative essay: the future of space exploration.

“Space exploration is a force of nature unto itself that no other force in society can rival.” The famous astrophysicist and astronomer, Neil Degrasse Tyson, once said these powerful words. What Neil Degrasse Tyson meant is that space exploration, is unlike anything else as it compels people to explore and discover the unknown. It gathers interest in science and it’s many field, which is the foundation of society and the the future. Space exploration can solve many of the problems caused by humanity and further develop society. Ever since I was a child, I have always admired outer space with all of its stars and comets, and wanted to learn more about space. I have done more than sufficient research on this topic through various websites and articles on the Internet. Firstly, I will discuss the progression of technology from space exploration. Then, I will

Cost Efficiency : Private Vs. Government Space Industry

Many Americans have grown up in a world that has conquered space. They spent their time in elementary school reading about moon landings in their history books and watching countries work together to build the International Space Station on the news. Though previous American and Russian space programs pioneered engineering technologies; such as reusable rocket boosters and multiuse shuttles. Recently NASA has made a decision that has defined the future of space travel. This decision was to expand the growth of the free market space industry. Though polarizing, the evolution of the free market space industry is a positive occurrence for the world because private space corporations are more cost efficient then government space programs.

Space Exploration

Is the United States Wasting Our Money in Space or Would it be Better Used at Home?

The Pros And Cons Of Space Exploration

Three main clusters that are developed under this idea of space exploration is the benefits that are gained, ethical code and what it means with regard to the future of the human race. In this paper I will talk about what major projects are being worked on and who will benefit from these. This will also include what laws of space are and ethical code. This will also identify the differing viewpoints on space exploration and whether the big picture is worth the small steps being taken as to advancements in space technology and sciences.

Is Space Exploration Worth The Cost

For many years humans have been exploring space to discover the unknown and fuel their curious and adventurous nature, but the decision of whether space exploration is worth the cost is strongly debated. Due to various arguments and evidence space exploration is strongly supported is proven to be worth the cost. Some of these reasons include space exploration being able to expand our knowledge and it being able to generate wealth. With these reasons the argument of whether space exploration is worth the risk can be easily decided.

The International Space Station ( Iss ) Essay

We have dreamt of spaceflight since ancient times. Humans have developed and thought of many ways to acquire this immense feat and it wasn’t till the 20th century mankind were able to build rockets powerful enough to overcome the force of gravity. Since then, we’ve successfully sent mankind to the moon, rovers to mars and space probes deep into the reaches of our solar system. Nations have striven to advance and attain great heights in the field of space exploration. The constant competitiveness between USA and USSR during the cold war led to many major breakthroughs in the history of space exploration beginning with USSR launching the first international space station and USA successfully landing a human on the moon. The international space station (ISS) stands as the basis of how international collaboration can affect space exploration. Even though some nations are unwilling to work together, space exploration provides a platform for nations to form relationships that benefits one another and create beneficial relationships with each other.

Humans have dreamed of leaving the earth and traveling space for many years, and up to this day they have taken many steps in the right direction. Yet, with every new frontier they approach, new problems loom over the horizon. Some of these problems arise right here on Earth. Some of the issues have been resolved, such as escaping the forces of gravity to reach outer space. Most of the problems are far more arduous and the solutions need more time to be worked out properly. In “The Coming Schism” by James E. and Alcestis R. Oberg, they posit that humans can colonize space. Humans need to buckle up and build the technology which will help to solve problems that would arise to

The Continued Space Race

October 4, 1957: The Russia launched Sputnik into space. Thus began the seemingly-eternal battle for control of space exploration. Who would get the first man into space; to the Moon, to Mars? Everything that could be done by either country was being done to give the edge. It soon became obvious to all that neither country was going to back down from the challenge. However, a lot has changed since 1957, governments have slumped, privatized exploration has taken charge. . . what happened? Where is space exploration going? Where is the human race, today?

The Space Race

Man’s curiosity for the environment that surrounds him fuels the ambition to explore past the realms of his being. The space race marked the first time homo sapiens were able to escape and extend their biosphere. This age is filled with technological advancement. The space race gave the ability for a new age of technological advancements to occur. Almost every technological device that is produced or owned by people in the 21st century world contains technology that was invented or derived from the space race. Technology is the product of modernization and industrialization. Society is forced to make adjustments in social, economic and political institutions as humans continue to progress. The results and the success of the space race was and still is a great triumph for mankind. However, the motive for the United States and the Soviet Union for reaching space is not explicit. Although the space race and the resulted technological innovations in science had elements that benefited human progress in a substantial manner, the general motive for the space race lies within the political aspect of society and the repercussions that came with the cold war.

Science And Technology: The Space Race

The NASA budget was now four point five billion dollars, making up two point four percent of America's budget. The United States program passed through several stages, the first was the mercury program, which sent six one man missions into space. Cadbury The next set of mission in the NASA program were the Apollo missions.In december of 1968 Nasa launched Apollo 8, the first manned space mission to orbit the moon.( Sagdeev)On July 16 1969, NASA successfully launched Apollo 11, the first spacecraft to land on the moon.(Klein) The astronauts which landed on the moon were Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Once the United States successfully launched and landed Apollo 11, it meant we won the Space Race.(Klein) When the commander of the two crafts docked with each other, they both waved their hands at each other. In 1975 the joint mission, Apollo-Soyuz meant and ending to the cold war era and the Space

The Controversy Over The Big Cost Of Space Exploration

Since the development of large and efficient rockets, space exploration has become reality. The numbers of reasons behind it are for scientific research, national prestige, developing military and strategic advance against other country. The big cost for space exploration has been a debate between the pros and contras. Some people say that space exploration gives useful advantages for the future life inspite of the big cost. However, other people say that the big amount of money is better used to solve the problems on the earth. I my self think that the problems on the earth is more important than the space exploration. Space exploration still can go on as long as they don’t spend much money.

Space Exploration: Nazi Germany And The Space Race

Space exploration began in the 20th Century when Nazi Germany built long range missiles that could travel across the English Channel1 which led to Soviet Russia and the USA beginning their own space programmes to prevent attacks by Germany and the Space Race began, a period of incredible technological advancement as the Russians and Americans competed to “one-up” each other and governments provided space programmes with seemingly bottomless funding. On October 4th 1957, the Russians launched the Sputnik satellite1 which became the first object to orbit space and this was quickly followed by, on April 12th 1961, Lt. Yuri Gagarin becoming the first man in space1. The Americans retaliated, launching their own rockets and men into space, close

Space Exploration: Government vs Privately Funded Essay

The world today revolves around technology and is in an ever upward spiraling path of new advancements. This path is now at what some people call the “final frontier”, or the space age. The discoveries being made on this front are overwhelming in comparison to the technology that the world had only twenty years ago. Space exploration was once left up to the governments, as they battled to be the first country in space, but with national debts raising and the cuts made in response, space exploration is beginning to become new grounds for private business owners. Private companies are already beginning to send off rockets at a fraction of the cost that government does, but if more money was put into the government space program, then they

Persuasive Speech About Space Exploration

No one could have predicted how important the innovation created by the space scientist to explore the space, could be used in the Earth in different ways to improve the quality of life. In fact, numerous societal benefits have been experienced by the space exploration missions.

Positive Consequences Of Space Exploration

This article is useful to my research because of the analysis of the relationship between each step in space exploration and the possible benefits in the science field. Although this article is shorter than most of other resources, it clearly explains the whole processes of space exploration as a benign cycle, space resources produce economy, economy provides technologies, technologies creates opportunities to future exploration, future exploration leads to more discoveries and resources, and then back to increase in economy. It is a unique perspective of explaining the reason why we need to explore outer space and mining resources, each step produces considerable benefits.

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Space technology is improving our lives and making the world a better place. Here’s how

essay on space technology in the era of developing world

To protect our planet, we need to understand it better. Satellites will play a vital role in this Image:  REUTERS

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Argumentative Essay On Space Technology

essay on space technology in the era of developing world

Show More Humans have an indefinite desire to explore the unknown and push their boundaries to discover new frontiers. Space exploration has allowed humans to test the limits of technology and understand the place of our planet in the solar system. However, the exploration of the cosmic world still remains debatable as some believe that the resources spent on space technology could be used to solve existing problems on Earth such as poverty. Conversely, space technology is the catalyst to form other technologies and innovations that are beneficial to our society. For example, the first satellite, 'Sputnik', used to study the orbital measurements of earth had provided new knowledge to develop satellites that are used for telecommunication, navigation …show more content… In addition to this, space technology has helped to form strong partnerships with different nations through collaborations such as the International Space Station (ISS) to solve global challenges. It has also given rise to a new cultural aspect by introducing a new perspective to humanity in the solar system. ( NASA , …show more content… This left the Americans with deep concern about the national security. David Dwight Eisenhower, 34th president of the USA, was interested in collecting information about their enemy's military force. He sent illegal over flight troops to photograph the soviet union forces above Vladivostok, Russia. However, his plan was unsuccessful as they were caught by the Soviet union fighters. In order to keep the soviet union under continuous surveillance of the USA, Eisenhower decided to embark on a project to launch an artificial satellite. While the plans for the launch of an artificial satellite were carried under deep national secrecy, Eisenhower passed the law of freedom of space in May 1955 to legalise space exploration . He also announced an International Geophysical Year to launch a man-made satellite to study the orbital measurements of the Earth. However, within days the Russians announced the launch of the first man-made satellite into space. On 4 October 1957, the first artificial satellite, 'Sputnik', was launched by the Russians to understand orbital capabilities. On 31 January 1958, the Americans launched their first communication satellite, 'The Explorer'. By 1991, more than 130 international organizations formed control Intelsat that provided near Earth coverage. Today there are 1100 functional satellites launched into space for varied purposes. (Dickson,

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Space Technology Essay | Short and Long | One Step Closer to A New Age

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Short essay on the importance of space technology – 150 words, space technology essay- 200 words.

Space technology has revolutionized the way we live and work. It has made our lives easier and more comfortable. Space technology has also made us more connected with each other and the world around us. space technology has improved communication, transportation, weather forecasting, and navigation. It has also allowed us to explore and understand our universe better.  Space technology has given us a greater understanding of our place in the universe and the interdependence of all life forms. The use of space technology is not limited to the Earth’s atmosphere; it also extends to outer space.  The exploration of outer space is an important part of space technology. Through space exploration, we have been able to learn more about our solar system and the universe beyond. Space exploration has also led to the development of new technologies that have had a positive impact on our lives.  For example, the development of satellite technology has led to the creation of GPS systems, which are now used by millions of people around the world. The future of space technology is very exciting. We are on the verge of making many new discoveries about our universe. With continued research and development, we will be able to create even more amazing technologies that will improve our lives in ways we can only imagine.

The Importance of Space Technology Essay – 250 Words

Space technology has become increasingly important in recent years, as more and more countries look to establish a presence in outer space. A key reason for this is the fact that space technology can be used for a variety of purposes, including communications, navigation, and surveillance. In terms of communications, space technology is essential for enabling long-distance communication between different parts of the world. For example, satellites can be used to relay signals from one location to another, allowing people to communicate with each other regardless of their location. This is particularly important for countries that are far apart, or for businesses that need to communicate with customers or clients in different parts of the world. In terms of navigation, space technology is used to help ensure that vehicles and vessels remain on course while travelling. This is done through the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites, which can provide accurate information about a vehicle’s location. This is vital for ensuring safe travel, both on land and at sea. Finally, space technology can also be used for surveillance purposes. For example, satellites can be used to monitor activity on Earth, such as weather patterns or movements of people or vehicles. This information can then be used to help plan activities or respond to emergencies. Overall, it is clear that space technology plays a vital role in our modern world. It helps us to communicate with each other, navigate our way around the globe, and keep an eye on what is happening on the Earth.

Essay on Space Science and Technology In 1000 Words

Space technology is the application of technology to the exploration and exploitation of space. It includes the development, manufacture, launch and operation of spacecraft; the construction and launch of satellites; the study of planets and other bodies in space; and the use of space-based assets for communications, navigation, surveillance and other purposes.  Space technology has enabled significant scientific and economic advances for humanity, including the development of satellite communications, GPS and other global navigation systems, Earth observation satellites, human spaceflight and robotic exploration of the solar system. 

The history of space technology is a long and complicated one. It began with the early pioneers who first dreamed of reaching the stars and has continued on through the years with the development of ever more advanced technologies.  The first steps in space technology were taken in the early 20th century with the launch of the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the Soviet Union in 1957. This was quickly followed by the launch of Explorer 1 by the United States in 1958, which marked the beginning of the Space Race between the two superpowers. Over the next few decades, space technology developed rapidly as both sides sought to gain an advantage in the Cold War.  In 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to journey into space aboard Vostok 1, while in 1969 Neil Armstrong made history as the first person to walk on the Moon. With the end of the Cold War, space technology entered a new era marked by international cooperation.  In 1990, astronauts from Russia and America shook hands in orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery, while in 1998 they worked together on board the International Space Station. Today, space technology is used for a variety of purposes such as communications, navigation, Earth observation and scientific research. And with ongoing efforts to send humans to Mars and beyond, its story is far from over.

Now let’s have a look on the pros and cons of the Space technology as every coin has sides, so space technology is also not an exception- 

The future of space technology

1. The future of space technology will be defined by the need for faster, more reliable and more affordable access to space. 2. New propulsion technologies will enable faster and more efficient travel through space, making it possible to reach distant destinations in a shorter amount of time. 3. The development of new materials and manufacturing techniques will allow for the construction of lighter and more durable spacecraft, making them more resistant to the harsh conditions of space. 4. Advanced sensors and communication systems will allow for greater situational awareness and control, making it possible to safely navigate through even the most hostile environments. 5. The continued miniaturization of electronics will allow for ever smaller and more efficient spacecraft, making it possible to explore even the most remote corners of the universe. 6. The increasing availability of powerful computing resources will enable the development of ever more sophisticated spacecraft control systems, allowing for greater autonomy and flexibility in operation. 7. The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning will allow for the development of smarter and more adaptive spacecraft, capable of making decisions on their own in response to changing conditions. 8. The increasing commercialization of space activities will lead to the development of new markets and business models, providing new opportunities for growth and expansion. 9. The expanding network of international partnerships will create new opportunities for collaboration and knowledge sharing, contributing to the advancement of space technology worldwide.

People Also Ask-

What are 10 ways space technology is benefiting us.

1. Weather forecasting: satellites provide vital data for accurate weather forecasting. 2. Communications: space-based communications systems enable us to stay connected with friends, family and colleagues around the world. 3. Navigation: GPS satellites help us navigate safely to our destination. 4. Earth observation: satellites provide invaluable data for monitoring and understanding our planet’s changing climate and environment. 5. Science and research: space-based telescopes and other instruments are giving us new insights into the universe and the origins of life on Earth. 6. Medical technology: space research is leading to new medical technologies and treatments that can save lives on Earth. 7. Food production: satellite-based precision agriculture is helping farmers to increase crop yields and reduce wastage. 8. Energy: space-based solar power systems could provide a clean, renewable energy source for the future. 9. Disaster relief: satellites can provide vital information for coordinating relief efforts in the aftermath of natural disasters. 10. Exploration: space exploration is inspiring a new generation of scientists and engineers, who will create even more amazing technologies.

What is the importance of space technology?

What is meant by space technology, how is space technology used in everyday human life, what are the challenges in space technology, what are the different types of space technologies.

There are many different types of space technologies, but some of the most common are satellites, rockets, and telescopes. Though we have already covered this in the above portion of this post yet have a look again-  Communications satellites: These satellites relay messages and images back to earth. They are used for things like television, radio, and internet communications. Navigation satellites: These satellites help us track our location and find our way around in space. They are used for things like GPS and mapping. Observation satellites: These satellites take pictures of Earth and other planets. They help us learn about the universe and look for signs of life on other planets. Weather satellites: These satellites help us track weather patterns and predict the weather here on Earth. Space telescopes: These telescopes allow us to see far into space, beyond what we can see with our naked eye. They help us learn about distant stars and galaxies.

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Essay on The Uses of Space Technology for National Development

essay on space technology in the era of developing world



The Indian Space Programme, from its very inception, has been geared towards national development. It has harnessed space technology for the benefit of our society right down to the grass roots level.

Development of Thought:

The remarkable development in space technology and its application during the last three decades have firmly established its immense potential for the development of the human society as a whole.

Space platforms are now being extensively used for reaching global communication even into remote rural areas, for worldwide monitoring of weather and for conservation, monitoring and management of natural resources thus significantly contributing to the development of human society.

With the rapid progress achieved, the remote sensing applications in India now cover diverse fields such as the agricultural crop acreage and yield estimation, drought warning and assessment, flood control and damage assessment, land use/land cover mapping, wasteland management, urban development, mineral prospecting, forest survey, etc.

Thus covering almost all facets of national development. Space Technology has also revolutionized communication, especially long distance telecommunication, nationwide TV and radio broadcasting.


With proper planning and optimum utilization of space technology, it is hoped that by the time India enters the next century, it would have overcome the national problems of hunger and illiteracy.

The Indian Space Programme from its very inception aimed at an integrated development of space technology to harness its potential for the identified tasks of the country.

Through a well conceived path of development, starting with technology build up, experimental programmes, development of application areas, education of user agencies and timely operationalisation of space services, the Indian Space Programme has ensured that the vast benefits from the space reach the very grassroots of our society.

Today, the operational remote sensing satellites like the IRS are providing vital inputs in a timely manner, on agriculture, soil, forestry, ocean resources, water and land resource, mineral exploration, wasteland development, drought and flood management.

Likewise, the operational multipurpose INSATgeostationary satellites have initiated a revolution in the country particularly in the areas of communication. TV broadcast, education and disaster warning.

Remote sensing effort in the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) began in the early 70s with aerial survey using a variety of multi-data instruments like the infrared scanners, multi-spectral scanners and radiometers for carrying out soil and land use studies and for monitoring different crops and crop diseases.

Following the successful launch of the experimental remote sensing satellites Bhaskara 1 and Bhaskara 2, the ISRO entered into the operational era with the launching and commissioning of the state-of-the-art, Indian Remote Sensing Satellite 1RS-LA in 1988 followed by IRS-1B in 1991, which have now become the mainstay of the National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS).

Remote sensing is being operationally used to predict crop acreage and yield of major crop-s such as wheat, rice, sorghum, ground nut, cotton, mulberry, etc., at the national level. Methodologies are being developed for using the remote sensing data for timely detection of pests and diseases as well as for assessing the crop stress conditions.

Fortnightly drought assessment bulletins at the district level, derived from space imageries, are now being issued on a regular basis in 12 States, to assist the district authorities and the agriculture resources planners to learn about the extent and the severity of agricultural drought conditions and effectively deal with the situation on a near real time basis.

Land use land cover mapping for the agro-climatic zonal planning has been carried out for the entire country, under 24 land use categories, on 1:250,000 scale.

Forest maps prepared using remote sensing data, are now being operationally used to monitor forest cover and to make realistic assessments of biomass and bio species at the micro level.

The nationwide mapping of the wasteland through satellite imageries which hove been used to identify and differentiate 13 categories of wasteland at village level has been accomplished.

Considering that about 50% of the wasteland which amounts to 25 million hectares can be reclaimed for productive use with appropriate agricultural practices, the delineation of recoverable wasteland, assumes a great importance.

Under the national drinking water mission, hydro geomorphologic maps for the entire country, covering 447 districts, have been generated using satellite imageries to identify the underground aquifer potential for providing basic drinking water to rural population.

Based on the statistics of more than 2,00,000 wells, the space remote sensing has established a success rate of over 92% for striking ground water, as compared to less than 45% achieved using other conventional methods.

Satellite remote sensing has become an invaluable tool for predicting in advance, the snow melt run off from the Himalayas and also for obtaining real-time information on the flood affected areas for initiating appropriate rehabilitation measures.

More importantly, methodologies have been developed for flood prediction and control including the identification of flood risk zones, river migration patterns, embankments, water-shed prioritization, etc. to minimize flood damage in the coming decades.

In collaboration with the Geological Survey of India, a mineral resources finding project, named Vasundhara, covering an area of 4, 00,000 of South India, which envelops a wide geological column from Archaean to the present, consisting mainly of granulites, granite-greenstones and protozonic basins has been completed.

A geographical information system has been developed for the creation of digital cartographic data-base and geostatistical models.

With the promising results obtained from this project, which has indicated new areas of mineralized zones, the project is now being extended to cover the northern part of India for similar mineral exploration using space data through digital analysis of the satellite data, land use and urban sprawl maps for major cities in India have been prepared.

Vital inputs have been provided for the optimal location of industries, housing and infrastructural facilities in the new and upcoming extensions of Bombay and Delhi cities using space imageries.

Satellite based remote sensing data was used for city planning recently by conducting a survey for aligning the proposed ring road for the Bangalore Development Authority.

Space imageries have helped in preparing coastal maps of the country’s entire coastline on a 1:250,000 scale, and identification of brackish water and other water bodies suitable for inland fisheries.

For a country having 15% of world population and a coastline of over 7,000 km. the annual fish catch is just about 2 million tonnes, less than 2% of the world catch. Using the satellite data, methodologies for the identification of areas rich in fish through the estimation of phytoplankton density and ocean temperature distribution have been developed.

Forecasts on fish school location are now being broadcast by the All India Radio to enable the fishermen in coastal regions to realise a substantially larger fish catch.

Satellite remote sensing has now established itself as the most powerful tool for carrying out an integrated sustainable development at the micro level, which is the only way to improve the agricultural productivity in the country.

The methodology developed involves the use of remotely sensed data for the Preparation of a set of resource maps such as surface water bodies, ground water Potential zones, zones requiring ground water recharge, type, salinity/alkalinity and erosion status, the existing land use and the distribution of wastelands.

Combining the space based information with the meteorological information and the socio-economic factors, the integrated land and water resources maps at the micro level are being prepared, highlighting the priority area for agriculture development, fuel and fodder development, soil conservation and Afforestation, etc., for arriving at a package of practices and strategies to address the local Problems leading to sustainable development at village/tehsil level.

The successful launch and operationalisation of the first generation. INSAT- 1B satellite in 1983 ushered in a new communication era in the country.

The INSAT is an unique, multi-purpose operational geostationary satellite system which combines the multiple services such as the long-distance telecommunication, nationwide TV and radio broadcast, meteorological imaging, data relay, and disaster warning.

Continued availability of the communication services to the country has been ensured through the INSAT – ID launched in 1990 followed by the recent successful launch of INSAT – 2A in 1992 and INSAT – 2B in August, 1993.

The INSAT system, as of date, caters to over 5000 two way speech circuits covering 140 routes in the country, connecting for the first time, even the remote rural areas and offshore islands with the main stream of the nation.

The nation wide geographic research of the INSAT satellite is being advantageously used for a variety of applications ranging from administrative, business, and computer communication through the 23 captive networks using small terminals.

New specialized services such as the PTI news service, facsimile transmission of fully composed pages of the Hindu newspaper for printing at Delhi, and the emergency communication for post disaster relief operations have been commissioned.

Highly innovative, pilot rural telegraphy network in the hilly regions of the north-eastern part of the country with the hub station at Shillong and 50 rural the graph terminals has been implemented.

The National Information Centre Network (NICNET), using the VSATs and the spread-spectrum techniques for providing data communication links between the state capitals, the district headquarters and the central government departments has already become a reality with over 450 micro terminals in operation.

The Remote Area Business and Message Network (RABMN), the VSAT network similar to NICNET to provide data communication between the widely dispersed locations in remote areas is under advanced phase of implementation.

Meteorological imaging from the INSAT, normally taken every half hour and at more frequent intervals during cyclones and hurricanes together with the availability of meteorological data from over 100 unattended remote platforms, including the one at Dakshin Gangotri, in Antarctica, has made a quantum difference in our ability for weather forecasting and by providing real time information on upper winds, sea surface temperature, cloud top temperature an precipitation index.

The INSAT being the only geostationary satellite over this region of the earth providing meteorological imaging, has become indispensable not only to our country but also to the entire world.

The 0600 hrs GMT VHRR image derived winds are regularly put on the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and 0800 hrs GM full disk IR pictures are transmitted as the radio facsimile broadcast every ay for reception in the neighboring countries.

An innovative use of the INSAT has been under implementation of unique unattended, locale specific Disaster Warning System (DWS) consisting of over 100 disaster warning receivers installed in selected, cyclone prone east coast areas of the country.

Since the commissioning of DWS and its first operational use for the disaster warning in 1987, the DWS has become a vital disaster mitigation mechanism. The most dramatic use of the DWS system was during the cyclone that hit the Andhra Pradesh coast on 9 May 1990, enabling the Government to evacuate over 170,000 people, thus saving thousands of lives and livestock in this area.

As the space segment capacity increases, the deployment of additional DWS units as well as constant monitoring of the flood levels in various rivers would be implemented in the coming years.

The most dramatic impact of the INSAT has been in the rapid expansion of TV dissemination in the country. As of today, over 540 TV transmitters have been installed in the country providing access to almost 80% of India’s population.

The regional networking services have already been implemented in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa and West Bengal and are being further expanded to cover Gujarat and North-Eastern States.

The use of transportable earth stations with five transportable TV up thinking stations now enables extensive coverage of all important events in any part of the country. The INSAT is being extensively used for educational TV broadcasting with about 100 hours of programme per month to about 4000 schools and colleges.

The radio networking service via INSAT provides reliable, high fidelity, five channel national/regional feeds for retransmission by all the existing 108 AIR stations.

With the addition of captive and transportable RN unlinking terminals, in addition to the national service channel radio transmitter at Nagpur, the cumulative monthly utilization of the five RN channels has already reached about 2,400 hrs per month.

Direct relay of the video/audio programmes through small dish antennas, high definition TV, increasing use of the digital video and audio systems, computer interconnection, enabling the individual users to have an access to information, library services etc., are now possible due to the availability of large processing Power, memory capacities and high degree of miniaturization.

The coming decade will see in revolution in the coding techniques and in the video compression techniques which can transmit video programmes at very low bit rates for the “lost economical use of the space segment.

With four more satellites of the SAT-2 series to follow and the incorporation of KU-band transponders in the NSAT – 2C and INSAT-2D, the nation has been fully assured of the availability adequate space segment capacity for meeting all its foreseen communication needs, for the next 10-12 years.

Eradication of illiteracy in the rural areas, which unless tackled in a dramatic way will continue to be at the 30% level even by the year 2000.

It is in this “text, the ISRO is working on a dramatically new concept of utilizing the most powerful audio visual medium through the dedicated “GRAMSAT” satellites, which will be specifically tailored to meet the basic requirements of the rural areas to disseminate culture and region-specific knowledge on health, hygiene environment, family planning and better agricultural practices in each of the regional languages.

In addition, the design of GRAMSAT also incorporates facilities for providing continuing education for the special groups to ensure that their technical skill are periodically updated to overcome technological obsolescence and for enabling the linguistic minority groups in other states to have an access to programmes in their own languages.

Looking back at the achievements of the Indian Space Programme over the last two decades, one cannot but be impressed by the achievements and the impact it has made on the daily life of the Indian society the vast expansion of telecommunication network, the dramatic expansion of TV, marked improvement in weather forecasting and disaster warning, and the timely information for the management of natural resources.

As India enters the next century, with the optimal planning and utilization of the space technology, it is hoped that the continuing national problems of hunger and illiteracy will become a thing of the past and this country will emerge as a strong and healthy nation to play its rightful role in the community of nations.

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essay on space technology in the era of developing world

NSRC 2023

How space technology benefits the Earth

By jeff greenblatt and al anzaldua monday, july 29, 2019.

The purpose of this paper is to clarify and explain current and potential benefits of space-based capabilities for life on Earth from environmental, social, and economic perspectives, including:

In what follows, we describe nearly 30 types of activities that either confer significant benefits now, or could provide positive impacts in the coming decades.

The world already benefits greatly from space technology, especially in terms of communications, positioning services, Earth observation, and economic activity related to government-funded space programs. Humanity’s outer space capability has grown remarkably since 1957 when Sputnik was launched. Since then, we have witnessed humans land on the Moon, 135 flights of the Space Shuttle , construction of the International Space Station (ISS), and the launch of more than 8,100 space objects , including dozens of exploration missions to every corner of the Solar System. In March, the US announced an accelerated schedule to permanently return humans to the Moon in 2024 . Many other nations are also focused on a return to the Moon. With an explosion of more than 2,000 commercial space companie s, including those building communications satellites, orbital launch vehicles, rovers for the Moon and Mars, orbital habitats, space manufacturing platforms, and space greenhouses, the world’s commercial space capabilities are quickly expanding beyond our satellite industry, which over the last year already brought in more than $277 billion in global revenues .

One reason for this recent explosion in space-related activity is the plunging cost of launch to low Earth orbit (LEO). Launching to LEO in the past has been among the most expensive element of any space endeavor. Historically, costs have averaged more than $10,000 per kilogram of launched mass. Recently, however, space companies including SpaceX, Blue Origin, and United Launch Alliance (ULA) have been successfully pursuing reusable launch vehicle technology that promises to significantly reduce the launch cost to LEO. SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy now boasts the lowest cost in the industry, with a base price of $1,655 per kilogram to LEO.[1] SpaceX’s long-term ambitions, as well as that of many others, are to lower this cost to $100 per kiogram or less.[2] Such low launch costs will continue to dramatically change the economics of many space business models, enabling a new era of capabilities once thought prohibitively expensive.

Other technologies, such as manufacturing materials in space from resources found on the Moon, Mars, or asteroids, could further improve the economics of space activities by dramatically reducing the amount, and hence cost, of material launched from Earth. A prime example is sourcing rocket propellant in space from water-rich regions of the Moon or asteroids, which could lower transportation costs to locations beyond LEO.

Space activities with positive impacts today

1. Earth observation for weather prediction and climate monitoring: Accurate weather prediction enabled by space systems has become a critically important element in our daily lives, impacting government, industry, and personal decision making. Satellites used for weather prediction almost certainly save thousands of lives each year by giving the public storm warnings. Although no one can say exactly how many lives are saved every year, it is worthwhile to note that, in 1900, a hurricane hit Galveston, Texas, killing 6,000 to 12,000 people because they had no warning. Earth observing satellites also monitor greenhouse gases and other crucial climate indicators, as well as overall Earth ecosystem health. Without this kind of environmental information coming from satellites, plans for dealing with climate change would have less scientific basis.

2. Earth resources observation: Earth observation provides information and support for agricultural production, fisheries management, freshwater management, and forestry management, as well as monitoring for harmful activities, such as illegal logging, animal poaching, fires, and environmentally pernicious mining.

3. Space-based communication services: Space communication capabilities positively impact almost every aspect of human civilization. Satellite technologies have already revolutionized banking and finance, navigation, and everyday communications, allowing international and long-distance national phone calls, video feeds, streaming media, and satellite TV and radio to become completely routine. (See point 1 in the next subheading for where we are headed in this area.)

4. Space-based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services: Global PNT satellite systems, which can pinpoint a location to within a few meters (or much better) anywhere on the Earth’s surface, have enhanced land and sea navigation, logistics (including ride-hailing services that are transforming personal transportation), precision agriculture, military operations, electrical grids, and many other industrial and societal aspects of Earth life . Space-based location services built into mobile phones and used by applications on mobile phones ranging from maps to dating services have become so intertwined with modern life that their abrupt cessation would be viewed as catastrophic.

5. Increasing economic opportunities in expanding commercial space and non-space sectors: Aside from long-standing commercial satellite services, our expanding space industry, in the process of moving beyond exclusive dependence on limited government budgets and cost-plus contracting, brings with it economic opportunities, not only to those working directly in the space sector but also to non-space actors, including many small businesses. Put another way, an expanding commercial space industry will not only result in high-tech jobs, but also everyday jobs connected to construction, food service, wholesale and retail, finance, and more throughout the communities hosting commercial space companies.

6. Inspiration for STEAM education: Beyond economics, a healthy space sector will continue to inspire people young and old about new frontiers, discoveries, and technologies, and foster interest in STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art, and math) disciplines, which helps create a scientifically literate society able to participate in an increasingly technology-driven world.

7. International space cooperation countering geopolitical tensions: Joint space projects among nations are sometimes the only positive force countering mutual suspicion and geopolitical rivalries. The ISS is a prime example of such a project, a source of pride to all the nations involved. Cross-border business-to-business relationships also serve the same purpose. We are a global community and space endeavors, public and private, are making us more interdependent and interconnected.

8. Space spinoffs for Earth: Since the dawn of the space program, there have been more than 2,000 examples of space-developed technologies that have since found beneficial uses on Earth, including cordless power tools, freeze-dried food, flame-resistant firefighter gear, the integrated circuit, lightweight insulation, improvements to kidney dialysis, lightning detection, and automated credit card transactions. NASA tracks spinoffs each year across a wide range of topics spanning transportation, public safety, consumer goods, energy and environment, information technology, industrial productivity, and health and medicine. Future health-related spinoffs will foreseeably come from the dealing with the medical issues of isolated populations in deep space.

Space activities with the potential for positive impact in the next 5 to 20 years

1. Megaconstellations : This is an emerging business with huge potential, which will possibly enhance the efficiency, capacity, and security of a variety of services to Earth-based business customers by drastically cutting communications latency, while increasing throughput and global coverage. Data satellite constellations, which are planned for launching mostly to LEO , will benefit the business end-users of services in the banking, maritime, energy, Internet, cellular, and government sectors. A related aspect of this service business is focused on everyday Internet end-users and will provide high-speed, high-bandwidth coverage globally, benefitting billions of people. Thousands of LEO satellites are being planned by SpaceX, OneWeb, Telesat, Amazon, Samsung, and others. Such constellations, though, will require orbital debris mitigation and remediation services, as discussed below.

2. Space manufacturing of materials hard to make on Earth: At this time there are only a few materials that can only be made in the microgravity environment of space and have sufficient value back on Earth to justify its manufacture even at today’s high launch costs. The hallmark example is ZBLAN, a fiber optic material that may lead to much lower signal losses per length of fiber than anything that can be made on Earth. This material is being made experimentally on the ISS by Made In Space, Inc. , with two competitors working on similar products. Other on-orbit manufacturing projects underway on the ISS include bio-printing, industrial crystallization, super alloy casting, growing human stem cells, and ceramic stereolithography.[3]

3. Fast point-to-point suborbital transport: Supersonic air transport dates back to the Concorde in the 1970s and, more recently, several companies have begun exploring technologies for even faster transport using so-called “hypersonic” airplanes. SpaceX has announced its intentions to utilize its Starship/Super Heavy rocket system currently in development to leapfrog these companies and provide point-to-point (P2P) “suborbital” travel that temporarily leaves Earth’s atmosphere only to reenter a short time later somewhere else on the planet. The potential travel time savings using this technology is enormous, allowing access to anywhere on Earth in less than one hour. While current technologies continue to rely on fossil fuels for propellant, it is possible to substitute those with hydrogen/oxygen propellant electrolyzed from water. Such technology would not emit carbon dioxide, and could thus provide a “green” alternative to long-distance air travel while simultaneously shortening travel times tremendously.

4. Space tourism: There are now several start-up companies whose sole mission is to provide low-cost access to the edge of space. Some are using suborbital rocket technology that affords a few minutes of weightlessness about 100 kilometers above the surface, while others use high-altitude balloons to more inexpensively provide access to high altitudes without becoming weightless. The desire among ordinary people to travel into space is strong. A recent survey indicated that more than 60 percent of Americans would do so, if they could afford a ticket.[4] Space tourism, including Earth and Moon orbiting hotels, sports arenas, yacht cruises, and the like could soon become open to millions of people with the falling cost of space access.

5. The Overview Effect: A well-known phenomenon experienced by virtually every person who has traveled into space and gazed back on our world from above is the “Overview Effect,”[5] usually described as a sudden but lasting feeling of human unity and concern for the fragility of our planet.[6] Therefore, simply affording people the opportunity to experience the Overview Effect firsthand could lead to powerful shifts in attitudes toward the environment and social welfare, and could become an important “side benefit” of a growing space tourism industry.

6. Asteroid impact prevention: With increasing knowledge of the space environment, humanity has become aware that asteroids with the potential to do great harm will sporadically enter Earth’s atmosphere and reach the surface. While an early-warning system is an obvious first response to this threat (even this capability is nowhere near operational), some asteroids may pose so deadly a threat that deflection is the only way to avoid devastating loss of life on Earth. Several technologies to accomplish this task have been studied, but the capability is still in its infancy. A side benefit of investing in such a capability is that the more we learn about such “killer” asteroids the better we can identify valuable asteroids for asteroid mining.

7. Space solar power: In space, sunlight is unfiltered by Earth’s atmosphere and, at orbits of sufficiently high altitude, sunlight can shine more than 99 percent of the year.[7] The principle of space solar power (SSP) is to capture this abundant sunlight and then, after conversion into microwaves or laser light, beam it to the Earth’s surface where ground-based receivers re-convert the energy into electricity.

Such a system can provide electricity much of the day. Moreover, due to its vantage point in space, power can be beamed to virtually any location on Earth within line-of-sight of the satellite, and can be directed at a moment’s notice to locations thousands of kilometers apart, or even to multiple locations simultaneously through the use of phased array technology. An early application could focus on supplying power to isolated communities or for disaster relief.

With reductions in launch cost and mass production of SSP modules, SSP has the potential to eventually become less expensive than wind or solar electricity is today, i.e., a few cents per kilowatt-hour.[8] As it matures and especially as units in modular SSP systems begin to be mass produced from in-situ space resources, it will be able to replace much of baseload electricity as well as peak electricity generation, due to its ability for power to be sent wherever it is desired on demand . Moreover, with SSP providing baseload power, there will be less need for energy storage using batteries or other systems that could negatively impact the environment.

8. Space-based data centers: Together with the communications network itself, data centers are the beating heart of the Internet that drives much of today’s economy, but they consume vast and increasing amounts of electricity. Today, data centers are often being located in cold climates to take advantage of lower operating temperatures and cooling loads, and there have been serious discussions of locating data centers underwater for similar reasons.

Another option could be to place servers and their power supplies directly in space, using the virtually unlimited solar energy (see earlier discussion on SSP) there to remove the burden of Earth-based electricity systems to power them. While cooling may be more challenging (the vacuum of space is a very good thermal insulator), there are several advantages , including increased physical security, decreased signal transmission times, and superior performance of spinning disk drives in microgravity. It is possible that space-based data centers could eventually become cost effective, resulting in lower electricity demand and carbon emissions on Earth.

9. Space mining of high-value elements: The focus of most space mining companies today is targeting water that will provide rocket propellant in Earth orbit, helping lower the cost of deep space operations. Other plentiful materials such as iron and other metals will be valuable for in-space construction, avoiding the expense of launching structures from Earth. However, space mining could eventually mature to the point that other valuable elements could be obtained as a natural byproduct of the large amounts of processed material, justifying the high cost of producing them in space. Prime examples are the platinum group metals (platinum, palladium, rhodium, rhenium, osmium and iridium, collectively called PGMs) and gold, which can fetch prices of $30,000 or more per kilogram today. It is possible that some other elements, such as “critical materials” listed by the US Department of Energy , may reach similar price levels in the next two decades, and become amenable to space mining. Delivering large amounts of material from space can be inexpensive if they are returned using space-manufactured ablative heat shields that can be recovered from controlled landings in shallow water. Space mining techniques will be also different from water-based approaches frequently used on Earth, and instead would mainly rely on thermal separation and multistep processes to aggregate small percentages of metal typically found in terrestrial ores into higher and higher concentrations. For example, some asteroids may contain high concentrations of high value metals amenable to mechanical separation.

10. Closed-loop ecosystems, material recycling, and in situ resource utilization: Limited physical resources and the inherently high cost of operating in space naturally pushes system designs toward efficient utilization and recycling of gases, water, nutrients, and other materials, both for life support and other uses. Efficient re-use and/or recycling of plastics, aluminum, steel, and other structural materials confer great benefit as well. Once these systems have been matured for space applications, the potential to apply these technology solutions on Earth is enormous, saving energy and material resources, and shifting people’s outlook from once-through to circular economic thinking. Moreover, there is a need for large-scale space operations to rely as much as possible on in situ resources, literally using the rocks and regolith around which the rockets land as the raw materials for construction, life support, and other needs. If such processes can be developed in space with a high degree of efficiency and reliability, there is also potential for them to be customized for use on Earth for construction and processed goods.

11. Intensive organic agricultural techniques: As the size of crews in space increases, and especially as bases are constructed on distant worlds such as Mars, it will be impractical to sustain these populations using imported food. This will require the development of high-density, water-efficient, low-energy, fully organic agricultural methods that operate on a closed cycle. Such techniques can be anticipated to have widespread application back on Earth to increase food production.

12. Science projects and programs that can only be (or better be) done in space: Beyond the science and technology projects and programs listed above, there are others that can only be carried out in space. For instance, the Earth’s atmosphere filters out some wavelengths of light, so telescopes seeking to observe in those bands can only be placed in space . The lunar farside is protected by the Moon from electromagnetic emissions coming from the Earth. For that reason, with the proper precautions and infrastructure in place, it could be an ideal location to monitor low-frequency radio waves from space. Many other kinds of telescopes benefit from being located beyond the Earth’s atmosphere. Freed from Earth’s gravity, extremely large on-orbit structures could also be assembled, such as modular arrays for radio and optical interferometry telescopes and other types of receivers or transmitters. Finally, risky biological experiments could be carried out in isolated laboratories in deep space or on the Moon, protecting Earth populations with a vast expanse of hard vacuum.

13. Orbital debris management : While not a technology of direct benefit to Earth, the removal of debris from spent rocket stages, defunct satellites, and all other manner of space junk in Earth orbits poses an increasing hazard to space operations and must eventually be dealt with. The worst-case scenario is that a series of accidental or deliberate collisions in orbit produces an exponential increase in debris, leading to an inability to operate in space— the so-called “Kessler Syndrome.” Technologies are being explored to deal with this problem in various ways, but it is currently very expensive. With lower launch costs and space infrastructure investments, it may become feasible to manage debris cost-effectively (at least one company, Cislunar Industries, plans to melt down and refine orbital debris into useful materials for use in space .) Another company, Star Technology and Research Corporation, i s developing a non-fuel consuming, electrodynamic debris eliminator (EDDE) , which can also be useful for monitoring debris in orbit.

Space activities with potential for positive impact in the more distant future

1. Widespread space manufacturing and industrialization: Eventually, the falling cost of space-based manufacturing, and the rising cost of Earth-based manufacturing (due to increased scarcity, environmental impacts, labor standards, etc.) may cause many, if not virtually all, extractive industries and their downstream manufacturing processes to move into space . The impact of such a change would be profound, as it would shift the side effects of these activities to locations in space without biological ecosystems, endangered species, or human populations to negatively impact. The vastly larger domain of outer space would provide virtually unlimited space, energy and materials with which to operate. Provided that such industrial activities are done responsibly so as not to pollute or otherwise compromise the ability of future generations to use space resources (an example of which is described above under orbital debris removal), this could be critical to permanently preserving and restoring the health of the Earth.

2. Waste disposal in space: As the reliability of space launch improves, it will be possible to dispose of toxic substances away from Earth. For example, in a century or so, space launch should be very reliable, making it possible to dispose of nuclear waste materials in an orbit permanently out of harm’s way , yet providing access for future generations to mine it for valuable materials. Storing nuclear waste on Earth for hundreds of years is a much simpler problem than the current much greater challenge of storing them for tens of thousands of years. This change in perspective could make the cleanup of nuclear debris much more tractable.

3. Construction of a space-based “sunshade” to reduce global warming: The severity of climate change may necessitate radical approaches, such as the reduction of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface in conjunction with greatly reduced greenhouse emissions. Known in climate change circles as “solar geoengineering” or “solar radiation management” (SRM), most approaches rely on injection of aerosol particles into the stratosphere, though others increase cloud reflectance, or directly block sunlight in space. First suggested three decades ago,[9] the concept of placing a fleet of spacecraft in orbit near Earth to reduce incident solar radiation and thereby lower surface temperatures received increased attention after Roger Angel published an influential paper in 2006.[10] Placing asteroid dust with similar effects in Earth orbit has also been explored.[11] While no identified SRM method can perfectly cancel the effects of climate change (and can do nothing to halt ocean acidification), SRM may be the only way to quickly lower global temperatures. The advantages of space-based approaches include the absence of unwanted chemical interactions in Earth’s atmosphere and the ability to be quickly “turned off” if unforeseen consequences were detected. Launching trillions of tiny spacecraft to form a vast “sunshade” over the planet is not feasible today, but could become possible with decreased launch costs, development of ultra-lightweight “solar sail” materials, and mass production of spacecraft.

4. Physical benefits of low gravity: While currently very speculative, a number of physical maladies that could be described as “aggravated by Earth gravity” (including obesity, joint pain, and osteoporosis) might be partially or completely eliminated in a lower gravity environment such as found on the Moon, Mars, or in artificial gravity environments (a rotating habitat) in Earth orbit. Low gravity is to be distinguished from zero gravity (technically, “microgravity”) such as found on board the ISS, which has been shown to almost universally result in negative health effects. Research in this area is still in its infancy, due to the almost complete lack of funding for artificial gravity centrifuges in orbit to study these effects in humans. If funding materializes and positive outcomes are found, spending time in low gravity could become highly desirable, driving significant numbers of people to visit or even live in space.

5. Food production in space for people on Earth: Once space technology advances to the point where self-sustaining space settlements of many millions of people are possible, the vastly larger resources of space could be used to grow food for people on Earth as well. Indeed, the current tension among the uses of land on Earth for human habitation, agriculture, industrial activities, and preservation of nature could be broken, providing ample room for all these competing needs. Initially only small amounts of food, or specialty items deemed too expensive or taxing on Earth’s ecosystems, would be shipped to Earth, but eventually, large portions of the world might be fed from space.

6. Migration of the human population into space: One of the main drivers of space development is provide new locations for people to live, work, and explore. While currently only very few people have been able visit space, the space community today is on a clear path to grow a commercial space tourism industry and establish small but permanent human bases on the Moon and Mars. Very large space hotels would be similar to small space settlements in Equatorial LEO (close to Earth and near the equator) where radiation levels are very low by space standards. The biggest difference could be the rotation rate, as hotels guests may want just a little “gravity” to keep the silverware in place, whereas settlements will want full Earth gravity so children grow up strong. Such small habitats may lead to very large space settlements (e.g., “O’Neill cylinders”) built with space resources, each capable of hosting populations in the millions. Eventually, such settlements could allow the human population to grow to fill the much larger region of the Solar System, reducing pressure on Earth’s finite land and resources.

7. Opportunities for social, economic and political experimentation: As space settlements would be physically and environmentally separated from each other, there is the possibility of trying new ideas without negatively impacting others. Furthermore, such activities cannot destroy indigenous cultures or damage local ecosystems for the simple reason that there aren’t any ( with a remote potential for microbial life on Mars, Europa, Enceladus, or possibly other locations .) Notwithstanding the decimation of indigenous cultures and the horrors of slavery, the expansion of Western culture into the New World provided opportunities to set up new social, economic, and political systems. Besides further developing Western style democracy into the form familiar to us today, New World settlers discovered local resources, which they brought back to Europe in the form of trade items that enriched European economic, cultural, and social life. The widespread migration of humans into space settlements would provide similar opportunities to experiment, drawing on the collective frustrations of people across the world feeling powerless to change their broken systems, but without the exploitation of native populations. Success in the space domain would likely result over time in the back-transfer of new approaches and products to Earth, without the danger of human exploitation.

8. Studying and preserving ecosystems in space: Recreating complex ecosystems in space could provide opportunities to refine our knowledge to better protect terrestrial environments, and also provide valuable experience in maintaining such ecosystems for human life support in space. In the long term, O'Neill cylinders could also be used to recreate Earth environments on a large scale, with the express purpose of preserving endangered species, or even regenerating previously extinct species with genetic technology. Such efforts may become some of the more powerful legacies of the Space Age: the preservation of biodiversity most affected by human expansion.

We believe that the benefits that humanity currently derives from Space, plus the vast anticipated future benefits described in this paper, overwhelmingly support the case for the continued exploration, development and settlement of Space.


An earlier version of this paper appears on the National Space Society website . The authors also gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Jason Aspiotis to the first draft of our paper and David Cheuvront to later drafts.

Jeff Greenblatt is Founder and CEO of Emerging Futures, LLC, an environmental and space technology consultancy based in Berkeley, California. He is also Chief Scientist at Spacexchange, LLC, a collaboration between Emerging Futures and Finsophy Public Benefit Corporation, which provides economic, risk, and market analytics to the space industry. Jeff has a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, and is a well-known expert in the fields of energy analysis, climate policy, and sustainable transportation. Since 2014, he has expanded his focus to include emerging space technologies.

Alfred Anzaldúa is a retired US State Department diplomat and 30-plus-year veteran of space advocacy. As a US Foreign Service Officer, he carried out diplomatic and science/environment work, primarily in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Washington, DC. Alfred is the National Space Society Executive Vice President, Chair of the NSS Policy Committee, Deputy Chair of the NSS International Committee, and Tucson L5 Space Society International Relations Coordinator.

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Successful deployment of 1KUNS-PF (Kenyan Satellite, selected as the first round of KiboCUBE) from the ISS Kibo Module, May 2018. ©JAXA​

Space Technology and the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda

About the author, simonetta di pippo.

December 2018, Nos. 3 & 4 Vol. LV, "New Technologies: Where To?"

L ast year, which marked the sixtieth anniversary of the first artificial satellite in orbit, a record number of orbiting objects were registered with the United Nations, reflecting the growing interest of all types of actors in participating in the frontier field of space exploration and innovation. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), established in 1958, works with Governments and the wider space community across policy, legal and technical capacity-building aspects of supporting global activities in the space environment. It also engages actors in discussions on how to best address the fact that space is becoming more congested and contested while offering a growing pool of benefits to humanity.

Space for Sustainable Development

Utilizing space contributes positively to a range of policy areas, including climate and weather monitoring, access to health care and education, water management, efficiency in transportation and agriculture, peacekeeping, security and humanitarian assistance. The list of earth-impacting space applications is nearly endless, and many other valuable contributions are currently in development or being researched.

With the adoption of the three major international frameworks in 2015—the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change—the international community has pledged to address the biggest challenges defining our era. Space-based technologies play an ever-increasing role in accelerating the achievement of those pledges.

To assess the impact of space technologies on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UNOOSA joined the European Global Navigation Satellite System Agency in an early 2018 study demonstrating that 65 out of 169 targets underpinning the SDGs directly benefit from the use of Earth observation and navigation satellite systems. 1  Incorporating telecommunication satellites, which were not covered in the study, significantly increases the number of targets affected directly.

With the adoption of the SDGs, UNOOSA was provided with an additional framework, and we strive throughout our activities and initiatives to promote and facilitate the use of space to help achieve the 17 Goals. We employ a cross-cutting approach aimed at contributing to the use of space science and technology as invaluable tools to help implement the SDGs.

One of the most important issues we are tackling in this regard is addressing the significant gender gap through the “Space for Women” Project to promote and enable more women and girls to play an active and equal role in space science, technology, innovation and exploration. In the context of SDG 11 on sustainable cities and communities, UNOOSA maintains the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER), which is used to enhance the use of space technology for disaster risk reduction and emergency operations aimed at saving lives and preventing property damage. Utilizing outer space not only holds promise for humanity but also contributes to improved “Life on land” (SDG 15) for all beings through monitoring ecosystems, protecting wildlife, and keeping track of and raising awareness about deforestation and desertification in order to preserve natural habitats and halt the loss of biodiversity.

Space for Everyone

Since space has far-reaching applications, all countries should be supported in accessing the benefits of space-based technology that facilitates sustainable development. As more countries invest financial and political capital in the space environment, and the world becomes increasingly dependent on space, UNOOSA is committed to delivering the benefits of space to everyone everywhere.

In order to help countries obtain access to the benefits of space technologies and applications, in 2010, UNOOSA launched the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI), involving more nations in human spaceflight and other space exploration-related activities. HSTI provides a platform for exchanging information, fostering collaboration between spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encouraging emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative is part of the effort to allow access to space education, data, technology and research, and creating access to space for all. 2

In coordination with United Nations-wide activities, such as the Secretary-General’s Strategy on New Technologies, UNOOSA identifies the best use of advances in technology to deliver the mandates of the Organization as a whole.

UNOOSA is also working directly with Member States on issues related to access to space. In 2015, as part of HSTI, we established an unprecedented cooperation programme with the Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) called KiboCUBE. The programme enables educational and research institutions from developing countries to utilize the JAXA Kibo module to deploy small cube-sized satellites from the International Space Station. These ‘CubeSats’ are designed, developed, manufactured, tested and operated by the selected institution. In May 2018, JAXA, UNOOSA and the Kenyan Space Agency broke records for international cooperation in space by realizing the deployment of Kenya’s first-ever satellite and the first satellite launched under the auspices of the United Nations.

The partnerships under HSTI, such as KiboCUBE, employ a triangular approach to capacity-building in space, with UNOOSA bringing together spacefaring nations to help non-spacefaring nations develop their own space capabilities. The Office has played a crucial role in bridging the space divide by channelling appropriate opportunities provided by countries having space capabilities to institutions in developing countries that would otherwise have little to no prospect of carrying out space-related scientific research.

The (R)evolution in the Space Sector

There are already many tangible changes and challenges to the traditional ways of conducting space activities, with many new actors entering the field and new technologies affecting our efforts. When the space age began with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, only two countries were active in the space environment. Today, we have over 70 national and regional space agencies working to extend our knowledge of space, and apply space science and technology to improve the lives of people worldwide. Thousands of other actors are also joining the space community, with a well-established private space sector.

The growing number of actors has implications for the very nature of space activities, which is clearly supported by recent statistics and milestones. As UNOOSA discharges the responsibilities of the United Nations Secretary-General stemming from international space law adopted under the auspices of the Organization, we maintain the Register of Objects Launched into Outer Space. Last year, of the record number of 553 objects registered with UNOOSA, 489 were satellites. 3  With an improved capacity to release multiple satellites with a single launch, the total number of such objects almost doubled the previous record of 242 from 2014. 4 Today, over 1,800 operational objects are in orbit, 5  many of which provide services and data driving sustainable development around the world.

Launching a number of satellites with the same purpose, forming a ‘constellation’, is another evolution of the traditional way in which such objects are deployed. In 2017, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), using one of its most reliable rockets, launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre a record 104 satellites in a single flight; 6  88 of the satellites were to form a constellation that would be used to image the Earth at low cost. 7 Such developments show how space technology is evolving and serve as a pertinent example of how the governance of the space environment is becoming increasingly multifaceted.

With the rapid expansion of stakeholders accessing space, the estimated value of the space sector reached an all-time high of $383.5 billion 8  in 2017, with commercial space activities accounting for over 75 per cent of that value. Such statistics demonstrate the extent to which private entities have become major players in the field. Projections for the future value of the sector show it rising at an exponential pace, reaching $1.1 trillion to $2.7 trillion over the next 30 years. 9  Such numbers make space an even more attractive venture while creating additional challenges to policy, law, science and technology.

Debating New Realities in Space

Since the beginning of the space age, effective international cooperation has been fundamental to ensuring the safe, secure and sustainable use of space. The governance of space, described as humanity’s most expansive global commons, has become increasingly mature due to the growing number of actors, both governmental and non-governmental, as well as new technologies and approaches such as public-private partnerships and private funding initiatives.

Since the very beginning of space activities in the late 1950s, the United Nations, through the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), has served as the venue for debating ventures in outer space, national endeavours, international space law and challenges to the way we conduct space activities. As the global facilitator for such discussions, and serving as the COPUOS secretariat, UNOOSA plays a leading role in supporting the intergovernmental policymaking process. Through COPUOS, UNOOSA supports policy discussions on emerging space affairs issues, including extraction of space resources, space traffic management and the governance of small-satellite ‘mega constellations’. It is, therefore, crucial for the United Nations to continue engaging with stakeholders to support and promote dialogue among Governments, industry and the private sector, academia and civil society to effectively tackle challenges and address changes in the space environment.

The Global Goals are designed to collectively address global challenges. Space technology can and will be used to support such endeavours. But while recent developments in outer space strengthen our efforts to attain a sustainable world, space remains a limited resource that must be protected through one joint vision. With an increasing number of actors, including more and more States and private entities entering the space arena, the world today finds itself at the same decisive crossroads as in 1957, shortly after the launch of Sputnik.

From supporting global efforts, to the use of space technology for sustainable development, to maintaining the normative framework governing activities in the space environment, the United Nations has a long legacy of facilitating international cooperation in outer space. UNOOSA is proud to represent such a legacy as we continue to work to bring the benefits of space exploration to everyone everywhere.

The author acknowledges the contributions from Ian Freeman, Markus Woltran, and Martin Stasko (all UNOOSA), in the preparation of this paper .

1. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, European Global Navigation Satellite System and Copernicus: Supporting the Sustainable Development Goals , ST/SPACE/71 (Vienna, United Nations, January 2018), p. 2. Available at .

2. Ayami Kojima, Daniel Garcia Yárnoz and Simonetta Di Pippo,  “Access to space: A new approach by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs”, Acta Astronautica , vol. 152, (November 2018), p.p. 201-207. Available at .

3. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, 2017 Annual Report , ST/SPACE/72 (Vienna, United Nations, 2018), p. p. 6-7. Available at

4. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, “Online Index of Objects Launched into Outer Space“ (8 November 2018). Available at .

5. Union of Concerned Scientists, “In-depth details on the 1,886 satellites currently orbiting Earth”, UCS Satellite Database. Available at (accessed 17 October 2018).

6. India, Department of Space, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), “PSLV-C37 successfully launches 104 satellites in a single flight” (15 February 2017). Available at .

7. Robbie Schingler, “Planet launches satellite constellation to image the whole planet daily”, Planet Inc., 14 February 2017. Available at .

8. Space Foundation, “Space Foundation Report reveals global space economy at $383.5 billion in 2017”, 19 July 2018. Available at .

9. Michael Sheetz, The space industry will be worth nearly $3 trillion in 30 years, Bank of America predicts”, CNBC, 31 October 2017. Available at .

The UN Chronicle  is not an official record. It is privileged to host senior United Nations officials as well as distinguished contributors from outside the United Nations system whose views are not necessarily those of the United Nations. Similarly, the boundaries and names shown, and the designations used, in maps or articles do not necessarily imply endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

essay on space technology in the era of developing world

Supporting National Justice and Security Institutions: The Role of United Nations Peace Operations

While United Nations police, justice and corrections personnel represent less than 10 per cent of overall deployments in peace operations, their activities remain fundamental to the achievement of sustainable peace and security, as well as for the successful implementation of the mandates of such missions. 

Dr. Nazek El-Atab, a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia, won the L’Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science International Rising Talent award in 2017. © l’Oréal Middle East

The Lack of Gender Equality in Science Is Everyone’s Problem

How will we tackle today’s daunting challenges—such as climate change, biodiversity loss, water stress, viral epidemics and the rapid development of artificial intelligence—if we cannot call upon all of our best minds, wherever they may be?

Chef Zubaida Tariq selecting pulses at a grocery stall at Empress Market, a famous market in downtown Karachi, Pakistan. 17 March 2016. © FAO/Asif Hassan

Keeping the Spotlight on Pulses: “Roots” for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security

Pulses have a broad genetic diversity, from which the necessary traits for adapting to future climate scenarios can be obtained through the development of climate-resilient cultivars. Science, technology and innovation are critical to responding to this pressing need. 

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Essay Service Examples Science Space Exploration

Impact Of Space Exploration On Economy

Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space​.This article deals with the impact of space exploration on the economy. It also deals with the several,distinct ,diverse and far-ranging economic impacts generated due to space exploration including economic expansion in cities and surrounding regions, acceleration of technological advances, and growth of new industries and scientific fields.


Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, national prestige, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity, and developing military and strategic advantages against other countries. Thus it has a huge impact on Economy it also helps in making the communication system of a country more advanced. It helps in weather prediction and advancing the agricultural system of a country. It also helped us in finding sustainable forms of energy which will never end which is solar energy now-a-days it is the most important form of energy.

New Technologies and Research

Humans did not evolve to go into space, but we go there anyway. That has led to the development of various technologies that feed back into the economy and improve our lives on Earth. Without space programs, we wouldn’t have GPS, accurate weather prediction, solar cells, or the ultraviolet filters in sunglasses and cameras. There’s also medical research happening in space right now that could cure diseases and prolong human lives, and these experiments can’t be done on Earth. Space exploration could save your life.In general we can say that space exploration is the base of advancement of technology and innovations in science technology.Many of the research going in current time totally dependent on space exploration.By this we also get to know about our own planet earth which helps in increasing the level of living standard of people and we get to know about resources present also which later may be helpful in replacing the place of renewable source of energy.

Economic Benefit

Many people think space exploration is just a waste of money but it is not so. Satellite communication navigation system, earth observation mission space science and technology all create employment Though, space exploration is expensive, difficult and dangerous. But It matters a lot for the economy of a country. The technology spinoffs from the research and development dedicated to space missions alone are worth the investment. During the past 50 years, NASA technologies have made their way into medical, architectural, military, automotive, and artistic applications, just to name a few. Everything from personal computers to solar energy have roots in the human spaceflight program. The investment we have made has paid off in a big way: estimates for return on investment range from $2 back for every $1 spent to $7 for every $1 spent.

A. Making the Agriculture system more advanced​.

Agriculture forms the basis of the world’s food supply.​The goal of Satellite Agriculture is to ensure profitability, sustainability and protection of the environment. It helps in making the agriculture system more advanced and helps us in producing maximum yield from resources available.It is very helpful in predicting whether of a reason which is very helpful in agriculture purposes.It also acts as third eye for farmers. Remote sensing satellites provides the key data for monitoring soil,snow cover,snowfall, rainfall and from time to time it also provides us the current status of crop development.The satellite used television cameras to take pictures of clouds as it orbited the Earth​.​It provides key data about amount of rainfall which will occur in any region which helps farmers in deciding the amount of irrigation and Which is very necessary for ensuring food-security for such a large population.

B. Making defence system more strong

Space Exploration is very important for making the defence system stronger.In current time every country defence system has their space cell It is also a matter of National prestige for any country. It helps in creating an image of any country as a strong country in front of the world if any of our enemy country tries to enter our country then our satellite will provide the whole information about that. We have many different satellites for this . They are like the third eye of our country. Actually , in current time it is a cold war between countries to be stronger than others in defence and satellite communication.Some satellite designed by our scientist are helping our army in providing security to our country

essay on space technology in the era of developing world

C. Space Mining Could Save the World

As we develop new technologies on Earth, the strain on our natural resources continues to increase. The extraction of valuable minerals has led to a host of problems, including environmental damage and human exploitation, but there’s a wealth of precious materials in space. Startups like Planetary Resources want to mine asteroids instead of Earth, which would mean an effectively unlimited supply of raw materials that are rare on Earth.

D. Entertainment industry

As we all know the entertainment industry has a huge impact on the economy and it is totally a result of revolution in space technology we are all enjoying songs, movies, live matches and many other things only due to it. By this we get to know about satellite signals and how signals are transmitted from one place to another by the use of height very easily.

Providing Fast internet

There is no need to say that today everything is Online and everybody is nothing without a good internet connection. Space exploration is something which led to fast internet connection to everybody.From sharing information to paying money orin every field like education,defence economy every field is up to date now and fast internet is crucial for every field.

Medical benefits

Various experiments on the ISS(Internet space station) have also used the culture of cells, tissues and small organisms on orbit as a tool to increase our understanding of biological processes in microgravity. Looking back, space exploration has already provided us with numerous medical benefits. Over the years, NASA can claim at least partial credit for a wide variety of medical innovations, from ear thermometers and automatic insulin pumps to implantable heart defibrillators and improvements in digital mammography technology.

Research helps medical science to create various products to prevent harmful UV radiations like sunglasses and sunscreen.It also help in benefit of cosmetic industry as now they are making cream and lotions which protect us from harmful radiation of sun which is found by a medical research based on space and this research is used in expanding economy and also protecting us such harmful radiations.Current space research pursuits are divided into the subjects of Space Biology, which studies the effects of space on smaller organisms such as cells, Space Physiology, which is the study of the effects of space on the human body and Space Medicine, which examines the possible dangers of space on the human body. Which later helps in innovating equipment which helps astronauts in surviving on an international space station.

Navigation system

Today we all are able to send text messages to anyone in a few seconds and we are able to find the location of any place using Google maps withdrawing money at cash points and many routine tasks are now performed by the touch of button it is possible due to digital revolution accelerated by ​sophisticated infrastructure in space. We are able to keep track of any object using modern devices like chips. These are possible due to the GPS system. We are moving towards a cashless economy and use to do payment just by touching the screen with full security without any risk it is all possible due to the GPS system, they keep track of every activity which we are doing and they help in keeping our data private.

Finally we conclude that there is a positive and a huge impact of space exploration on the economy. It helps in creating new technologies . Making the Agriculture system more advanced helping farmers in producing more yield and helps in providing food security to such a large population and making the defence system of a country more strong. It also created a new revolutionary in medical science and helps in creating products like sunglasses preventing us from UV radiation. It also creates employment.We all have a cashless economy. It is possible just because of the space revolution.

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