writing an article questions

How to Write an Article (the Complete Guide)

Did you just launch your new website and want to fill it with content? Or would you like to work as an article writer  and you’re asking yourself, how do I write an article that actually gets results? 

In both cases, you want to know how to write an article. 

This is a step-by-step guide that shows you how to come up with article ideas, get started with writing, and edit after writing. The guide is intended for online articles, but most points also apply to offline, print articles. Also, note that the difference between an article and a blog post is marginal, so most recommendations also apply to blog posts. 

Because it’s crucial that your article ranks in Google, we also cover some basics about search engine optimization (SEO). For more detailed information, I recommend you reading our 25 Point Blog Post Checklist for SEO .

1. Come up with a topic and a focus keyword

Before you start writing, you have to decide what you want to write about. That should be obvious. But what makes a good idea for an article?

Writing an article takes a lot of time and effort. Your articles should help you to generate traffic to your website. One of the most important factors that decide how much traffic you get is Google ranking.

Ideally, you want your article to rank for a high volume keyword. If 10.000 people per month type a specific keyword into Google and your article is the first to come up, many people will click on it and thereby land on your website.

When it comes to ranking, you should not only consider the search volume but also how difficult it is to rank for this keyword. A huge search volume is useless when your article appears on page number 256 of the search results.

It’s best to use a keyword research tool to find out the keyword difficulty (KD). We recommend Ahrefs because it provides you with accurate keyword data and many other functions that help you rank in Google.

writing an article questions

There are two main ways to come up with article ideas:

The focus keyword reflects the topic of your article. It can consist of one or two words or multiple words. As an example, the focus keyword of this article is “how to write an article.”

If you struggle to find good ideas, I recommend you read my article about how to find blog topics .

2. Find the search intent behind the keyword

When typing keywords into Google, you have a problem that you want to solve. You might want to learn more about a particular topic, you have a specific question, or you are looking for products to buy. The content of your article has to match the user’s search intent behind the keyword.

“How to” keywords make it easy: They phrase a question, and your article should answer this question. When someone searches for “best Italian restaurant in town,” the person doesn’t want to know what an Italian restaurant is, but how to find the best one.

Google knows this and will display local Italian restaurants with the best reviews. Also, rating websites like Tripadvisor make it to the top search results because they deliver the information the user is looking for: A short review about the best Italian restaurants, explaining why they are the best ones.

Because Google has, in most cases, a good idea about the search intent behind keywords, googling the keyword you want to rank for is always a good idea.

writing an article questions

3. Find out how long your article needs to be

How long your article should be, depends on the topic and the competition. Some topics can be covered comprehensively in a short article. There is always the possibility to write more, but more is not always better. Again, keep the search intent in mind.

If the keywords indicate that the user looks for a simple, short answer, it’s better to keep it short. A long, detailed article would instead repel those readers. Take as an example: “How many strings does a guitar have.” This is a very basic question, and the person typing this into Google expects a short, simple answer. He or she doesn’t want to read a 1000-word article to find out.

But many topics are worth covering in detail. Someone who searches for “How to find the best electric bass guitar” would be thankful for a long, comprehensive article that answers all his questions. For these kinds of topics, you need to find out how long your article should at least be to have a realistic chance to rank for it. Googling your focus keyword is the easiest way to find out. Just check how long the top-ranking articles are and write one that is at least that long.

When you notice that your article is getting much longer than planned, decide if the added points are that important. If they truly add value, keep them. Check if they are highly related to the topic. If not, you can always cover them in a separate article.

4. Read competing articles

Take a close look at the articles that rank for your focus keyword. See if you can find good ideas in there and take some notes. This is not about copying your competition. It’s about getting inspired to make your article better.

5. Research the topic

Do deep research about the topic you want to write about. And simply googling your focus keyword and reading the top-ranking articles does not count as research. Ideally, you should already be knowledgeable about the topic.

The less you know, the more research you have to do. But even if you already know the subject in and out, check if there is new information available. For instance, when you write about CBD oil for anxiety, you may already know that CBD oil can help with anxiety and why. But there may still be a new study that you don’t know about. Covering the latest research that your competition hasn’t written about gives you a leading edge.

6. Brainstorm information to include

Once you know what you want to write about and gathered all the important information, you should do some brainstorming about what you want to cover in the article. There may be many points, likely, you won’t keep all of them. But writing them all down helps you to make sure that you don’t forget any vital information.

writing an article questions

7. Come up with unique ideas

When you’re done with brainstorming, make sure that you have ideas with unique content that you cannot find anywhere else. If your article summarizes the top 5 ranking articles, you’re not providing value to your readers.

There are many ways to make a text unique, and it depends on the kind of article. If you’re an expert on the topic, you can give an expert opinion with unique insights. When it’s an informational article, try to find information you cannot find anywhere else.

And even if there’s no additional information, you can still provide value. For instance, by explaining a complex problem better than anyone else does. Or by illustrating a point with a story. There are many ways, be creative!

8. Write an outline

Before you start writing, write an outline to give the article some structure. It is not set in stone, and you can change it while writing. But it makes the writing process much more manageable.

No matter what kind of article you write, it should always have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.

Further, each article should answer three questions in the following order:

Answering these three questions gives your article a logical flow.

First, you have to let your readers know what the article is about. When you write about something that not everybody is familiar with, you’ll also have to explain what it is and give background information. For instance, when you write an article about magnesium, you should first mention that it is an essential mineral and review its role in the body.

The next step is then to explain why it’s important and why people should care. You would mention how common a magnesium deficiency is and what symptoms it causes. 

In the last step, you would address the how and tell your readers how they can prevent a magnesium deficiency.

In how much detail you answer each of these questions is very individual and depends on the kind of article you write. When you write a “How to …” article, like the one you are currently reading, answering the “How” is the main part. Readers looking for “How to do something” already know what it is and why it’s important. So you can briefly answer the first two questions in the introduction and then spend the rest of the article answering the “How.”

But you can also have articles focusing on the “Why.” After briefly answering the “What,” you explain in detail why it is important. The “How” can then be a simple call to action, leading the reader to an article addressing the “How” or to a product that is solving the problem.

If you wrote about the detrimental health consequences of eating too much sugar, this would answer the question, “Why too much sugar is bad for you.” After your readers are convinced that too much sugar is very unhealthy, you can end the article with a call to action to your article about how to eat less sugar.

The What, Why and How questions can serve as a template that you can apply to any article.

9. Follow the rule of one

Following the rule of one is probably the most important advice when writing an article, and most writers don’t follow it. Yet, articles that fulfill this rule are the most successful ones. So when you apply it, you write better articles than most others.

The rule sounds simple but is not easy to follow. It means that you should dedicate the content to one single topic and don’t deviate from it. For instance, in the article you are currently reading, I stick to advice about how to write an article. I don’t tell you how to write an ebook .

You might think that many people who write articles also write ebooks, and this information might be of interest to them. This might be true. But it’s also true that people who don’t know how to get started with an article are probably not ready to write an ebook yet. That’s why I don’t include any advice about ebook writing and instead would link to an article about how to write an ebook.

You have to put yourself into the shoes of your readers. Keep the search intent of your focus keyword in mind. Someone who types these words into Google is looking for specific information. By deviating from it, you risk boring your readers and losing them.

That’s the last thing you want. And the good thing when writing online articles is that linking to other articles is very easy. So if you are not 100% sure if the information is of interest to all article readers, leave it out and simply link to the content with further information.

10. Avoid the curse of knowledge

It’s good to write about something you’re knowledgeable about. In the end, you have something to tell and to teach.

But when you write about a topic that you are very familiar with, you quickly fall into the trap of the curse of knowledge.

This can have two negative consequences, and you should avoid both like the plague.

This is related to the rule of one. Many writers throw too much information at their readers, mostly because they want to demonstrate how much they know about a certain topic. They think that this signals credibility. What it really does is deviating from the subject and boring your readers.

The second danger is that you are using words your audience isn’t familiar with and assume your readers know something they don’t. Simply because you know so much about a certain topic, you cannot imagine how it is not knowing it. As an author, this problem can be very hard to spot. This is why editing is so important (see point 20)

But you’re losing people that way. Your readers might think that you’re smart, but they will nevertheless stop reading your content because they either find it not interesting or because they don’t understand it.

11. Include references from reliable sources

You should try to provide sources for the information you include. This makes you look credible and also gives your readers the chance to find out more. How many references you have to provide largely depends on the kind of article and the topic.

When you write about a personal experience, you won’t have to provide many sources, and even not mentioning any might be fine. When you write about how CBD oil can help with anxiety, you certainly want to link to some scientific studies proving your point.

writing an article questions

12. Link to further information

No matter how long your article is, there is always more information about this topic. An easy way to provide value to your reader is to link to useful information. This can be to another article on your website or an external source.

Linking internally to other articles is also a valuable tool to stick to the point. When you catch yourself covering something that is not directly related to the topic, write a separate article about it and link to it.

Here’s an example of a link from one article to another.

writing an article questions

13. Make it “snackable”

People who read online are often looking for quick information. They don’t sit down for three hours to read about a specific topic as they might do with a book. When they click on a Google search result, they skim through the article to see if it provides the information they are looking for. And even if they decide that the article is worth reading, they don’t want to read large text blocks.

For these reasons, you should

writing an article questions

14. Make it an easy read

This point is related to the advice to make the content “snackable.” Furthermore, you should use uncomplicated language. Try to keep your sentences short and simple. Write in an active voice.

And avoid technical terms unless you’re 100% sure that your audience is familiar with them.

How “easy” the content is, depends, of course, on your audience’s background knowledge. To be precise, it should be an easy read for your audience, not necessarily for everyone.

15. Use the language of your audience

When you write an article for medical doctors, your tone and language differ from when you write for laypeople. Always keep your audience in mind and try to adopt their language. This way, your content relates to them, and it is easier to connect to them and build trust.

16. Write a compelling introduction

The introduction should explain why the article is relevant and how it solves the reader’s problems. You should keep it short and come straight to the point. The intro helps readers decide whether the article answers their question and it’s worth reading or whether they should look further.

For this reason, your introduction should raise the reader’s interest, but it should also reflect the content of the article. If you make false promises in your intro, you’ll disappoint your readers, and you risk that they won’t read your content in the future.

Mentioning a statistic, a quote, or an interesting, relevant fact is also an excellent way to start an article.

I personally prefer to write the introduction after writing the body of the article. I may write some notes before writing the article and then write it out later. Once the article is written, you have a clearer picture of the article’s content and how to lead into it.

17. End with a strong conclusion

It is a good idea to write the conclusion last. But when writing the article, you should already know what the conclusion is so that you can build up to it. As for the introduction, you can write down the points you want to mention and write them out later.

There are many different ways to write the conclusion. In many cases, it’s a good idea to summarize the article and emphasize the main takeaway. A call to action is also an excellent way to end an article.

I n the end, your article has a purpose, and you want your readers to do something after reading it.

You can guide them to further content, your products or ask them to sign-up for your newsletter, enquire about a product, service, or read an article. These are just a few examples; there are many more!

Here’s an example of a clear call to action for ketogenic meal plans.

writing an article questions

18. Remove non-important and redundant information

Some people say that they try to shorten their text by one third once they are done writing. How much you have to shorten your text depends on your writing style. If you tend to write very wordy, include non-relevant information, and even repeat information, you’ll have to shorten a lot. When you already write concisely, removing a little bit here and there will be enough. But in general, shortening your text during the editing process will make your article a better read.

This doesn’t mean that you cannot write long articles. But they should be packed with information. That means that to fill a long article, you need a lot of information. Take this article as an example. It’s 3,500 words +, but it provides 21 useful tips, and every single one is valuable. So, your article should have substance. The worst thing is reading an article that says nothing. It’s a waste of time for your readers (and also a waste of time writing it).

19. Edit, edit, edit

Once you’re done writing, the editing starts. Editing can take as long as the writing itself or even longer. You often find the advice not to edit while writing because writing and editing are two separate processes. I don’t think this applies to everyone and largely depends on your writing style.

When you try to get everything perfect in the first draft, writing takes much longer, but you save time editing. When you write everything down as fast as possible, you’re done writing in no time, but editing will probably take longer than writing.

20. Ask someone for feedback

Having someone to edit your article and to provide feedback will always improve your article. This person will likely notice a few language flaws, even if you are a native speaker and your grammar and writing is very good.

The person can also tell you if the article’s structure makes sense and if the transitions are easy to follow. Most importantly, the editor can tell you whether everything is easy to understand. For this reason, it can be an advantage to have a non-expert. This is especially important when writing for lay people.

21. Make a final grammar check

Once the article went through some rounds of editing, you should do a final grammar check. Grammarly is a popular choice that detects most grammar flaws, suggests synonyms, and also checks punctuation. This is especially important when you’re not a native English speaker. But even if you’re native, a grammar checking program can make the text better.

writing an article questions

The bottom line

Writing an article may seem simple, but it involves many steps. It’s not only about the writing; it’s also about finding ideas, doing research, and editing the article. Altogether, they can take more time and effort than the writing itself. 

Outsourcing articles can save you a lot of time and lets you focus on other parts of your business. Writing Studio has expert writers who can take care of all these steps. They know how to write articles that rank in Google and drive high-value traffic to your website.

Don’t forget to share this article!

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writing an article questions

15 Example Article Topics (Writing) (pdf) | B2 First (FCE)

writing an article questions

Articles are usually expected to be less formal than essays . Because they are intended to entertain, you can use more relaxed language, using contractions, phrasal verbs and more informal words. Also, it is common to use rhetorical questions and exclamation marks to keep the reader engaged or to make a point. You should address the reader directly and you can use humour where you think it’s appropriate.

How to write B2 First (FCE) article?

B2 First (FCE) Article: Writing Topics

B2 first (fce) article topic 1.

You have just seen the following advertisement:

Write your article .

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 2

You have seen this in an international students’ magazine:

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 3

You have been asked by the editor of your school’s English language magazine to write an article about some typical food and drink from your country. Are there any typical dishes that you would recommend to a foreign visitor?

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 4

A magazin efor young people called Pastimeshas asked you to write about your favourite hobby. Write an article, describing your hobby and explaining why you would recommend it to other readers.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 5

You have received this invitation from a magazine called Animal Lifle.

We have heard you know a lot about animals. Could you write an article for us explaining to our readers which animals make good pets and how to look after them?

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 6

An international magazine has asked you to write an article describing your home town and saying what attractions it has for young visitors.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 7

You see this announcement in an international magazine for young people learning English.

engxam logo english exams

Get Your (FCE) Article Checked!

B2 first (fce) article topic 8.

A small town in your country is hoping to attract foreign tourists. You have been asked to write an article for an international travel magazine describing the town briefly and explaining what tourists can see and do there.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 9

An Internet magazine has a page where people can recommend books they have read to others. Write an article for the magazine saying what you liked and disliked about the book you have read and what type of people you think might enjoy it.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 10

You have seenthis announcement in an international magazine for young people.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 11

You have seen this announcement in an international student magazine.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 12

You have seen this announcement on an international student website:

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 13

You see this advertisement in a magazine.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 14

Your school magazine has asked you to suggest how television, especially for young people, could be improved in your country. Write an article for the magazine, making your suggestions.

B2 First (FCE) Article Topic 15

An English language magazine has invited its readers to write an article about what their lives would be like without computers. 

B2 First (FCE) Article: Writing Topics (PDF)

Download B2 First (FCE) Article: Topics (PDF)


Practice tests online, would you pass b2 first (fce).

Breakout English

writing an article questions

Writing an Article – Rhetorical Questions

Writing rhetorical questions is a literary device that professional writers love to hate, but if you’re writing an article for an exam, they can be a very useful tool. You may need to write an article in Cambridge Preliminary (PET) or First (FCE) and in Trinity ISE I, II, or III. Writing an article is a new addition to the Preliminary (PET) exam in 2020, but personally, I think it is a nice option for B1 candidates to show their ability. So why are rhetorical questions a good option for writing articles?

Writing rhetorical questions cambridge PET

What is a rhetorical question?

A rhetorical question is a question which is asked for effect and doesn’t need to be answered. Sometimes the answer to rhetorical questions is obvious or sometimes the asker will go on to answer it themselves.

As you can see by the way I used a rhetorical question in the introduction to this blog, they encourage a reader to keep reading. The psychological effect of rhetorical questions can be quite powerful because you can spark interest, intrigue and even controversy if used effectively.

When and how often should you be writing rhetorical questions?

They are a great tool for articles and possibly reviews or letters , but that’s where I would draw the line. A rhetorical question has no place in formal writing, which means avoid them in essays, reports and proposals. Articles are generally neutral or informal in exams, so I think they are a great place to show off a few questions.

Use rhetorical questions sparingly . The best place for them is at the end of your 1st paragraph and in the final paragraph as a way to make the ending interesting. One or two questions throughout the text is more than enough.

The materials: Rhetorical question cards

These rhetorical question cards have sentence stems on them so that you can practice writing questions for different topics that could come up in the exam. Brainstorm a series of topics and then try writing a question for each one.

writing an article cambridge

Possible procedure:

EXAM PART : Writing Part 2 – Article, Preliminary (PET), FIrst (FCE), ISE I, ISE II, ISE III

EXAM SKILLS : Creating cohesion and maintaining reader’s interest

TIME: 20 minutes

PREPARATION: One set of question cards per pair of students, list of article topics appropriate for the level

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Breakout English

The 5 Ws (and an H) of Journalism

Glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms.

Mihajlo Maricic/Getty Images

The  questions  a journalist answers in the lead of a conventional newspaper article are

They are also known as the Five W's and an H  and reporters' questions .

The 5Ws + H formula has been attributed to English rhetorician Thomas Wilson (1524-1581), who introduced the method in his discussion of the "seven circumstances" of medieval rhetoric :

Who, what, and where, by what helpe, and by whose, Why, how and when, doe many things disclose. — The Arte of Rhetorique , 1560

Examples and Observations

"It is not often one finds a walk-in refrigerator in a private home. When it happens, even the most hard-boiled of home reporters may be so flummoxed that she reverts to the journalism basics: Who? What? When? Where? Why? In this case, the who is simple enough—Neal I. Rosenthal, founder of the wine importing business that bears his name; the where is his newly renovated house in Dutchess County, about two and a half hours north of New York City. "But why a fridge you can walk into? "'Another moment of excesses,' Mr. Rosenthal says of the refrigerator, which cost $23,000. He has, after all, just completed the last step in a $3 million-plus renovation." — Joyce Wadler, "In Dutchess County, a Wine Merchant’s Renovated Home." The New York Times , June 19, 2008
"News stories are about providing information, and there is nothing more frustrating for the reader that finishing a story with unanswered questions still hanging. Journalism students are taught about the five Ws: who, what, when, where and why. They are a useful tool to check you have covered all the bases, though not all will always apply." — Peter Cole, "News Writing." The Guardian , Sep. 25, 2008

Journalists' questions

"Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? or the questions that are referred to as the five Ws and one H, have been the mainstay of newsrooms across the country. Likewise, these questions have not lost their value in classroom instruction, regardless of the content area. Having your students answer these questions focuses their attention on the specifics of a given topic ." — Vicki Urquhart and Monette McIver, Teaching Writing in the Content Areas . ASCD, 2005

S-V-O Sentences and the 5W's and an H

" Subject-verb-object is the preferred sentence organization pattern in journalistic writing. It's easy to read and understand. ... S-V-O sentences pack in enough of the who, what, where, when, why and how for readers to have an overview of the story in one sentence. ... "These 5 Ws and an H leads from wire services tell the whole story: AUSTIN—Texas' ( where ) Destinee Hooker, the two-time defending NCAA high jump champion ( who ), will skip track ( what ) this season ( when ) to train with the U.S. women's national volleyball team ( why ) before the Olympics. SALT LAKE CITY—Tag Elliott ( who ) of Thatcher, Utah, was in critical condition one day after surgery ( what ) to repair extensive facial injuries sustained in a collision with a bull ( why ). Elliott, 19, was riding a 1,500 pound bull named Werewolf on Tuesday ( when ) in the Days of '47 Rodeo ( where ) when their heads smacked together ( how ). S-V-O is the preferred sentence order in broadcast as well, because it creates easy-to-say units of thought that listeners can understand and absorb while the sportscaster is speaking. Online readers read in chunks: a blurb, a lead, a paragraph. They, too, are looking for easy-to-read, easy-to-understand information, and that's what S-V-O sentences deliver." — Kathryn T. Stofer, James R. Schaffer, and Brian A. Rosenthal, Sports Journalism: An Introduction to Reporting and Writing . Rowman & Littlefield, 2010

writing an article questions

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The Fresh Reads

Article Writing

An article is a piece of non-fiction prose writing especially meant for newspapers and magazines. It is helpful to test the students’ skills in expressing their ideas, organization of their thoughts, planning, presentation of their ideas in a chronological way, comprehending their ideas, and finally arriving at a conclusion.

While writing the article, make sure that the ideas are presented in a planned and systematic way. Avoid using vocabulary with which you are not very familiar. Use simple but effective language. Follow the word limit given in the question.

Article Writing Format

Title/Heading : Always begin the article with a title or heading. It should be eye-catching but short consisting of not more than four to five words. It should arouse the interest of the reader (and he) should come to know what the article is about after reading the title. So that he may be mentally prepared for the topic.

By Line : Write the by line i.e., the name of the person who has written the article. This name is generally given in the question. It can be written in the left-hand corner of the article or in the end also.

Introduction : Try to begin the article with a proverb or quote which catches the attention of the reader. The proverb or quotation must be in accordance with the title of the article. Try to introduce the topic while keeping in mind what, where, and when (related to the topic), e.g., if you are writing on natural disasters, you should write what are Natural Disasters in the introductory passage.

Body : The body of the article includes the details of the reasons, advantages, disadvantages, effects, etc.

Conclusion : This paragraph concludes the article by giving possible solutions, hopes, and wishes.

Article Writing Topics

Related posts:

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writing an article questions

Writing feature articles: A question of good questions

writing an article questions

Guest Writer


“No,” I said to her. “The questions aren’t quite right.”

Whatever style of article you’re working on, be it general feature or Q&A, the key to getting the information you want, the great quotes you need, and the right angle for the piece is to ask the right questions. I have written before about interviews (specifically, one that went wrong).

About the importance of asking dumb questions.

About how to interview ‘real people’ for case studies.

And the importance of asking one final question when you find someone you think is a ‘good interview’.

So now I’m just going to lay out my four top tips for asking the right questions to get the great quotes you need.

1. Be prepared, but not too prepared Some of the worst interviews I’ve ever conducted have been with a) people about whom I’d read everything ever written or b) experts in a subject that I’d researched to the point where I felt I knew as much as the experts. It makes for a boring interview and a boring interview will always bring boring quotes.

When I feel as though I’m learning something as I ask my questions, my interest is piqued, my questions are more spontaneous, and my eyes are bright and shiny. People respond to that. They want to tell me more. We get to cover areas of a subject that we might never have touched on if I’d left no room for them.

2. Listen for the little bell Having said that, I always go into an interview with a prepared list of questions. I think long and hard about the brief, what I want to know about a subject and what the readers of the particular publication for which I’m writing the story will want to know. I ask those questions and I listen for the little bell that goes off in my head every single time I hear a quote I know I will use in the story. Sometimes it’s the quote on which I will build the story. When I hear that bell, I take that particular line of questioning just a bit further if I can.

3. Ask open-ended questions Unless you’re after a definitive answer on whether Kevin Rudd will run for PM again (just as an example), don’t ask questions that are easily answered with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’. These leave you with nightmares when it comes to writing your story. What you want are nice, juicy sentences. A bit of waffle, even. Waffle can be edited. Boring answers can be dealt with by writing interesting words around them. But turning a ‘yes’ into a paragraph in your 1500 word story is not easy. Give yourself something to work with.

4. Actually, listen in general It’s easy as a journalist to go into automatic mode when it comes to interviews, particularly phone interviews. You can be so busy trying to get the words down (if you type them) or so confident in the ability of your recording device to catch every word that you can forget to listen to what the interviewee is saying, zoning out into la-la land, planning the story in your head. Later, you’ll read over your notes and think ‘damn, why didn’t I ask that?’ because you will, without a doubt, have missed something.

When you really listen to the interview, you won’t miss the opportunity to ask the right questions.

As an interviewer, nothing gives me a bigger thrill than when someone says to me ‘those were great questions’. It means I’ve asked them something that’s made them think, and that will hopefully give me the material to make readers think. Win/win.

Allison Tait is a freelance writer with more than 20 years’ experience in magazines, newspapers and online publishing. During that time, her byline has been seen regularly in titles such as  Madison , marie claire , CLEO , Cosmopolitan , Vogue Australia , Sunday Life , Spectrum ( The Sydney Morning Herald) , Essential ( The  Sydney Morning Herald) , Weight Watchers , Australian Women’s Health , Voyeur , Qantas: The Australian Way  and Elle , as well as House & Garden , Belle, Vogue Living, Australian Country Style  and more. Alison blogs at  allisontait.com Twitter:  @altait Facebook:  facebook.com/ AllisonTaitWriter

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NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12

Article Writing Class 12 Format, Topics, Examples, Samples

August 9, 2019 by Bhagya

An article is an expression of one’s thought on an issue or a subject logically and coherently written in meaningful paragraphs.

♦ Points to Remember:

article writing format cbse class 12

♦ Marks will be awarded for:

♦ Previous Years’ CBSE Examination Questions

♦ Very Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. The number of women in the police force seems insufficient especially when we see the increasing involvement of women in terrorist activities. Write an article in 150-200 words for The Hindustan Chronicle’, on the need of having more women in the police force. (2010) Answer:

Need Of Having More Women In The Police Force

Women empowerment and participation has seen a radical improvement in the recent few decades. Women are no longer confined to their homes and have come forward to excel in almost all fields, at par with men. But it has been observed that the number of women in the police force seems insufficient especially when we compare their increasing number in terrorist activities. Women are sure to prove their worth in the police force as they are more committed to the cause they work for and less corrupt, two qualities that are lacking in policemen. The government needs to increase the reserved quota for recruitment of women in the police force. Women need to be given incentives to join the police force and this is sure to prove favourable as they bring with them a distinctly different and valuable set of skills that is bound to change the way the police is perceived in our community. As the job description of the police expands beyond crime-fighting into community service the presence of more women in the police force is sure to help to burnish the tarnished image of the police officers, improve community relations and foster a more flexible and less violent approach to maintaining law and order.

Question 2. In many parts of our country girls are still discouraged from going to school. Consequently, a sizable section of the population is deprived of education. Schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, CBSE scholarship to the single girl child and the Government’s policy of giving free education to girls have come as a boon to our society. Write an article in 150-200 words on the education of the girl child in the country. (Delhi 2010) Answer:

Education Of The Girl Child In The Country

Education of girls has been a high priority with the Government of India. In the new millennium, India has consolidated its earlier educational reforms with increased resources and stronger policy commitments for achieving elementary education, particularly for girls. Reaching out to the girl child is primary to the efforts to universalise elementary education. ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ or ‘Education For All’ programme recognizes that ensuring the education of the girl child requires changes not only in the education system but also in society’s norms and attitudes.

A two-pronged gender strategy has hence been adopted to make the educational system responsive to the needs of the girls through targeted interventions which serve as a pull-factor to enhance access and retention of girls in schools on the one hand and generate community demand for girls’ education through training and mobilisation on the other hand. The CBSE has also come up with the novel scheme of providing free education from the sixth standard onwards to the single girl child. The need of the times is that the government should further improve the educational infrastructure and make it more accessible and meaningful for the girl child.

Question 3. Advertisements have become a big business. They are promoted by celebrities drawn from various fields like films, sports, etc., leaving their influence on all people specially the young. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘The Impact of Advertisements on the younger generation’. (Delhi 2010) Answer:

Impact Of Advertisements On The Younger Generation

The advertisement industry has a tremendous impact on the younger generation. As citizens of the modern world, advertisements have become a part of the daily lives of youngsters and they have got used to being bombarded with numerous advertisements over the course of their day.

Advertisements have become so common for them that they often do not even realize that they are hearing or viewing them. So they have a pervasive influence on the youth. In the ever-expanding world of consumerism and advertising, companies are constantly looking for new ways to sell their products to the youngsters by making their commercials and campaigns more memorable, to leave an impact on their minds. The younger generation has become their prime target because they have more spending power than ever before and increased avenues at their disposal. Therefore companies spend enormous amounts of money to rope in popular film stars, cricketers, musicians etc. to endorse their products.

This helps to ensure popularity and early brand loyalty. In the last decade many superbrands have looked towards new and outrageous ways to capture young audiences through appealing campaigns as these youngsters are cognitively and psychologically quite defenceless against advertisements. Clearly, advertisements represent ‘big business’ and has a significant effect on young people who need to be educated about the effects of advertising, that is, media literacy. This will prove to be helpful in mitigating the harmful effects of advertising on youngsters.

Question 4. The present-day youth are greatly stressed due to cut-throat competition and consumerist culture. Write an article in 150-200 words on the causes of the stress on the modem generation suggesting suitable solutions. (Delhi 2010) Answer:

Causes Of Stress On The Modern Generation

The main cause of stress on the modern generation is the cut-throat competition and consumerist culture prevalent in our society. This always puts them under pressure of efficiency and productivity. The modern environment is highly competitive and calls for relentless effort on the part of each youngster. To achieve the goals they have to devote all their time and capacity, without rest. So they have no time to care even for their own selves. They have no time for relaxing or to pursue something of their own interest sounds like a luxury to them. The effects of this stress on the youth also visible in their physical being whereby they have increased pulses and a lot of tension in their muscles.

With increased professionalism and specialisation there seems no practical and suitable solution for this stress due to the competition. In this age of consumerism, it is not surprising that the youth of today are also constantly vying to outdo each other in acquiring material things. But now it is high time each one of us sat back in quiet introspection to contemplate where we are actually heading in this high-speed pace. Our health and well-being will have to be our primary concern for, as they say, “a healthy mind lies in a healthy body”. Let us stop living like robots. We are humans and have to behave likewise and not like machines which are our own creation.

Question 5. As compared to the older generation the youth of today are greatly inclined to pursue adventurous activities either for money or for fun. There is a latest craze for joining reality shows, rafting, rock climbing, mountaineering etc. Write an article in 150-200 words on which life you would prefer—safe or adventurous. (All India 2010) Answer:

Live Life, Don’t Just Exist

To lead a life of adventure is certainly very exciting and amazing. It involves breaking free of certain social conditioning and challenging yourself to work upon your mental fears, which are mostly in your mind, and discovering unlimited freedom and opportunities. We, therefore, need to be willing to undertake adventure as it is a necessary part of happy existence. It is important to spend your limited time on earth doing some of those things that make a difference and give one enjoyment rather than simply sinking all the time playing the normal routine game of “delayed gratification”.

Taking action helps one to build a more enriching life and enables you to embrace life with more passion each day. The desire for sameness never contributors to anything exciting but makes our life and spirit dull. A variety of sports and recreation are adventurous to a lot of people today. Some people race cars, skydivers jump out of a 5 aeroplane, mountain-climbers scale peaks etc. This helps them to escape their daily stress and gives them a ‘high’. So it is important to live life to the fullest and it is also surely worth making the effort to ‘live’ with an adventurous spirit.

Question 6. India is standing at the threshold of joining the developed nations but that is not possible till we achieve complete literacy in the country. The contribution of students may be very significant in achieving our goals. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘The Role of the Students in Removing Illiteracy’. (All India 2010) Answer:

The Role Of Students In Removing Illiteracy

Illiteracy is still a major blot on India, after more than sixty years of its achieving independence. To an extent it exemplifies India’s failure to reach out to its masses. The removal of illiteracy has to be tackled on a priority basis and students can play an important role in achieving this goal. Since they are in the process of receiving education themselves they are most appropriate for also putting forth their services to achieve the goal of educating the illiterate masses. Students should be encouraged to carry the lamp of knowledge by organizing events such as, ‘Each One, Teach One’.

If every student resolves to teach two illiterate persons in a year during his vacations, it will in the long run help to eradicate illiteracy. The government should also render full support to students in terms of infrastructure in their contribution to the Indian Literacy Campaign. Students can also play a vital role in the programme of Adult Literacy. If all our students get together and try to work towards achieving literacy among the masses, then the day is not far when India too will join the league of countries that have attained hundred percent literacy.

Question 7. Compulsory value-based education is the only remedy for inculcating values among the future citizens of the country. This will also help in the prevention of crime in the country. Write an article in 150-200 words on the need of compulsory value-based education. (All India 2010) Answer:

Value-Based Education

Value-based education is an educational philosophy, an approach to teaching and learning that underpins away a school organises itself develops relationships and promotes positive human values. Schools that adopt such an approach report that there is a qualitative improvement in pupils’ attitude and behaviour. The purpose of value-based education is to help the school community think about and reflect upon positive universal values and practical implications of expressing them in relation to themselves and the community as a whole.

Value-based education also supports schools in promoting an inclusive school ethos and the methods of working raise achievements and help pupils to raise their self-esteem and take responsibility for their own behaviour and learning. It also enables students to examine the kind of life that is worth living and to consider what kind of life they want for themselves. At the core of value-based education lies an agreed set of principles, deeply held convictions that underpin all aspects of school life and work. The process is holistic and developmental, demanding a greater deal from the school’s community. Value-based education is thus a philosophy for developing and supporting schools of excellence.

Question 8. Increase in the number of vehicles causes pollution and traffic jams. Write an article in 150-200 words for ‘The New Indian Express’, Delhi, highlighting the urgent need to solve these man-made problems, giving suitable suggestions. You are Madhav/Madhuri. (Delhi 2010) Answer:

The Problem Of Pollution By: Madhav

Cities, in general, have a great deal in common with vehicles. In fact they often seem to be turning into vehicles. India’s population and its traffic is concentrated within its cities. The increasing number of vehicles in Delhi is putting our city at the risk of completely losing clean air to breathe. Delhi would have, in fact, been buried under a pollution load if the Supreme Court had not intervened to introduce cleaner fuels and emissions technology in the city, in the form of CNG-run public vehicles. Moreover, increase in the number of vehicles also means getting stuck in rush traffic hour which has also become a routine.

It is high time we now look towards solving this problem of heavy traffic congestion which is taking a toll both on our health and our time. The traffic police department must use technology for controlling and monitoring the movement of vehicles at important and busy crossroads for which the department officials can also take the help of Close Circuit T.V. Drives should be launched to educate the masses about the importance of driving in their respective lanes only and to follow traffic signals strictly. Violation of these should result in fines and in case of repeated offence the driving license of the person should be confiscated.

Pollution check of vehicles by owners at regular intervals should be made mandatory. This can also contribute a lot in saving the environment from pollution. Thus, we as responsible citizens just need to make a start.

Question 9. Corruption has become the order of the day. It has entered all walks of life. Write an article for your school magazine in 150-200 words on ‘The Role of Youth in combating corruption’. You are Vijay/Vineeta. (Delhi 2011 2010) Answer:

Role Of Youth In Combating Corruption

By: Vijay The problem of corruption is not new though it has reached unprecedented proportions in recent years. It is as old as society itself and •cuts across nations, cultures, races and classes of people. Corruption is rampant in our political and social life and like cancer seems to be gnawing into the vitals of the society. It has been argued that one of the many obstacles to the development of poor countries is corruption. The youth of the society have a lot of responsibility in combating corruption. They are aware of this phenomenon but negligent towards this issue. It is the youth, especially the students, who have to take cudgels against the demon of corruption and crush it altogether.

A beginning can be made in this direction by holding anti-corruption drives. The ill-effects of corruption in public life should be publicised through the internet, facebook and blogs. The uprising young citizens need to join hands as one and battle against corruption. They need to spread awareness, more so in rural areas and equip them with knowledge about this burning issue. Recently the name of Anna Hazare has become synonymous with combating corruption so the youth of India have an idol among them whom they can follow. The dedicated efforts of the honest youth are bound to succeed in the long run in demolishing and vanquishing this social evil which has earned us a bad name.

Question 10. India is said to be a young country and is emerging as a global power. The youth is getting increasingly concerned about the problems of corruption, environment, pollution, misuse of natural resources, etc. Write an article in 150-200 words on your vision of India in 2040. (Comptt. All India 2010) Answer:

My Vision Of Future India

Most of us have a massive psychological barrier against looking at the future vision of India and those who see the future as growing directly out of the present also often narrow their vision. It is my belief that the year 2040 will belong to those who try to see diversity as a value in itself, not as an instrument for resisting new monocultures of the mind or as a compromise necessary for maintaining communal and ethical harmony. India of the future will be central to the world where the idea of diversity will be cherished as an end in itself. My vision statement is not a prediction of what will actually occur, nor is it a wish list of desirable but unattainable ends. It is actually a statement of what we believe is possible for our nation to achieve seeing the level of concern that our present-day youth is showing about problems of corruption, environmental pollution, misuse of natural resources, etc. An essential requirement for envisioning India in 2040 is to recognise that the parameters which determine national development have changed i in recent years and will change further in the future. This is likely to open up greater; possibilities than ever before. The growing I influence in the fields of technology, education, information, productive skills etc. lend credence to the view that India will ; definitely achieve and sustain higher economic growth and development in the coming decades.

Question 11. Due to the globalization of food industry and fast food culture, traditional healthy diets are increasingly being replaced by unhealthy junk food containing artificial additives and preservative chemicals. Write an article in 150-200 words for a national daily on the need for inculcating healthy dietary habits. (Comptt. All India 2010) Answer:

Need To Inculcate Healthy Dietary Habits

Due to globalisation and the advent of fast food culture, traditional healthy diets have been replaced by unhealthy junk food that has no nutritional value. Children and even adults have become quite fond of this junk food essentially because it is palatable and caters well to their taste buds. Though junk food does not come with a statutory warning, it is , actually harmful for our health if we eat it on a regular basis as it contains artificial additives and chemical preservatives. Hence the need arises for inculcating healthy dietary habits. I feel childhood is the best stage to inculcate good food habits. Through constant reinforcement and an emphasis on healthy eating choices at home parents can ensure that their kids continue to eat healthy even when they are away from home.

Parents should remember that kids learn their eating habits from them so they should lead by example and eat healthy themselves. This will encourage their kids to follow in their footsteps. Children’s initial refusal to eat healthy food should not discourage the parents. Repeated exposure to healthy foods like fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, milk etc. will ensure that the kids might want to try it out at some point. So, constant encouragement is needed to make them try out healthy food but do not force anything. Aim to make good nutrition a way of life than a rule and healthy eating habits will come naturally and not something that is being enforced.

Question 12. Travel is an important part of a man’s education. It enables a person to learn manners, customs, languages and history of different people and places and also widens the circle of one’s acquaintances. Write an article in 150-200 words on “Travel, an Important Source of Education”. (Comptt. All India 2010) Answer:

Travel – An Important Source Of Education

To travel is to discover. If not necessary, travel is a very important aspect of education, an experience to learn on personal levels with hands-on experience. When people travel to a new place they absorb and remember information faster and retain it longer just by experiencing it themselves. Travelling to other parts of the country provides the opportunity to see different cultures practising their everyday lives. It also enables a person to learn the manners, customs, languages and history of different people and places and widens the circle of one’s acquaintances. While travelling to each new place gives us a different experience, all of these travels will add up to a worldly view that instils a feeling of connection with people, places and events from all over the globe.

In the past few years it has become a norm for people from one country to travel to another country as a part of their education programme. As wonderful as it is to read about places and people who interest us, to experience a personal visit to these places and interact personally with these people allows us to understand and even appreciate their world in a more lasting and meaningful way. Our minds open up to new things, people, places and experiences Very few ways allow for greater learning than travel. It is one of the best and most entertaining ways to get an education. While classes, books and internet sites are great ways to learn and build your knowledge base, travel takes what you have already learnt and expands upon it.

Question 13. India is making strides in the field of technology. Technology has made life easier and more comfortable than it used to be earlier. At the same time people are turning to be more and more lazy and disease-prone. Write an article in 150-200 words on the disadvantages of too much of technology. (Comptt. All India 2010) Answer:

Disadvantages Of Too Much Technology

By: ABC India has made rapid strides in the technological field. Technology has made our life more easygoing and comfortable than ever before. But these comforts bestowed on us through technological advancements is doing us more harm than good. In the 21st century, technology has evolved to accommodate a more convenient lifestyle and meet every need that could possibly need fulfilling. With the right technology in your home, you might just never feel the need to even leave your bed. Our entire lifestyle has slowly but surely been completely taken over by technology. This is having an adverse effect on our well-being. We have become lazy and disease-prone.

Modern technology has given us everything we want, whenever we want and more than we actually need, with the result that we have become a weak society. Unlike the older generation, modern-day children do not have the space and freedom of moving about and end up cramped in front of their computers and video games. This sedentary style of living causes the child to be antisocial, thus making him socially weak. Also there is added risk of obesity from less locomotion. A sedentary lifestyle, coupled with wrong food habits, has made us prone to illnesses. Though technology has greatly contributed to human development, it has its flip side and it is adversely affecting our health.

Question 14. You are Keshav/Karuna, a social worker and counsellor. You are concerned about the stressed behaviour of both parents and students during the time of examination. Write an article in 150-200 ivords to be published in a local daily on ‘Supportive parents and stress-free students’ giving ideas to enhance healthy and meaningful PARENT- WARD rapport and for making the atmosphere relaxed and encouraging during examination time. (CompIt. Delhi 2012) Answer:

Supportive Parents And Stress-Free Students

By: Karuna, Counsellor and Social Worker Most of the students and their parents are under constant pressure and usually suffer from high levels of stress especially during the time of examinations. This does them no good because it is a parents duty to reduce stress in their children and help them overcome it. Young students should not be left alone to struggle in the most difficult and significant period of their life. They need to get endless support from their parents. Better interaction between students and parents can help to settle various problems amicably and create a relaxed atmosphere during the time of examination. Moreover, parents have to be practical and realistic in their expectations.

They should always remain positive and acknowledge even the minor achievements of their children. A healthy and meaningful parent-ward rapport can help a student overcome stress easily. Every parent should give their child encouragement and support, especially during academically stressful times. Encourage your child to aim to do their best and be assured that it is the earnest effort they make and not the result that matters the most. Students who live in supportive environments, develop a range of coping strategies and become more resilient.

Question 15. You are Keshav/Karuna, a social worker and counsellor. You are concerned about senior class students ignoring sports activities owing to the pressure of examination and coaching classes. Write an article in 150-200 words to be published in a local daily on how sports not only promote physical fitness but also influence our scholastic achievements. (Comptt. Delhi 2012) Answer:

Sports – Not To Be Sidelined

By: Karuna, Social Worker and Counsellor It has become an unfortunate trend that senior class students are ignoring sports activities due to the pressure of examination and coaching classes. They seem to have forgotten the fact that sports not only promote physical fitness but will also influence their scholastic achievements. Colleges, in an effort and interest, to promote sports and games, encourage the admission of students who have excelled in sports by allotting a sports-quota to them. Besides a fun and exciting way to get involved in competitive physical activities, playing sports in high school can also help with college admissions. Sports provide for a well- rounded character. They help develop skills based on teamwork and comradeship, as well as teach young people how to set goals and persevere through hardships to achieve those goals.

Moreover, members of the college admission board are aware of the time and commitment that goes into being a part of a team sport. They are more interested in giving admission to those students who are able to strike a keen balance between sports and academics and who show a depth of commitment to a wide range of activities. Participating in sports help to develop these additional traits in a student. Indulging in a sport positively influences academics by providing an avenue to release the pent up pressure and easing the minds of students at the time of examinations.

Question 16. Your family has recently shifted from Kota in Rajasthan to Ernakulam in Kerala, where your house is situated in the midst of beautiful flowering plants and fruit-yielding trees. Every minute and every second, you are experiencing the joy of being in the lap of nature. Write an article in 150-200 words on the diversity of nature that you have experienced. You are Latha/Lalitha of Class XII. (Delhi 2013) Answer:

Joys Of Being In The Lap Of Nature

By: Latha, Class XII When my family shifted from Kota in Rajasthan to Ernakulam in Kerala, I was really excited because I had heard about the diversity of nature one gets to experience in this district. Also, I was extremely happy to be moving away from the dry and arid climate of Rajasthan. But nothing could have ever prepared me for the natural joy I experienced when I reached Ernakulam.

Ernakulam is known as the Queen of the Arabian Sea. In addition to getting a glimpse of the traditional rural Kerala lifestyle and the variant villages, to the coconut plantations and the coir villages, it was a relish to see the scenic views of the dense green tropical forests and colourful birds that enveloped us in an aura of peace and warmth and brought us closer to nature. It was a treat to be in the midst of the simple and unsophisticated rustic life and the gorgeous greens. Though Emakulam is a developed district, yet it has managed to retain its natural beauty. It is also one of the finest natural harbours in the world and a major centre of trade and commerce.

Moreover, our house is situated in the middle of beautiful flowering plants and fruit-yielding trees and each and every second we are experiencing the enormous joy of being in the lap of nature.

Question 17. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic, ‘Poverty is the cause of all evils’, to be published in the Young World of ‘The Hindu’, Chennai. (Delhi 2013) Answer:

Poverty – The Cause Of All Evils By: ABC, Correspondent,

The Hindu, Chennai Poverty, in one way or another, is the fundamental cause of all evils. It fosters desperation which, in turn, breeds crime. The lack of money breeds all negative characteristics that people loathe; it breeds hatred, anger and jealousy.

Poverty also breeds racism, classism, ethnicism as the society itself stratifies to define classes to separate the rich from the poor. It makes people dishonest as they will do anything to get even a little bit of scarce money. In today’s world, poverty has become the root cause of all evils, because it has the power and ability to make people compromise their once held and respected values, cultures and religious beliefs. Poverty has created a new race of people with common marks of frustrations, loss of hope, prospects and value of life. Poverty leads to illiteracy, unemployment, dissatisfaction among individuals, corruption and crime and all these handicaps not only the growth of individuals but also the growth of the nation as a whole. There is an urgent need also to find solutions to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor.

Thus, poverty is indeed one of the biggest problems that is affecting our society and it definitely stands as a major obstacle in the development of an advanced, progressive and peaceful nation.

Question 18. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the topic, ‘Obesity among School Children’. You are Mohini/Mohit. (All India 2013) Answer:

Obesity Among School Children By: Mohini

Obesity among school children is a global problem that is on the rise. It appears to increase the risk of subsequent morbidity, whether or not obesity persists into adulthood.

Recent studies on urban Indian school children report a high prevalence of obese and overweight children. Outcomes related to childhood obesity include hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, orthopaedic and psychosocial problems.

The present generation children are more of couch-potatoes who refrain from indulging in any kind of physical activity and are confined indoors most of the time. They have neither the urge nor the time to play outdoor games. A majority of children prefer to spend their time either glued to the television or the computer. Lack of physical activity combined with eating junk food makes children easy prey to diseases and ailments which were never heard of in childhood. Added to this is the lack of time because of which a child’s parents and teachers are unable to pay due attention to the child’s diet.

The need of the hour is thus a possible role of change in the dietary pattern and the physical activities of children so as to ensure that they lead healthy lives. Games, yoga and other sports should be made a compulsory part of school curriculum. Also it is imperative that all junk food is banned from school canteens which should replace this with healthy nutritious foods.

Question 19. You are Raman/Ruchika. Write an article in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the topic, ‘Life without Modern Gadgets’. (All India 2013) Answer:

Life Without Modern Gadgets By: Ruchika

Modern gadgets have enslaved us. They have made the world jump forward with a leap, built a glittering civilization, opened up innumerable avenues for the growth of knowledge, and added to the power of man to such an extent that it is possible to conceive that man could triumph over and shape his physical environment.

Our life is driven by gadgets and gizmos so much so that we cannot imagine even a day without them. On the domestic front, electronic kitchen appliances have proved to be a boon for housewives and relieved pressure off them. The biggest brands in mobile phones are also focusing on the present day needs and visualising them in their gadgets. Our life comes to a pause whenever we are disconnected from the internet. Education, communication, commerce and industry are all dependent on modern gadgets.

These modem gadgets have brought us to a height of extreme convenience to such an extent that we have forgotten our roots of simplicity—the simplicity of doing things ourselves instead of a ‘machine’ doing it for us, the simplicity of working together physically instead of creating our own workspace at home, confining ourselves to a lonesome boundary in life.

Life has really widened its prospect and with these modem gadgets around we can do everything happily and conveniently. We can do our personal stuff on these and make them an important ‘member’ of our life.

Question 20. Last week as you were coming back from school you happened to see a huge plastic bag full of leftovers of food being flung into the middle of the road from a speeding car. You wondered how people can be so devoid of civic sense. Write an article in 125-150 words on why we lack civic sense and how civic sense can be inculcated in children at a very young age. You are Shiva/Shamini. (All India 2014) Answer:

Necessity To Inculcate Civic Sense By: Shiva

It is indeed astonishing how people in our country can be so devoid of civic sense. It is not considered as an important value so it is not inculcated in children at a very young age and is not practised and encouraged at home.

When people talk about cleanliness of public places in India, civic sense or the lack of it is often quoted as one of the prime reasons for the squalor that we see all around us. And this horrid state of apathy is not limited to the lower and uneducated sections of society. Even the affluent and educated folks are devoid of civic sense. This is because civic sense is not inculcated in us from a very young age. Therefore steps should be taken up to inculcate civic education at the school level itself. Incentives should be given to people who show and practise civic sense. Use of dustbins should be encouraged and there should be stringent laws for those who flout basic civic sense.

This change has to come from within each individual. If things are left to rot they become self-perpetuating. Each one of us should try to resolve, to breathe and reside in a pristine and hygienic surrounding.

Question 21. You saw a stray dog beaten to death by a group of boys. Their act infuriated you and you scolded them for their cruel act. You decided to write an article on cruelty to animals. Write the article in 125-150 words. You are Nikhil/Naina. (All India 2014) Answer:

Cruelty To Animals By: Nikhil

Cruelty to animals or animal abuse is the human infliction of suffering or harm upon animals for purposes other than self-defence or survival. Animals are being beaten up and starved every day and millions of animals die each year because of human atrocities.

The plight of stray dogs and cows is a common sight in India. It is inhuman to let them roam around on the streets, let them eat garbage dumped on the roadsides and exposing them to being hit by fast-moving traffic. Ill-treatment and cruelty of these helpless creatures should be stringently discouraged. Shelter homes should be created for stray animals. To create awareness regarding the ill-treatment of animals campaigns, drives and street plays need to be organized. Moreover, we need to observe Animal Rights Day.

Though we have a long way to go, but gradually by making the public more aware about the issues of animal cruelty and by making the society realise the importance of animal rights, we will eventually learn to live in harmony with them.

Question 22. A newspaper report on a recent terrorist attack in your locality shattered you. You decided to write an article in a local daily on terrorist attacks and the need to maintain peace and harmony in society. Write the article in 125-150 ivords. You are Madhav/ Meena. (All India 2014) Answer:

Need To Maintain Peace And Harmony

By: Madhav Terrorism has swallowed law and order. Terrorist activities have knitted their web across our nation and act as a major threat to the society and lives of billions of civilians: Terrorism in India is very deep-rooted and complicated and has been a social stigma in our society. Its causes vary from political, religious fanaticism, intolerance, fundamentalism, social and economic factors. In our approach to I terrorism, we fail to distinguish it from the use of violence or armed struggle in a revolutionary situation. In spite of the magnitude of the problem of terrorism, there has been no consensus on a solution to this problem. In India the attempts to control terrorism have been mainly through the deployment of police, military and paramilitary forces. More steps need to be taken up to control terrorism. There should be a political will to tackle terrorism. Vigilance should be improved and awareness should be created through the media.

Ultimately it is only by improving social, economic and political conditions and by fostering the forces of democracy and secularism, peace and stability that the battle against violence and terrorism can be won.

Question 23. In the year to come (if you have not already done this year) you are going to celebrate your 18th birthday. Write an article in 150-200 words on the joys and responsibilities of being eighteen. You are Navtej/Navita. (Delhi 2015) Answer:

Joys And Responsibilities Of Being Eighteen

By: NA VITA Being eighteen is fun but also a bit tough. It is that stage of life when we have to cope with many changes in our life. The most important thing about being a eighteen is the responsibilities that come with it.

We are still considered young but our mind starts forming opinions though we are not considered old enough to express them. We are given a little more freedom. We start to creep into the adult world and encounter some new experiences. In these years of our life we are discovering ourselves, new opportunities, new duties and responsibilities. We have lesser responsibilities as compared to our elders but we are definitely responsible for our actions. This can sometimes work to our disadvantage as at this phase of our life we are always willing to try out new things and in some of these we may falter.

One of the joys of being 18 years old is that we can get a driving license and hence drive. This gives us a sense of independence. Moreover we can rationalize every crazy thing we do by stating the fact that we are still teenagers. Another major joy is the fact that we can vote at eighteen and feel accountable towards choosing our leaders. There is definitely a pressure even while we have loads of fun. So being eighteen is at times stressful but an exciting stage of one’s life. It is not a bed of roses but, neither is it a bed of thorns and we must enjoy this short yet eventful phase of our life.

Question 24. Write an article in 150-200 words on how we can make a carefree and enjoyable place for women when they can go wherever they like to without any fear of being stared at, molested or discriminated against. You are Navtej/Navita. (Delhi 2015) Answer:

Women Safety In India By: NAVTE.

Since the unfortunate December, 2012 incident in Delhi, women security is now a big question in India than it was before. Why aren’t Indian females safe? Who is responsible for their safety? How should their safety be assured?

These three questions have become features on our national agenda.

Concerns about safety restrict the mobility and activity of women and leave them with no choice but to strategise everything from timings to travel, how to walk, how to dress or commute. When we talk about women’s safety, the biggest question is how do we keep our mothers, sisters and daughters safe against violence outside the house. Women are often stared at, molested and discriminated against. Not only outside the house, they are even discriminated against at the workplace and in their homes. It is surely the responsibility of the government and each one of us strive for a safer world for women. Effective implementation of strict laws protecting women’s’ rights is the need of the hour. Offenders must be socially boycotted and severely punished to deter future crimes against women. Another imperative step is teaching self-defense techniques to women and girls at schools, colleges, offices and residential colonies.

As long as the mindset of people will not change, women can never be safe. All we need to do is to be alert and considerate. We have to develop basic morality and nurture a value system that teaches respect for women.

Women are not safe anywhere in the globe until the thinking towards women changes. So the actual need of the hour is a revolutionary change in the mindsets and conscience of men so that they view women with regard and respect.

Question 25. Emotionally as well as intellectually, a woman is as good as a man if not better. Yet we don’t allow her the same status as a man enjoys in society. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Status of Women in Society’. You are Navtej/Navita. (Delhi 2015) Answer:

Status Of Women In Society By: Navita

Women are emotionally and intellectually at par with their men counterparts but unfortunately, they are not given the same status that a man enjoys in the society.

It is generally seen and believed that women have lower status in context to power and influence than men in all spheres of life family, community, religion and politics. Certain scholars have attributed this inferior status of women to the patriarchal code of living. Though our Constitution has laid down the equality of the genders as a fundamental right but often women are discriminated against at home, their workplace and in the society in general. They don’t even get equal pay for equal work at some places. They single-handedly balance the pressures of domestic and public life.

In recent decades we have witnessed a series of laws passed for the upliftment of women. These legislations have been brought to give equal rights and privileges to women as men, to eliminate discriminations against women and remove inequality between genders.

But all these opportunities are wasted if certain stereotypes and biases distort the way women are perceived, often to their disadvantage.

Question 26. Ragging has raised its ugly head again. A recent incident at a prestigious school has shown that this evil has not yet come to an end. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Ragging, an Evil’. You are Navtej/Navita. (All India 2015)

‘Ragging, An Evil’ By: NAVTEJ

Ragging is a social evil that has been in practice since the British era. It was initiated with the aim to reiterate respect for hierarchy and to misuse authority by enforcing traditions and discipline.

Now this social evil has spread to educational institutions. It is a damaging form of interaction of the seniors in colleges or schools with their juniors or newcomers. It has become increasingly unpopular due to several complaints of serious injuries to the victims. Due to this severity, strict laws against ragging have been enforced by the Supreme Court. Under the pretext of fun, new students are often assaulted, sometimes stripped and intimidated by their seniors and this torture leaves an indelible impression on their minds. Seeing the vulgar aspect and fatalities of ragging it has been strictly banned in many institutions and this is proving effective. The Supreme Court too has declared ragging as a criminal offence

Since ragging has degenerated into an unmitigated evil it must go completely, and there can be no argument in favour of this evil practice. Whenever it has raised its ugly head, it has only shown the physical or mental exploitation that new students are subjected to.

Question 27. India is a tourist’s dream destination. Give your views on the tourism potential of India in an article in 150-200 words. You are Navtej/ Navita. (All India 2015)

The Tourism Potential Of India By: Navita

India’s rich cultural history and heritage and its geographical diversity make its international tourism potential large and varied. Besides its cultural and heritage tourism, India also offers medical, business, educational and sports tourism.

Indian tourism with its places of worship, places of historical interest, hill-stations, beaches etc. embraces a vast array. For more than 4000 years, India has been regarded as one of the most spiritual places on earth. The Golden Temple at Amritsar, the Konark Sun Temple, Samath etc. attract people from all over the world. The places of historical interest in India like the TaMahal, the Red Fort, Charminar etc. are a great attraction for foreigners. During summers, tourists like to visit the hill stations in India and in winters the sun-kissed beaches are crowded with foreign tourists. Moreover, India is placed among the top three medical tourism destinations in Asia, due to the world-class hospitals, quality and low-cost treatment and highly skilled doctors. Thus, tourism in India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing sectors which have contributed significantly to our county’s economic growth and development.

Question 28. Midday meal scheme in the schools introduced by the government serves several purposes. Millions of children from the deprived sections of society get nutritious food leading to good health, are attracted to the schools, kept from going astray and developed into good citizens. The scheme may have some drawbacks too. Write an article in 150-200 words on all aspects of the scheme. You are Navtej/Navita. (All India 2015) Answer:

The Midday Meal Scheme By: Navita

The Midday Meal Scheme, a school meal programme was introduced by the Government of India to improve the nutritional status of school-going children who belong to the deprived sections of the society. This Scheme has attracted many impoverished children to school thus also preventing them from going astray.

The Midday Meal Scheme, has been a successful nationwide free school lunch program catering to all students. It has helped in boosting school enrolment, ending hunger, aiding the process of socialisation, promoting gender equality by increasing female enrolment and also creating employment opportunities for poor.

But the Midday Meal Scheme has its drawbacks also. The midday meal tragedy in Bihar which killed 23 children who ate the contaminated cooked food turned the spotlight on the problems affecting this scheme. Lack of monitoring, hygiene and corruption discredits the Midday Meal Scheme. Experts say the scheme suffers from structural problems, the biggest being the lack of a proper monitoring mechanism. Children often get low quality, insufficient and unhygienic food and there is corruption in the delivery system.

The government has now decided to streamline this scheme and involve parents and local members of the community in its implementation. This will prove to be the most positive step to ensure that the Midday Meal Scheme serves its required purpose.

Question 29. Morning assembly in the schools gives a cool and calm start to the otherwise hectic schedule of the day. It can be a means of passing important information to the students. What are your views on this significant event of the day? Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Importance of Morning Assembly’. You are Navtej/Navita. (All India 2015) Answer:

Importance Of Morning Assembly By: Navtej

Morning Assembly is one the most important aspects of a school’s curriculum. It has the potential to nurture a positive school ethos that stresses care for the self and for others. It gives a cool and calm start to the otherwise hectic schedule of the day.

Morning Assembly prepares students physically, mentally and spiritually for the day.

A morning assembly includes prayer, songs, speeches and physical exercises all of which energise us to begin the day on an optimistic note.

Morning assembly has the potential to heighten consciousness by generating a school ethos that is calm, happy and purposeful. It also contributes to developing personal autonomy and contentment. A Morning Assembly is also a means for the whole school to celebrate national festivals together. It gives a chance to students to share stories, experiences and anecdotes etc. At a later stage in our lives, we reflect and celebrate a behaviour that reflects the values we have embedded on a daily basis through our Morning Assembly.

Morning Assembly’s can become a very positive experience once their influence and impact to both the individual and the school, in general, is truly understood and recognised.

Question 30. A 12-year-old boy in your neighbourhood drives a car and the parents proudly boast of it. Write an article in 150-200 words on the hazards of underage driving and the need to educate the young ones and their parents on the consequences of unlawful driving. You are Vishnu/Vaishnavi. (Comptt. Delhi 2015) Answer:

Hazards Of Underage Driving By: Vaishnavi

A twelve-year-old boy in our neighbourhood drives a car and the parents proudly boast of it. Unfortunately, this is not a rare occurrence. In recent years we have seen a rise of underage unlicensed drivers on the road. To address this serious issue we need to first understand the dangers of underage driving. The high number of underage drivers transgressing the law by going for a joyride can be attributed to peer pressure and a general feeling of youthful invincibility. Teenagers have a feeling that they can get away with breaking the law and this gives them a sense of bravado. The hazards of underage driving can result in loss of life or severe physical and emotional scars on the survivors.

Underage driving should be totally discouraged by parents who must talk to their children about the drastic consequences of this action and the trouble they can get into. The authorities too should take strict action against parents if children break the law. The most effective way to discourage underage driving would be to teach responsibility by setting an example. If parents drive with caution and obey traffic rules their children will also abide the laws of the road.

Question 31. It is said that if you educate a boy, you educate a person and if you educate a girl you educate a family. Write an article in 150-200 words on the importance of educating women. You are Suresh/Shobha. (Comptt. All India 2015) Answer:

Importance Of Educating Women By: Shobha

Education of girls has been a high priority with the Government of India. In the new millennium India has consolidated its earlier educational reforms with increased resources and stronger policy commitments for achieving elementary education, particularly for girls. ‘Saroa Shiksha Abhiyan’ or ‘Education For All’ programme recognizes that ensuring the education of the girl child requires changes not only in the education system but also in society’s norms and attitudes. A two-pronged gender strategy has hence been adopted to make the educational system responsive to the needs of the girls through targeted interventions which serve as a pull-factor to enhance access and retention of girls in schools on the one hand and generate a community demand for girls’ education through training and mobilisation on the other hand. The CBSE has also come up with the novel scheme of providing free education from the sixth standard onwards to the single girl child.

If India wants to rank among the developed nations, it must give foremost priority to female education because if we educate a man, we educate an individual, but if we educate a woman we educate an entire family. If women are educated then problems like female infanticide, dowry, domestic violence, child marriage and other related atrocities will vanish. Education provides the essential criteria to fulfil certain economic, political and cultural functions and improves the socio-economic status of women. At every age and level education enhances the intellectual, social and emotional development of women and enables them to meet their basic needs. Thus most of the problems that our society today faces can be eradicated by educating the girl child.

Question 32. Nowadays, students attend coaching classes early in the morning or after school hours. You feel that this trend makes them tired, affects their health and so their grades. Write an article in 150-200 words to make the students understand how this is not very helpful in improving their grades and is a waste of their precious time. You are Ram/ Rani. (Comptt. All india 2015) Answer:

Coaching Classes Waste Of Student’s Precious Time

By: Ram To attend coaching classes has become more of a trend which most students follow. This has happened because of the growing competition and the desire among students to excel. They feel that by attending these coaching classes they will be able to improve their grades but unfortunately, it is a waste of their precious time. It makes them tired, affects their health and also their grades. Coaching classes have become synonymous in the lives of city students and students find it hard to cope up with their studies without them. Almost all students who attend coaching classes have lost their time for recreation and physical activities. Students sometimes travel long distances to attend the so-called ‘reputed’ coaching centres thus wasting a lot of time.

In today’s cut-throat competition the life of students is as it is very stressful and combined with this stress is the extra burden of attending coaching classes. Parents too fail to realise how they are pressurizing the children by making their already hectic work schedule more strenuous by enrolling them in coaching classes. Education is a natural process of learning and should not be forced upon the children. Students who overestimate their stamina join these coaching classes and end up creating a mess of their daily routine.

Students are running from one place to another for coaching and are unable to realise the value of time and time management. Not only are coaching centres unnecessary but are also adversely affecting the life of students.

Question 33. Teenagers often feel confused. They face a lot of pressure from various quarters. Write an article in 120-150 words, on ‘Stress the teenager’s face’. You are Rani/Rama. (Comptt. Al 2015) Answer:

Stress The Teenager’s Face By: Ram

The teen stage of one’s life is filled with stress and anxiety. This is because it is that stage of our life when we face a host of novel problems and pressures from various quarters.

To start with teenagers experience many significant physical changes and at times they find it difficult to cope with their bodies that grow and develop rapidly.

Combined with this is social pressure, peer pressure and parental pressure. Most teenagers feel that academic concerns feature at the top of their list of stress stimulants. Worries about their future, the tension to attain good grades and cut-throat competition cause teenagers to experience inordinate amount of stress.

The stress that teenagers face today may vary from academic pressure, physical appearances, peer pressure etc. but these issues can be dealt with if parents and guardians understand these problems and approach them in a positive and friendly manner. Proper guidance is vital especially in this very formative phase in the life of children so that they can grow up to be confident and optimistic adults. Finally teenagers need to develop assertive-ness, training skills and learn practical coping skills. They should always feel good about doing a competent job rather than demanding perfection from themselves and others.

Question 34. TV and Internet have reduced the charm of reading for children. Write an article in 120-150 words on the reasons for this lack of interest. Suggest measures to create a desire to read among children right from a very young age. You are Ram/Rama. (Comptt. All India 2015) Answer:

Lack Of Interest In Reading By: Rama

Reading is an essential tool for lifelong learning. It has a vital role to play in overall development. Reading enables us to extend our scope of knowledge and experience.

But due to technological development the charm of reading has considerably reduced for children. They spend so much time glued to the TV and internet that reading a book in a quiet and peaceful corner of their homes or library has become an archaic idea for most children. This fast declining interest in reading culture among children is a cause of concern and challenge to all and we need to take up measures to alleviate this problem.

The desire for reading needs to be inculcated among children from a very young age. Parents should read out books to their kids from the time when they are incapable of reading. This way children learn that reading is fun and not a chore. This will also help to promote their attention span which is an important skill for a child to concentrate. To develop the habit of reading in children requires a number of skills that, in most children, has to be formed by direct and informed instruction provided through constant reiteration.

Question 35. India is a land of diversity. One way in which it makes us feel proud of it is the number of festivals we enjoy. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Festivals of India’. You are Karuna/ Karan. (Delhi 2016) Answer:

Festivals Of India By: Karuna

India is a land of diversity. People of different religions, races and cultures peacefully coexist together. This unity in diversity gives us Indians an opportunity to celebrate a number of festivals thus giving us a sense of joy and pride. These festivals create a sense of cultural unity and brotherhood. Festivals give us a unique opportunity to spend time with our friends and family and also promote communal harmony.

India is a secular country and so we celebrate many cultural and traditional festivals. Each festival is celebrated differently and uniquely based on certain rituals and beliefs. Some festivals are celebrated by the whole nation and certain festivals are confined to specific regions. But all the festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm.

Based on rituals and religions, festivals have been categorized. There are Hindu festivals, the dates of which are fixed on the basis of the Hindu calendar. These include Diwali, Dussehra, Holi, Lohri, Janamasthmi, Raksha Bartdhan to name a few. Then there are festivals celebrated by Muslims. Important among them are Ramzan, Id-Ul-Milad, Bakra- Id, Muharram, etc. The most important festivals celebrated by the Sikhs are the birthdays of their ten Gurus. The Christians celebrate Good Friday, Easter and Christmas. The uniqueness of our country lies in the fact that in spite of diversities we celebrate and enjoy the fervour of numerous festivals which are celebrated with a sense of oneness.

Question 36. Rising pollution, fast and competitive lifestyle, lack of nutritious food etc. have caused health woes for a large section of our population. Providing health care used to be a charitable and ethical activity. Today it has become a commercialized, money spinning business. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘How to provide proper health care to the common man’. You are Karan/Karuna. (Delhi 2016) Answer:

How To Provide Proper Health Care To The Common Man

By: Karan The incessant rise in the levels of pollution, the fast and competitive lifestyle and lack of nutritious diet has caused numerous health problems to a large section of our population. Earlier providing health care used to be a charitable activity but today it has become so commercialized, a money-spinning business. Though, to a certain extent, commercialization of health care has benefited us greatly. Privatisation of hospitals has enabled to provide better medical facilities and good ambience in hospitals. The unfortunate part however, is that a great number of our population cannot afford these facilities. These health care facilities are way beyond the reach of the common man. 60% of the population is economically weak and cannot afford to pay the expenses of a private hospital. Medical care is a basic necessity and stricter regulations need to be implemented to standardize the health practices and services across government and private hospitals.

To provide affordable health care to the common man the government should initiate the setting up of more primary health centres. At all these centres medical aid must be made more accessible, more reliable and more affordable. Essential medicines must be made available free of cost at all such centres and the essential medical facilities must also be available to all sections or society.

Healthcare is the right of every citizen, without having to go through hassles. Though we cannot say healthcare in India is at par for the rich and poor, there is a silver lining above the clouds, with the promise of a healthier tomorrow.

Question 37. India is an emerging economy. We are rich in natural resources. Yet a significant proportion of our people is living below poverty line. One cause of this poverty is our rising population. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘How to keep a check on population’. You are Karuna/Karan. (Delhi 2016) Answer:

How To Keep A Check On Population By: Karan

Next to China, India is the second largest populated country in the world. For a developing country like India, this population explosion is a curse that is threatening the development of the country and its society.

An emerging economy, with rapidly escalating population is likely to face a lack in their resources, as the resources available per person are always plummeting, leading to increased poverty, malnutrition and other population related problems. The need of the hour is to keep a check on population. The first step in this direction would be the education of the masses. Their mental outlook needs to be altered. Moreover, increasing the welfare and status of women and girls, increasing awareness of family planning methods, encouraging female empowerment can also play a very major role in controlling population.

Improved standard of living also acts as a deterrent to large family norm. The communication media like radio, television and newspapers are a good means to propagate the benefits of planned families to the uneducated people in the rural and backward areas of India. The government can give various types of incentives to people who practice family planning. Strict legal action should be taken against child marriage and there should be proper enforcement of laws related to child labour.

If the population growth in our country is not i kept under check, no amount of progress made by India will make a difference to the poverty that plagues us.

Question 38. Women feel unsafe on the road, at their place of work and even at home. There is an urgent need to change the male mindset in its attitude towards women. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘How to make women feel safe’. You are Karan/Karuna. (Delhi 2016) Answer:

How To Make Women Feel Safe By: Karuna

It is unfortunate that being in the 21st century with so much technological advancement we still have not been able to ensure the safety of women. Numerous cases have been reported and many unreported about the torture and humiliation that women are subjected to. They are in fact the most vulnerable as far as their safety and security is concerned.

Concerns about safety restrict the mobility and activity of women and leave them with no choice but to strategise everything from timings to travel, how to walk, how to dress or commute. When we talk about women’s safety, the biggest question is how do we keep our mothers, sisters and daughters safe against

violence outside the house. Women are often stared at, molested and discriminated against. Not only outside the house, they are even discriminated against at the workplace and in their homes.

We cannot just hold our legal system and the police responsible for the atrocities committed to women. As good citizens, we have a fundamental duty to contribute towards bringing an order to ensure dignity and respect for women so that they too can live with a sense of freedom, pride and confidence. To ensure this is the collective work of our society. A reform in the police system is also needed wherein women police should be deployed in most areas so as to make women feel safe. CCTV cameras should be installed at strategic places and these should be closely monitored. Our legal system also needs reforms wherein stringent punishments that are non-bailable in nature should be given to a person who outrages the modesty of a woman. We also need fast track courts to deal with offences and crimes against women. These can be made responsible to clear the cases on a day-to-day basis with fair trial as its core principle.

The need of the hour is to take action not by force but by will to make our country more safe and secure for women and bring to reforms whereby women feel more fearless and empowered.

Question 39. Education has always been a noble profession. Our ancestors received their learning at gurukuls and ashrams. Even in the near past pathshalas (schools) were associated with places of worship. Today, education is fast becoming commercialized. Parents have to shell out a lot of money on coaching classes, tuition fees etc. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘The State of Education, Today’. You are Karap/Karuna. (All India 2016) Answer:

The State Of Education Today By: Karuna

Education has always been a noble profession and has always been held in high esteem. Our ancestors received their education in ashrams and gurukuls. Even in the near past pathshalas (schools) were associated with places of worships. But, in the present day, education has become commercialized, a business where lot of money is involved.

With the advent of a large number of private institutions in the mid nineties, the agenda of education has been hijacked and educational institutes have become a profit-generating business. Schools, coaching centres and educational institutes are prospering. They charge a huge amount of money to impart education and parents too are willing to shell out a lot of money to educate their wards. Even the most reputed educational institutes do not hesitate in taking large donations, which parents give to them without any hassles. Secondly, the state of education in our country today is a cause of concern. Along with rampant commercialization, the quality and standard of education has not improved much. The curriculum in schools and colleges lacks basic communication and problem-solving skills, promotes rote learning, curbs creativity and originality and lays too much emphasis on marks. There is a need for a complete overhauling of the quality of education being imparted in our institutions. Another cause for concern is the dire shortage of schools, colleges and educational infrastructure in our country. The goal of education to harness the potential of a student and to channelize it in the right way has been lost. The need of the hour is for the government and people to work hand in hand and improve these sad state of affairs.

Question 40. According to 2011 census, literacy rate of hundred percent or around has been achieved by only a couple of states in India. Illiteracy is found mostly among the old and deprived sections of society. What can the youth do to spread literacy in society? Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Role of students in eradicating illiteracy’. You are Karuna/Karan. (All India 2016) Answer:

Question 41. Increase in the number of private vehicles has caused problems like rising air pollution, traffic jams, lack of parking space, road rage etc. The solution lies in the use of public transport. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘ The Importance of Public Transport’. You are Karan/ Karuna. (All India) Answer:

The Importance Of Public Transport

By: Karan Increase in the number of private vehicles in the last two decades has led to an unprecedented rise in air pollution, traffic jams, lack of parking space, road rage, etc. One of the solutions to this problem lies in the use of public transport.

Use of public transport reduces travel by private vehicles. Public transport is beneficial as it not only eases congestion on roads but also saves fuel, money and energy. When people use public transport they reduce their carbon footprint and conserve energy by eliminating travel that would otherwise have been made in a private vehicle. It also gives people energy efficient choices and reduces overall greenhouse gas emissions without reducing the mobility that is so vital to our nation’s economic growth. To encourage more people to use public transport the authorities need to improve local train and bus services. Funds need to be allocated to make public transport services accessible and more reliable.

A bus with as few as 7-8 passengers is more fuel efficient than an average single occupant car. The recent odd-even rule for cars started by Chief Minister of Delhi, Mr. Arvind Kejriwal was initiated to encourage the use of public transport and thereby reduce pollution caused by traffic. The authorities are working hard to make public more aware of how useful, efficient and less damaging to the environment the use of public transport is.

Question 42. In certain states of India there is a great imbalance in the male female ratio. This is the result of special treatment given to boys in the family. Why is it so? How can we change this mindset? Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Gender discrimination in society’. You are Karuna/Karan. (All India 2016) Answer:

Gender Discrimination In Society By: Karuna

The 2011 census in India has revealed that the gender imbalance is at its highest level in certain states of India. A cultural preference for boys and the increasing availability of prenatal screening to determine an unborn child’s sex have helped contribute to a worsening in the male-female ratio.

More boys and fewer girls in a population has disastrous effects not only on the social life but also on the economic vibrancy of a country. In India the male in general and the male child, in particular, have privileged position in the patriarchal family tradition. It is the sons who inherit land, carry forward the family name, financially provide for parents in old age and perform rituals for deceased parents. Awareness needs to be created in certain sections of society regarding equality of women. Though Government regulations help to improve the position of women in society, the actual way to change the mindset of people is through education and changing the ways that people think about gender roles. The media must take active part in educating the people about the importance of gender equality. The government must enforce laws protecting women in all spheres of life—be it at the domestic front or at the professional front. More number of men must be recruited in the fight against gender discrimination. When men treat women with respect, the gender equality movement is strengthened.

The girl deficit will create a society that will be much less stable and much more volatile than it would be with a balanced male female ratio.

Question 43. While watching TV what we generally dislike most are commercial breaks, yet, a number of advertisements do add to our information. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Advertisements as source of information’. You are Karuna/Karan. (All India 2016) Answer:

Advertisements As A Source Of Information

By: Karan I Commercial breaks are generally disliked by most of us while watching TV, yet, a number of advertisements are a source of information. They give us a fair knowledge about the goods and services available in the market and enable us to choose our options.

Advertisements are considered to be an integral part of business which make people aware of the goods and services available in the market. They promote competition among producers and manufacturers who have to maintain good quality of their goods to ensure their sale. New products are introduced and popularised through advertisements. The consumer saves time due to prior knowledge about the product, its price, its features, etc. Advertising is a very artistic way of communicating with the customers with great communication skills as its main characteristic. Moreover they provide information to the producers or the companies about their competitors and enable them to match the level of their competitors.

Advertisements help to educate people. Social issues like family planning, child labour, education of save girl child , etc. are aptly highlighted through the medium of advertisement. The public is made aware of several social welfare schemes initiated by the government through the medium of advertisements.

Advertisements open our vision to a wide variety of products and services and definitely add to our information in a light and entertaining manner.

Question 44. You have turned 18 and gained the right to vote in the upcoming election. Write an article in 150-200 words on how fruitfully you are going to use your precious vote. What do you think are the qualities necessary for a candidate to become a good leader? You are Amrit/Amrita. (Comptt. Delhi 2016) Answer:

Youth And Democracy By: Amrit

In most countries, the age of 18 is when you are legally and officially treated as an adult. This gives you the privilege to enjoy certain rights alongwith the need to fulfil certain duties. I have just turned 18 and become eligible to vote. I am looking forward to casting my vote in the upcoming elections. I feel a sense of patriotism and responsibility towards my country, more so, as an educated youth. My only concern is that I should be able to use my precious vote fruitfully and choose the most able candidate as our representative. The qualities that I seek in a good leader are that One who can be trusted and is known to live a life of honesty and integrity.

True authority is bom from respect for the good character and trustworthiness of the person who leads. A good leader instills confidence and followership by having a clear vision and passion for being truly successful. A leader must be strong and decisive but also humble. An able leader makes sustainable promises and is a person who sticks to his words.

We should remember that a good leader is not innately bom. So always choose and vote for a candidate who possesses the qualities of determination, self reflection, open-mindedness, patience and knowledge.

Question 45. Mobile phones have influenced children in a big way. Write an article in 150-200 words on how they have affected the younger generation. You are AmriAmrita. (Comptt. Delhi 2016) Answer:

Youth And Mobile Phones By: Amrita

Technology has taken over every sphere of human life, the most popular being mobile phones which have drastically affected the lives of all people, especially youngsters who feel absolutely lost if they are without their cell phones.

It has been seen that every technological advancement that provides dramatic benefits has consequential costs and it is this area of mobile phone usage that needs attention, particularly their affect on youngsters. Parents are unable to understand their children’s obsession with their mobile phones. They find the so called ‘mobile culture’ stressful, causing a rift between members of a family. The younger generation has grown up with mobile phones and so are completely addicted to these devices. The worry over the impact of this mobile dependency on the present generation of youngsters is its addiction which makes them couch potatoes and gives them objectionable exposure. Since mobile phone is a safety device we cannot prohibit youngsters from using it but the solution lies in scheduling a fixed time for its usage, parent counselling and checking and diverting the attention of children and youngsters towards other constructive activities.

The advantages or disadvantages of a mobile phone, like any other device, depends entirely upon its usage. The cell phone is very helpful and convenient and we should ensure its optimal and positive usage.

Question 46. Road accidents have doubled in the last few years. Write an article in 150-200 words on the reasons for increase in the number of accidents and how they can be minimised. You are Dev/Devika. (Comptt. Delhi 2016) Answer:

Alarming Rise In Road Accidents By: Dev

Road accidents have become the leading cause of death by injury and the tenth leading cause of all deaths globally. In India, the pressure on roads has been on an alarming rise and the lack of road sense has made matters worse.

Driving licenses are issued on illegal gratifications to some drivers and traffic rules and regulations are rarely adhered to. The lack of tolerance and patience among drivers leads to an increased sense of anger and uncontrolled behaviour especially by the youngsters. Moreover the condition of roads needs to be improved and maintained. They are often full of potholes and their condition worsens during the rainy season. To prevent these accidents, it is imperative that effective long and short-term measures are effectively adopted. The traffic police needs to be more active and strict to ensure proper implementation of rules. Higher fines should be imposed and license of repeated offenders should be confiscated. There should be an effective check on the speed limit of vehicles.

To minimise the number of road accidents proper awareness needs to be created among the masses regarding road safety alongwith importance of observation of traffic rules.

Question 47. Parents keep on saving money to be spent on the weddings of their children. This money could have been spent, instead on their education. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Importance of simple weddings’. You are Anu/Anurag. (Comptt. All India 2016) Answer:

Importance Of Simple Weddings By: Anu

It is the responsibility of every parent to give a decent upbringing and education to their child. But unfortunately, there are still some parents who compromise on their child’s education, especially if their child is a girl, and instead save money to be spent on her wedding.

The basic social structure in our country is such where the marriage of a girl is more important than her education. It is a rather costly affair and the parents spend all their life-savings for this grand and extravagant event. They do not want to compromise on the expenditure of their daughter’s marriage so they end up compromising on her education instead. Many a time parents want their daughters to get a good education with the sole purpose of enhancing her matrimonial prospects.

The need of the time is to give a girl’s education topmost priority. The concept of simple marriage should be promoted. The money spent on a girl’s education is actually an investment. Let us remember marriage is an important but not the ultimate purpose of a girl’s life. It is only a part of it and a choice some girls probably do not wish to make. So a girl should be given good education, good morals and she must be encouraged to pursue her passions.

After all, a parent’s main concern is the welfare of their daughter, so they should make a start by placing the control of her future in her own hands by giving her a good education.

Question 48. You are Mr. Raghav, Physical Education Teacher in your school. Write an article for the school magazine, in 150-200 words, on ‘Exercise and Healthy Living’. (Comptt. All India 2016) Answer:

Exercise And Healthy Living By: Mr. Raghav,

Physical Education Teacher Modern life can be quite stressful and taxing and therefore it is most important to live a healthy life which we can lead only through a disciplined routine and regular exercise. The health benefits of physical activity and exercise are hard to ignore.

Exercise keeps one active, alert and also sharpens one’s memory. It enables one to develop a positive attitude, increases productivity and gives long life. Morning walk, Yoga, aerobics and other exercises help us to lead a healthy life. Moreover, regular physical exercise improves one’s muscle strength and boosts endurance. Exercise and physical activity deliver oxygen and vital nutrients to our tissues and help our cardiovascular system work more efficiently.

Exercise and physical activity can also be a fun way to spend time. It gives us a chance to unwind, enjoy the outdoors or simply engage in activities that make us happy. As a general rule, aim for at least thirty minutes of physical exercise every day. Exercise is the miracle cure we have always had but sometimes, probably for too long, we neglect to take our recommended dose.

People of all ages need to exercise and reduce their sedentary lifestyle which means we all need to think about increasing the types of physical activities that can easily be included in our daily routine.

Question 49. Life in cities is not as safe as it used to be. People feel more at risk today. The police department of your city has been laying emphasis on public safety through exhibitions, mock drills and seminars. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘How to ensure safe life in cities’. You are Aman/Anamika. (Comptt. All India 2016) Answer:

How To Ensure Safe Life In Cities By: Aman

Living in a city enables people to advance socially and economically. However many challenges exist for people living in cities. One of the main challenges is the question of the safety of city dwellers.

Crimes like kidnapping, murder, rape, robberies, chain-snatching and crimes against women and senior citizens are most common. The reasons for these can be attributed to unemployment, illiteracy, greed and the desire to maintain high status by acquiring easy money. We cannot always hold our legal system and the police responsible for the rise of crime rate in cities. It is the duty of each one of us to be vigilant at all times and to ensure our safety.

The police certainly need to be more active and vigilant. Offenders need to be punished most stringently so as to deter others about the repercussions in case they commit the same crime. Parents need to inculcate moral values in their children from a very young age so that they grow up clearly understanding the difference between right and wrong. The government should generate more employment opportunities to ensure that the number of unemployed youngsters in our country does not rise.

It is definitely the collective responsibility of our government, the police department and each one of us to strive for a safe and secure city.

Question 50. Villages are lacking in basic facilities like clean drinking water, proper sanitation etc. As a result people suffer from various diseases. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Rural Health’. You are Arun/Karuna. (Comptt. All India 2016) Answer:

Rural Health By: Karuna

Rural health care is one of the biggest challenges facing the Health Ministry of India. With more than seventy per cent of our population living in rural areas and the low level of health facilities, mortality rates due to diseases are on a high. So, rural life is healthy is more of a myth.

Healthcare is the right of every individual but lack of quality infrastructure, dearth of qualified medical functionaries and non-accessibility to basic medicines and medical aid thwarts its reach to more than sixty per cent of population that lives in rural India. Basic amenities like clean drinking water, a proper sewage and drainage system and the facility of toilets is still not available to our major rural population.

Several organisations are working alongwith the government and NGOs to improve the rural health system in India. People living in rural areas need to be made aware of the importance of cleanliness and sanitation. Regular health check camps should be set-up at primary health centres in rural areas. Health- Melas should be organised to spread health awareness among the masses.

Growth in national income is not enough by itself if its benefits do not manifest themselves in the form of better health facilities for all.

Question 51. Our performance in Rio Olympics has told us that we do not pay enough attention to ! athletics and outdoor games. It is time we revised our attitude. Sports should be an important part of a school’s daily routine. Write an article in 150-200 words on the ‘Importance of Outdoor Games’. You are Sreea/Thomas. (Delhi 2017 2016) Answer:

Importance Of Outdoor Games By; Sreeja

Our country’s performance in the Rio Olympics is enough proof that athletics and outdoor games are not given due importance and neglected completely by our government, schools, colleges and by one and all. It is high time we revise our attitude and make sports an important part of our school and college curriculum.

It has been argued that sports should be made compulsory right from the primary classes and should be made an integral part of school education. Besides providing a basis for physical fitness, sports and outdoor games inculcate a spirit of competition and impart a sense of discipline and togetherness in us. Outdoor games also enable us to become more daring and adventurous. We always think of a healthy mind in a healthy body.

Both physical and mental well being are the essential prerequisites for great achievement in our life. Thus, it is actually high time we make the required efforts to spot our sports talents when they are young and provide them with all the necessary facilities and infrastructure to hone their talent. They need to be trained from a very young age to enable them to compete confidently with world champions.

Question 52. Every teenager has a dream to achieve something in life. What they are going to become tomorrow depends on what our youth dream today. Write an article in 150-200 ivords \ on ‘What I want to be in life’. You are Simranif/Smita. (All India 2016) Answer:

What I Want To Be In Life By: Simranjit

Every teenager has a dream to achieve something in life. Any person without an aim or dream drifts aimlessly and can never achieve success. Aimless life is like a rudderless ship which leads us nowhere.

I too have a dream that I will work very hard to fulfil. I want to be a pilot. I have spent most of my childhood reading aviation history which has always fascinated me. Moreover, as a pilot I can lead an adventurous life and also get an opportunity to face various types of challenges. An action-oriented and challenging career has always been my passion. My first conscious entry into a plane was probably at the age of six or seven years. I can still recall how awestruck I was at the idea that the plane was actually going to fly with so many people on board and thought that the person who was going to fly the plane was probably a demi-God. I was really fascinated by this person who I got to know was called the ‘pilot’ and somehow the idea of flying a plane got stuck in my mind since that tender age.

My passion for flying a plane has grown with age and today I am so happy that I have started on the voyage of life which will ultimately make me fulfil my dream.

Question 53. To have a fair complexion is an obsession in our society. Demand for fair brides in matrimonial columns and sale of fairness creams are evidence enough. Write an article in 150-200 words giving your view on ‘Beautiful mind, better than a fair complexion.’ You are Natwar/Nimmi. Use the following clues: (All India 2016)

Beautiful Mind, Supersedes A Fair Complexion By: Natwar

To have a fair complexion is an obsession in our society, more so where the female gender is concerned. Demand for fair brides in matrimonial columns and the sale of fairness creams are evidence enough how obsessed our society is with fair complexion.

Though the people of our country blindly ape the western culture, but in this respect they are not like people in the West who like to be tanned. Let us not forget that fair complexion is only skin deep and a beautiful person is one who has a beautiful mind. All the development and progress that we are so proud of in the 21st century has not been able to remove the shackles of medieval mindset. It is actually our behaviour in society that determines the kind of person we are. It is high time we revaluate what we consider beautiful and thus assess the unrealistic expectations and pressures that are unnecessarily put on females to be superficially beautiful.

Making technological progress is an achievement but our real advancement would be when we get rid of this racist mindset within our society. Unfortunately we still have a long way to go to achieve that.

Question 54. You are Ram/Rajani. You feel that India, with its rich and varied heritage, linguistic and cultural diversity is an excellent destination for tourism. Promoting tourism will surely promote our economy. Write an article titled, ‘Promoting Tourism is Promoting Ourselves’, in 150-200 ivords, specifying the advantages of promoting tourism and how it can be ; accomplished. (Comptt. Delhi 2016) Answer:

Promoting Tourism Is Promoting Ourselves

By: Ram 1 India is a vast country, with a rich and varied i heritage, linguistic and cultural diversity and I therefore its tourist potential is equally vast. ; Promoting tourism will also play a vital role in the development of our country as it is an important source of earning foreign exchange. Tourism has become a thriving global industry with the power to have a positive impact on the developing countries. It is the largest service industry in India, so the Ministry of Tourism, the nodal agency for developing and promoting tourism in India runs and maintains the “Incredible India” campaign.

India is a large country with a rich cultural heritage and so it has the potential to provide ; great geographical and cultural diversity to ! tourists. In spite of this the number of tourists ; visiting India is decreasing rapidly every year. I It’s always easy to have discussions on what ; the tourism industry should do and what it is ; not doing. Cleanliness, hygiene and safety are factors most tourists thrive upon and in this sector our country’s progress lags behind, mainly because there are no stringent laws that i are effectively implemented. Indian tourism ; industry has been hit by pollution. Resolving these issues by imposing heavy fines on the ! polluters, enforcing consumer laws, ensuring ! security of tourists, especially females and providing decent and hygienic accommodation I will go a long way in promoting tourism and thereby salvaging the much needed foreign exchange for our country.

Also the tourist infrastructure in India should I be strengthened. Airports and railway stations should provide accurate and reliable information to foreign tourists about tourist destinations, hotels, taxis, etc. Government-owned hotels should be managed properly. The Government should take steps to restore the splendour of the ancient monuments and also take appropriate steps for the upkeep and maintenance of the various tourist destinations. Although the tourism industry has initiated many improvements lately, we still have a long way to go so as to ensure tourism alone is able to generate significant revenue for the country.

Question 55. You are Ram/Rajani, a social activist. You feel unnecessary hurry is the cause of stress that hurts people right from children to elders and is crippling us in many ways, even causing death. Write an article on the topic, ‘Slow and Steady Wins the Race ‘ in 150-200 words, driving home how measured steps, meaningful measures coupled with systematic approach can make us achieve our goals. (Comptt. Delhi 2016) Answer:

Slow And Steady Wins The Race By: Ram

The famous saying, ‘Slow and steady wins the race’ emphasizes the problems one is likely to face due to unnecessary hurry. This hastiness is the cause of stress that hurts children and adults alike and is crippling our society in many ways, even causing death.

A person who is consistent and steady in his approach can achieve success even if he is slow because his steps are measured, like the tortoise in the famous ‘tortoise and hare story’ in which the tortoise won the race because of his tireless efforts. But the concept of life being a race is flawed, because as soon as one thinks of it in such terms he gets into an excited state of agitation. Our life is not a race which can be won through our hastiness. It is a fascinating journey wherein measured steps and a systematic approach can enable us to achieve our goals.

Success is very much an achievable target if we view things with confidence; without giving up when things do not seem to fall in place and being patient when it is taking time to reach our expected destination. We may often come across a person who, despite his exceptional talent fails, while another person with ordinary merit succeeds. The difference lies in the way these two people have worked. The one who worked hastily failed and the one who worked steadily and consistently became successful. When we are in an unnecessary hurry, our chances for making mistakes and errors increase because in our hastiness we may have to compromise on the quality of work. Let us always remember there is no shortcut for success and there is no alternative for hard work.

Question 56. You are Ram/Rajani. You feel that in India, with its rich and varied heritage, linguistic and cultural diversity is essential to live in harmony which alone will lead to prosperity and peace. Write an article on the topic ‘Unity i in Diversity’, in 150-200 words, specifying the advantages of unity and how we can promote it in spite of our diversity in religion, culture and language. You may quote relevant i examples. (Comptt. Delhi 2016) Answer:

Unity In Diversity By: Ram

India has a rich and varied heritage with linguistic and cultural diversity. So to live in peace and harmony it is essential to be united despite the differences in our culture, caste or religion. We need to stay joined by only one faith and that is a brotherhood.

The good thing about our country and its culture is that it is tolerant and absorbing. The ! democratic set-up facilitates the process of promoting unity. The diversity in every religion or culture should therefore serve as a source of strength. We need to be proud of our cultural distinctiveness. Though our religions are different, their basic teachings are the same, belief in the theory of Dharma and Karma.

To promote unity in our diverse country we need to think beyond petty interests and must . work for broader goals to bring about prosperity and progress in our society. Our social and cultural differences should not be looked upon as conflicts but as varieties that enrich our society and our nation as a whole. We celebrate various festivals with a sense of unity, especially in schools and colleges. We display a great sense of unity when there is a foreign invasion challenge. The social customs and traditions which all Indians observe, irrespective of their caste and religion in different parts of our country, bring a sense of unity which keeps alive the message of being united despite our diversity.

Question 57. You are Ram/Rajani. You are concerned about the growing problem of obesity in children which leads to type II diabetes. Write an article in 150-200 words titled ‘Health, the best Wealth,’ throwing light on what problems arise if we eat junk food or overeat and neglect our health, and how we can maintain good health through right food and good habits. (Comptt. Delhi 2016) Answer:

Health, The Best Wealth By: Rajani

‘Health is Wealth’, is an old saying which aptly sums up the importance of maintaining good health. If we are healthy we are physically and mentally contented as we are away from medical conditions like hypertension, diabetes, heart ailments etc.

In the past decade there has been an unprecedented rise in the growing problem of obesity in children, which is leading to type II diabetes. Children especially in the cities, binge on junk food or overeat, have sugar-sweetened beverages and include very few fruits and vegetables in their normal diet. As a result they become overweight and obese and make themselves vulnerable to lifestyle diseases like high blood pressure and type II diabetes. It is imperative to ensure that children maintain a healthy lifestyle through right food and good eating habits. They should be encouraged to eat foods that provide adequate nutrition and provide an appropriate number of calories. Parents should look for ways to make their favourite dishes healthier and ensure that their children eat calorie-rich food in moderation. Children should be encouraged to adopt an active lifestyle where they engage in some sort of physical activity daily. It is recommended to focus on small but permanent changes in the children’s eating pattern than a series of short-term changes which cannot be sustained for long. To effectively address the complex problem of childhood obesity a sustained effort to promote a healthy lifestyle needs to be followed by parents and these strategies need to be initiated in children at a very early stage.

Question 58. Choice of course after clearing Senior School Examination produces a great deal of stress on the minds of our students. Counselling can be of great help to them. Write an article in 150200 words on the topic, ‘Role of counselling in choice of course’. You are Ram/Rajani. (Comptt. Al 2016) Answer:

Role Of Counselling In Choice Of Course

By: Ram Every student faces the question of ‘What Next?’ after clearing his Senior School Examination. During this phase most students face a great deal of stress and at this time counselling regarding the choice of course can prove to be of valuable help to them.

Many students face a dilemma while choosing a course because the only career guidance they have is the opinion of their parents, the teacher’s judgement and their friends’ comments. These factors are certainly not sufficient for a child to base the foundation of his entire life and career. Professional counselling involves scientifically developed aptitude and personality tests that enable the counsellor to give the best-suited advice to students to choose the course that best suits their ability. Human capabilities are numerous and cannot be measured but every person has some unique traits.

Based on their strengths, one of the keys that helps to identify these i qualities is through the medium of counselling. Counselling sessions help the students to understand the pros and cons of the different streams and the career paths they offer, so students can make an informed choice and get a correct course assessment that enables them to avoid risk of career path change later in their life. Counselling thus provides the essential morale-boost to students by building their level of motivation that is very essential for longterm success and improves their overall performance.

Question 59. You are Raip/Rajani, a social activist. You feel that in spite of all the hue and cry over the protection of women in society are harassed on the road and even at home. Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Women must be given Honour’. Give suggestions on how women can get honour in society. (Comptt. All India 2016) Answer:

Women Must Be Given Honour By: Ram, Social Activist

Women constitute almost half of the world’s population and are equal stakeholders of society. But unfortunately, even now, in the 21st century, violence against women is rampant and their unnecessary harassment continues despite the hue and cry of there being more laws to ensure their protection.

It is a bitter reality that, every year, thousands of women become victims of violence in their homes and are harassed on the roads and sometimes these incidents devastate their lives forever. These unfortunate incidents affect the physical as well as mental health of the victim. It is very important to take up concrete efforts and introduce stem laws to ensure how violence and harassment against women can be avoided and how they can get their due honour in society.

We cannot just hold our legal system and the police responsible for the atrocities committed to women. As good citizens, we have a fundamental duty to contribute towards bringing an order to ensure dignity and respect for women so that they too can live with a sense of freedom, pride and confidence. To ensure this is the collective work of our society. We have to develop basic morality and nurture a value system that teaches respect for women, especially among young boys and men.

A reform in the police system is also needed wherein women police should be deployed in most areas so as to make women feel safe. CCTV cameras should be installed at strategic places and these should be closely monitored. Our legal system also needs reforms wherein stringent punishments that are non-bailable in nature should be given to a person who outrages the modesty of a woman. We also need fast track courts to deal with offences and crimes against women.

The need of the hour is to take action not by force but by will to make our country safe and secure for women and bring in reforms where-by women feel more fearless and empowered.

Question 60. You are Ram/Rajani. Write an article in 150200 words on ‘Importance of Newspaper in our Life’. (Comptt. All India 2016) Answer:

Importance Of Newspapers In Our Life By: Rajani

Newspapers are the oldest and most reliable source of news and information. The electronic media is at times unreliable, gives inadequate information and is not always available. Newspapers are not only most easily available but they are also the cheapest. Moreover newspapers are very important for students for a good exposure to English language and enhancement of their vocabulary through the “Editorial Column”. Newspapers are written with honesty and sincerity unlike the electronic media which sensationalizes news to increase TRPs and sometimes misleads public.

Though news conveyed by TV news channels is quicker and faster, these, many a time, tend to omit facts and details about an incident and sometimes even sensationalize news without a reason. Here the newspaper comes in handy as it gives not only vital details but also contains more reliable news. Besides, the newspaper is easy to carry and can be read at any time. Further, the permanence of the printed word helps in refreshing one’s memory about certain facts and incidents reported in the past. Newspapers also contain many columns dedicated to advertisements like vacant situations, buying or selling of goods, information about missing persons, obituary news, etc. All this and much more information is contained only in the newspaper. Newspapers have been and will remain the mouthpiece of the nation and the unseen advisers of the common people.

Question 61. You are Ram/Rajani, a social worker. The banning of liquor shops is being taken up in many states. You welcome the move. Write an article in 150-200 words supporting the move, highlighting how it will promote the society’s standard of living, health, economy etc. and appreciating the governments that are ready to forego the revenue that comes out of it. (Comptt. All India 2016) Answer:

Banning Of Liquor Shops By: Rajani

Many states have taken up the welcome move of banning liquor shops. These states include Gujarat, Bihar, Nagaland and Manipur and the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. This move is most positive and will help to promote the physical and mental well-being of society in general.

Binge drinking and continued alcohol consumption cause many health problems. Moreover, it decreases the productivity of an individual, increases family problems and is also one of the major causes of broken relationships. People who drink heavily are most likely to develop a physical and emotional dependency on alcohol. With so many negative effects associated with its consumption, there is no reason why one should not appreciate the government’s move of banning liquor shops.

It is also a matter of appreciation that the governments are ready to forego a large amount of revenue that they gain by selling liquor, only because it impacts negatively on society. The Government of these states have imposed complete ban for a social cause to create an alcohol-free environment. Through this ban the governments hope to improve society’s standard of living. When alcohol is not available and there is no way it can be bought the money one wastes on it is saved and can be utilised productively elsewhere.

So there is no doubt about the fact that this bold and welcome move taken by the government should be appreciated and applauded.

Important Questions for Class 12 English

Free resources, ncert solutions, quick resources.

writing an article questions




Interview Preparation

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Off Campus

Articles Questions and Answers

December 1, 2022

Articles are a major part of English grammar. Articles are usually used to modify a noun (based on the noun type). Putting together, articles can act as adjectives as they define the noun; however, articles are used instead to refer to nouns. On this page we’ll learn to solve Articles Questions and Answers – 

There are three types of articles – A, An, The. The three articles are not interchangeable and are used for different types of situations. Articles are also used to refer to nouns in both writing and speaking. Articles in English grammar are used to qualify a noun as well as define whether it is countable or non-countable.

Relative Pronoun Questions

There are certain rules for solving questions related to articles. Check out some of them below to get an insight about the same:

The Definite Article

The Indefinite Article

Here we have some practice Questions for Articles – 

writing an article questions

Answer - The Here guitar is a particular musical instrument that the daughter is learning to play. hence, it is definite. So 'THE' will be used.

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writing an article questions

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Answer - The Because here we are talking about a specific woman who lost her purse.

No Article , A

The, No article

Answer - The, No article. The capital city is definite while West Bengal doesn't need any article because according to rule countries and states do not take article.

A, no article

Answer - The, the The chance because they are talking about a specific chance. The same price because it is a definite price.

Answer - No article Because it is a general statement that is applicable to all bees, hence, it is only Bees without any article.

Answer - A the person borrowed one pencil ( indefinite / non specific) from the entire pile.

the, the, the

No article, the, an

Answer - a, the, an A book store, because no specific book store. Also a consonant. The first edition because it is a specified edition. An anime story because starts with vowel and any general anime story. ( not specified)

no article, a

Answer - the, a the old wardrobe because it is a particular wardrobe that is old. A new one because starts with consonant and the new one isn't specific about its nature or design.

Answer - The, the the for both the blank will be used because here we are talking about the specific exam of the specific semester.

Question 10

no article, the, the

the, No article, a

the, the, a

the, No article, the

Answer - the, No article, a The employees because specific employees of a company No article before office because it's a location. a meeting because the agenda of the meeting is not specified over here.

Question 11

the, no article

Answer - the, no article The betterment because the status is showing. ( trying to make it better) No article will be used before society because here we talk about society in general and not any specific society.

Question 12

Answer - no article here men is referred t as the general category of men who smell bad and not of any particular class or type.

Question 13

No article, the

Answer - the, the The streets because they talk about particular streets of Rome which are narrow and chaotic. The tourists because they talk about the tourists that come to visit Rome and not the natives.

Question 14

Answer - the The clouds because they look at the particular clouds that are grey and heavy.

Question 15

The, no article

Answer - The, a The doctor because particular doctor and a sonography because it's general in term and also starts with a consonant.

Question 16

the, the, an

the, a, the

Answer - the, a, an The whole speech because talks about a specific speech. A candidate because the candidate is anonymous. ( not a particular one) An attempt because he got one attempt. Starts with a vowel.

Question 17

Answer - No article. We do not use article before any person's  name.

Question 18

an, the, no article.

an, the, the

the, the, no article.

Answer - an, the, no article. An accident, the hospital ( particular hospital) located in South Bombay. No article before south before it's a location not direction.

Question 19

Answer - the The court of justice is a legislating body hence THE is used.

Question 20

No article, an

Answer - No article, an We do not use any article before the names of streets. An examination because the type of exam is not specified here.

Question 21

No article, a

Answer - the, a The marketing students because of specified stream, A heading because random heading.

Question 22

Answer - A A stitch in time saves nine is a proverb.

Question 23

A, the, no article

The, no article, no article

The, the, no article

A, the, the

Answer - The, the, no article

Question 24

Answer - The, a, a The way because talks about a particular way. A once because once means per / one and 'a' is used to signify one. a lifetime because we get one lifetime. hence a.

Question 25

The, the, a

The, an, the

Answer - The, the, a The business tycoon because a specific person, the economic situation because a particular trend in the economy and a hindrance because general idea of hindrance.

Question 26

an, no article

Answer - an, the An because vowel and the because specific class of the society.

Question 27

Answer - A, the A real trader because talking about general traders. The intricate details because talking about specific details.

Question 28

Answer - no article No article because talking about eucalyptus plants in general.

Question 29

Answer - A, no article A creature because general and starts with vowel. No article before situation because it doesn't require it.

Question 30

Answer - the, the The for both because the view is outstanding hence it's specific and the beach because it's a specific beach.

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Artisanal Article Machine

Artisanal Article Machine

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Writing Challenge. Writing Prompt. Questionnaire.

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How to Write Up an Interview-Based Article

How to Write Up an Interview-Based Article

5-minute read

You’ve interviewed someone and had it transcribed. But what happens next? How do you turn a raw interview transcript into an article people will want to read? There are five key steps to writing up an interview-based article:

For more on how to write up an interview-based article, read on below.

1. Review the Transcript

A transcript is a written, word-for-word copy of what was said in an interview. This provides the starting point for any interview-based article. Before you start writing, then, you will want to review your transcript. This will help you identify:

It is a good idea to listen to the recorded interview again, too. Hearing the interviewee’s voice will help you capture the tone of their responses.

2. Decide How to Structure Your Article

There are two common ways of structuring an interview-based article. One is a literal question-and-answer format, where each question is presented in turn, with the subject’s answers following. For example:

What made you approach writing you latest book in this way? I wanted to play with narrative forms and decided to experiment. To be honest, I was still prepared to scrap the whole idea and start again, though!

Alternatively, you can use a narrative form. This is where you describe what happened during the interview, using quotes to relay what the subject said, but giving extra detail about what they do, the surroundings, and even your own thoughts and feelings as the interviewer (if appropriate):

Taylor shrugs when asked about the writing style of her next, saying she “wanted to play with narrative forms and decided to experiment,” though she “was still prepared to scrap the whole idea and start again” if she had to.

You can even use a hybrid of the two, framing a question-and-answer piece with narrative sections or your own thoughts at the beginning and end.

3. Edit for Clarity and Concision

When we speak, we often use more words than necessary. Sentences become garbled. We use all sorts of linguistic fillers and crutch words . Sometimes we lose confidence in what we say and trail off. And none of this makes for a great read!

As a result, most interview-based articles will be edited for clarity and concision. This might involve making changes along the following lines, for instance:

Original So, um, I was going to start writing…when I started writing the book, I just knuckled down and worked really hard for two months, basically.

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Edited When I started writing the book, I worked really hard for two months.

The second version is much clearer and easier to read, picking out the key parts of the original to communicate the same thought more effectively.

It’s important to be careful when editing a transcript, though. You won’t want to accidentally twist the subject’s words or misrepresent them, so keep changes minimal where possible and make sure to preserve the meaning of the original.

If you need to rephrase something more thoroughly for clarity, moreover, you may want to check that the interviewee is okay with any changes you’ve made.

Always check your style guide or publisher’s instructions, too, as some are quite restrictive regarding the changes you can make. AP style , for example, suggests only making very minor changes to quotations (e.g., cutting out “umms” and “aahs”).

4. Consider Reorganizing Parts of the Transcript

Interviews can go in unexpected directions. The interviewee might go off on tangents. Or the same topic might come up at different points. To make sure your interview article reads smoothly, then, you might need to reorganize slightly.

For example, perhaps your subject speaks about their early years at the start of an interview, but slips in an extra childhood anecdote later on in a context where it doesn’t fit. Or perhaps you are thinking of cutting part of a response but want to keep an insightful statement that would work elsewhere in the article.

In these cases, it is often fine to move things around as long as the change of context doesn’t misrepresent what your subject has said. However, this is another case where you may need to get the interviewee’s approval for any changes.

5. Proofread Your Interview Article

Whether you are publishing an article yourself or submitting it for publication, always proofread your finished interview to make sure it is clear and error free. You should also check you haven’t changed the meaning of anything your subject said.

You could even use a proofreading service at this stage. Our expert editors are always available, so upload a trial document for free today to see how we can help.

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Cambridge B2 First (FCE): How to Write an Article

The most useful thing I’ve ever learned Have you ever learned something that completely changed your life? I can remember exactly how it was for me when I got interested in learning English and who helped me become the person I am today. I had always been in love with English music and I put in some work by myself, but only when I ended up in the English class of Mr. Weiss I got completely hooked. His amazing style of teaching struck a chord and my skills skyrocketed in no time. Feeling confident, I took the leap and moved to beautiful Australia where I was able to travel and even call it home for over seven years. And you know what?! I became an English teacher and now help people who are just like I used to be with the same passion as Mr. Weiss. I really think that I wouldn’t be teaching English had it not been for Mr. Weiss and his inspirational lessons. So, looking back, I hope my experience inspires others to find ways to help the people around them as well. if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined'){ez_ad_units.push([[336,280],'teacherphill_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_16',340,'0','0'])};__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-teacherphill_com-medrectangle-4-0');


An article is usually written for an English-language magazine or newsletter, and the reader is assumed to have similar interests to the writer. The main purpose is to interest and engage the reader, so there should be some opinion or comment. from: Cambridge English First Handbook for Teachers

Articles are interesting and engaging

You might think that I’m joking because how could writing an article be interesting and engaging? The thing is that I’m not talking about you as the writer, but about the reader. Articles are less formal than, for example, an essay or a letter of application so they are usually more interesting and engaging to read.

What a typical article task looks like

Even though there are many different topics to write articles about and they might change a lot from exam to exam, there are certain similarities that I don’t want you to miss and with a little practice you will be able to find these characteristics really fast in every single task.

Below you can see that I have underlined the key pieces of information for you and don’t forget to do the same with every writing task you see.

Informal English means that you should use contractions like ‘I’m’ or ‘don’t’, colloquial words and expressions, for example, ‘awesome’ or ‘tons of’. Also, try to add some phrasal verbs because they are definitely a feature of informal language as well and last but not least, involve the reader personally by addressing them directly and even ask a question or two.

How to organise your article

It probably makes sense to give each of these points a paragraph in our article so we already have three sections. To me it seems as if we could use the first topic point in our introduction, which means that we don’t need a separate one, but it is always nice to have a short closing paragraph (similar to a conclusion in an essay). Adding that and a title, we end up with four paragraphs and our article would look like this:

Always make a plan

The different parts of an article.

In this part of my post we are going to look at the different sections of an article in the FCE exam using our task from above so I can give you example paragraphs which include everything you should put in there as well if you want to become the boss of article writing.

The most useful thing I’ve ever learned Have you ever learned something that completely changed your life? I can remember exactly how it was for me when I got interested in learning English and who helped me become the person I am today.

There you have it. My article has a title, which doesn’t have to be super creative, the intro includes a question as well as the topic and my comment (“…helped me become the person I am today.”) and I’ve already answered the first topic question in the task (What is the thing you learned?).

Topic points

I had always been in love with English music and I put in some work by myself, but only when I ended up in the English class of Mr. Weiss I got completely hooked . His amazing style of teaching struck a chord and my skills skyrocketed in no time . Feeling confident, I took the leap and moved to beautiful Australia where I was able to travel and even call it home for over seven years. And you know what?! I became an English teacher and now help people who are just like I used to be with the same passion as Mr. Weiss. if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined'){ez_ad_units.push([[468,60],'teacherphill_com-leader-2','ezslot_14',703,'0','0'])};__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-teacherphill_com-leader-2-0');

Closing paragraph / Conclusion

I really think that I wouldn’t be teaching English had it not been for Mr. Weiss and his inspirational lessons. So, looking back, I hope my experience inspires others to find ways to help the people around them as well.

How your article is marked

Practice makes perfect.

Teacher Phill 🙂

13 Responses

Leave a reply cancel reply.

My name is Phill and I’m an English Teacher from Germany.

I have lived and worked in many different countries and I would love to help you pass your exam. 🙂

Teacher Phill

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Article Writing Format: Explore How To Write, Example Topics and Tips

Have some great ideas, opinions and suggestions you wish you could share so that it could reach readers all around the world? One of the best ways to get your thoughts across the globe is by writing an article. There are techniques you can use to write the different types of articles. This piece on article writing will give you all the tips and tricks you need to master before you start writing your article.

Table of Contents

The art of writing an article, how do i write a good article – tips and techniques, article writing samples, faqs on article writing.

An article is a piece of writing which explicates ideas, thoughts, facts, suggestions and/or recommendations based on a particular topic. There are different kinds of articles, namely:

Writing an article takes a lot of effort on the side of the writer. Content writers/creators, bloggers, freelance writers and copywriters are people who have mastered the art of article writing, without which they would not be able to make their mark as a writer of any kind.

In order to be able to write an article that makes sense in the first place, you have to keep a few things in mind.

To help you understand better and practise the art of article writing, read through the articles given below:

Can I write a good article?

If you know all the information about the topic you are going to write about, a good hand over the language, a knack to keep it simple and interesting throughout, you can write a good article.

What is the format of an article?

The article should have a title/heading and a description that states what the article is about. The body of the article can be split into 3 to 5 paragraphs according to the volume of content with respect to the topic you are discussing. You can have subheadings and use bullet points wherever possible. Make sure your introduction makes people want to read the whole article and your conclusion leaves them satisfied.

How many paragraphs should there be in an article?

An article should have a minimum of 3 to 4 paragraphs. The writer is, however, given the choice to present the content in more than four paragraphs, if it would be better for the article.

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Article Writing Format| Article Writing For Class 12 Topics, Tips, and Examples

See this post to know all about article writing:

What is Article Writing?

Article Writing Format

Article Writing Tips

Article writing class 11.

What is Article Writing – An article is a written work published in a print/electronic medium. It may be for the purpose of propagating news, researching results, academic analysis, or debate. Generally, it is a piece of writing that is published in a newspaper or Magazine.


Related – Letter Writing, Letter Writing Format, Tips, Examples

See Video on Article Writing, Format of Article Writing, Tips and Examples

When a student has to attempt a question on Article writing, he has to follow the article writing format by CBSE. Here you can see the article writing format in detail.

The format of an article consists of the following parts –

(NOTE- You are not supposed to mention any of your personal details while attempting the answers in the exam.)

Article Writing Format

Article Writing Class 12

Article Writing Class 12 – In an examination, nothing is written purposelessly. Clarity of purpose will ensure clarity in the choice of style and vocabulary.

Article writing for CBSE Class 12 comes as a very long answer-type question carrying a weightage of 05 marks.

Two Very Long Answer Questions containing internal choice, to be answered in 120-150 words have to be attempted. The questions will be based on any of the following –

1. Article writing

2. Debate writing

3. speech writing

4. Report writing

Article Writing Format Class 12

Article Writing Format Class 12 – The Format of article writing for class 11 by CBSE is the same as we have discussed earlier. Article writing for class 12 carries 05 marks, it is a very important question. In order to write a perfect article, we must be well acquainted with the topic and must possess a wide range of vocabulary, a thorough knowledge of the subject, some research, and excellent organizational skills. Here is the ideal format of article writing and Article Writing tips to help you write your perfect article.

format of an article

Related – Informal Letter, Format, Tips, Examples, Topics

Here are a few valuable tips for you to attempt the CBSE Class 12 Article writing format question in a better way-

Article Writing Class 11 – Students of Class 11 also have to learn the format of article writing as per the CBSE syllabus. The basic guidelines on Article writing format have been discussed earlier. We have compiled a few sample questions on Article writing so that students get familiar with the format of an article.   Top  

Article Writing format

Related – Notice Writing Format, How to Write Notice Writing In English  

Article Writing Examples | Solved questions

Below are a few Article writing Examples for you so that you get an idea as to how to attempt CBSE class 12 Article writing questions well. Remember, the more you read and practice, the better it is. As per CBSE guidelines, the Article should not exceed the prescribed word limit of 120-150 words.

Q1. ‘Grow more trees to reduce pollution.’ Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic given above for your school magazine. (SOURCE- CBSE compartment 2018)

Answer: Grow More Trees to Reduce Pollution Radhika

“Trees are poems the earth writes upon the sky.” Trees and plants are one of the main reasons why mankind came into existence. The importance of planting trees has been emphasized time and again. This is because of the numerous benefits they offer.

They make the world a better place to live in. They exhale oxygen and inhale carbon dioxide to maintain the ecological balance in the environment. They also absorb all the harmful gases and give us fresh air to breathe.

Trees build a sheet to protect us from the harmful ultraviolet rays. Not only this, they serve as a habitat for birds and various species of animals. This is not it. Trees help in controlling water pollution and preventing soil erosion.

The places inhabited by large numbers of trees are quite cooler compared to the concrete jungles that cannot do without air conditioners. Unfortunately, urbanisation is leading to clearing of forests and parks despite the numerous benefits they offer. People come here for morning walks, evening strolls, yoga sessions and laughter therapy. These also serve as a safe place for the kids to play and socialise. The only way left to preserve them and reap these benefits is by growing them at a faster rate.

As a Chinese proverb states, “The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago. The second best time is now.” So do your bit and make this place more beautiful.

Q2. India is a land of diversity. One way in which it makes us feel proud of it is the number of festivals we enjoy. Write an article in 150-200 words on ‘Festivals of India’. You are Karuna/Karan. 10 (SOURCE- CBSE 2016)

Answer: FESTIVALS OF INDIA – Karan/ Karuna

It is said that “Greatness of a culture can be found in its festivals”. India has proved every word of the saying right by being famously known as the “Land of Festivals” .

True to this belief, India has scores and scores of festivals that bring happiness and joy all across the country.

This is because of the diverse cultures that exist in this subcontinent. All these different cultures and religions get tied together in bonds of love with these invisible threads of celebrations.

Every festival has a social, religious and mythological value. Accordingly, Dussehra has a great significance. Similarly, the Janmashtami festival has also a great religious and social significance. This is the occasion when Lord Krishna was born to kill Kansa and other demons and save the people from a great danger. This festival also teaches us how to fight evil and falsehood and establish truth.

On these festivals, people offer prayers to their deities, wear ethnic clothes and make merry with their near and dear ones. Ganesh Chaturthi, Eid Ul Fitr, Baisakhi, Onam, Pongal, Gurupurab, Ram Navami and Durga Puja are some of the festivals that are celebrated with immense zeal in different parts of India with some of these being specific to a particular region.

No wonder, our country is called a land of festivals. Thank you.

Q3. Our performance in the Rio Olympics has told us that we do not pay enough attention to athletics and outdoor games. It is time we revised our attitude. Sports should be an important part of school’s daily routine. Write an article in 150-200 words in ‘Importance of Outdoor Games’. You are Sreeja/Thomas. (SOURCE- CBSE 2017)


Sports occupy a prominent place in the life of a nation. It not only helps keep you healthy and fit but also plays an important part as a recreational event. Unfortunately, in our country, the trend is such that it focuses only on the academic front. To grow a tree, we have to water it’s roots; just like that, to prepare athletes that could play for the country, we need to inculcate the concept of sports at the primary level, i.e., the school level. What we are missing out is that sports play a vital role in imparting complete education.

Clearly, things did not go well in the Rio Olympics, and as everyone gets down to doing the post-mortem of our performances, often breathless, blame the quality of attention being given to athletics.

The benefits of playing sports are several, as it leads to balanced mental growth. It teaches the children life skills like team efforts, leadership, patience and social skills. It inculcates confidence, discipline and playing without crossing the rules.

Thus, it becomes all the more important to change the attitude of schools towards sports. It should be made a compulsory activity. It has been rightly said,

“Children learn as they play. Most importantly, in play, they learn how to learn.” Thank you.

Related – Free Online English Test – MCQ Test Series

4. By 2050, India will be amongst the countries which will face acute water shortage. You are highly alarmed and terrified of the future world without water. So, write an article on “Save water- are we doing enough?” for the local daily in 150-200 words. (SOURCE- SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER 2018-19)


Many people are living with less water than they need, whether in the world's most prosperous cities or in its bountiful agricultural heartlands. Droughts have also become more frequent, more severe, and affecting more people around the world. As many as four billion people already live in regions that experience severe water stress for at least one month of the year. With populations rising, these stresses will only mount.

Water is the precious gift of God on earth. Life exists on the earth because of the availability of water. Itself being tasteless, odourless and colourless, it adds taste, colour and nice smell in the life of living beings on the Earth.

Here are different methods we can follow to save clean drinking water and deal with the water scarcity. Rain water harvesting is one of the most effective and suitable methods among save water techniques.

Deforestation is also a good method as it reduces the surface runoff and recharges the groundwater. It promotes underground water conservation. By practicing such methods we can conserve more water naturally and ensure the availability of it for future generations. We should take a pledge and make it a lifelong motto to preserve water because,

“If you conserve water, it means you conserve life.”

Q5. Recent floods in many metropolitan cities of the country during the monsoon season laid bare the hollowness of the claims of the civic authorities of their preparedness. The poor had to bear the brunt of the problem while no one was ever held accountable. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on the common man’s woes during the monsoons and the need for accountability of the officials concerned. You are Sumit/Smita Verma. (SOURCE- CBSE 2018)

Answer: COMMON MAN’s WOES DURING MONSOON -by Sumit/ Smita Verma

The much awaited Monsoon brings respite from the scorching heat. But Monsoon and madness walk together. Every year during the monsoons, chaos reigns supreme. The roads are flooded; the sewage system collapses; a huge loss of crops, fruits, life, and property is caused. Water logging and breeding of mosquitoes together becomes the reason for a lot of people falling ill. Network connectivity gets weak.

In spite of 71 years of independence, the Indian Government has not been able to tackle the flood problem caused by monsoons. Recent floods have laid bare the hollowness of the claims of the civic authorities of their preparedness. The poor had to bear the brunt of the problem. One of the causes behind this chaos is the lack of strict laws and accountability of the officials and the Ministries responsible for tackling the floods. The Government formulate and pass strict laws regarding the projects launched to relieve people of their distress but there is hardly a sign of effective implementation of the scheme. There needs to be strict accountability.

When the Ministers will be accountable, they will ensure the officers, officials involved in the projects surely create foolproof systems. It is only through strict accountability laws the system can be made efficient.


“Work hard in silence, let your success make the noise.”

Article Writing Extra Questions

Q. List down the steps involved in writing an article for class 12.

A. Here are the steps involved in writing an article:

Q. Which are the different topics for article writing?

A. Types of articles asked:

The most common topics are:


Q. In how many words should a question of article writing be answered?

A. The length of the article should be within 150-200 words. An article can be divided into paragraphs according to the need. Each paragraph should deal with one (sometimes two points)  point only in detail.

Q. Give some tips to score full marks in article writing.

A. Sometimes a verbal or visual input may be given to guide and help the students in writing an article. But in most cases, you are not provided with any verbal or visual input.. In such cases, use your discretion in arranging your ideas in meaningful and logical paragraphs.

The input ( if given) may include broad hints, a short outline or only a suggested beginning.

In rare cases, you may be given a visual input in the form of a figure, a diagram or a cartoon. The aim of inserting an input is to give a general outline along which the article has to be developed. The other aim is to discourage the habit of cramming.

The students are expected to give their own ideas or views on a particular topic or

issue in their own language.

Points to remember: 

For writing a good article the students are advised to keep the following points in mind.

Q. What is the marks weightage, break up of marks and word limit of article writing questions?

A. The question on Article writing carries a weightage of 5 marks. The marks are divided as follows –

The article has a word limit of 120 – 150 words.

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Questions In Blog Writing Help You Write Better Articles

why are questions important

Do you use questions in your blog writing? There are many aspects involved in creating content that will both engage your readers and be SEO friendly.

If that’s not enough, trends come and go, and you have to keep your content up to date in line with these changes.

It’s always the quality and relevance of your content that is vital to the success of your blog. A dedicated blogger will always research and make sure their content is up to date and informative.

You don’t have to chase every trend, but you need to make sure that your content doesn’t become outdated.

Why do writers use questions?

One of the most basic rules of creating good content is to make sure you add great information for your readers.

But if you think about a conversation between two people, there are usually a lot of questions.

When you’re writing for your readers, you want them to be part of the conversation. For a blog, this works by attracting a lot of comments  and you replying and responding to your readers.

The best way to get this process working is, of course, to ask questions.

Now let’s get to why it is so important to include questions in your blog content.

Engaging your readers

The most important part of writing is to engage your audience and grab their attention as quickly as you can.

Using questions in blog writing attracts attention, so it helps you as well as making your reader think.

Your question has to make sense to the reader and intrigue them in the context of your article.

It should be something that they didn’t expect, such as a rhetorical question. Or it could be guided and implied by your content.

Relationship building

By asking the right questions when you write an article, you show the reader that you care about them, and this is an excellent foundation for building a relationship.

You want readers who will continue to come back for more of your writing and thoughts.

One way to do that is to build a relationship of trust.

Adding questions makes your audience feel like you are thinking about them while writing your content. When you reply to comments, you can develop your reputation.

Writing about a whole bunch of facts and data is boring.

Don’t you just hate it when bloggers do that?

Did you see what I did with the previous sentence? I gave you an opportunity to voice your opinion.

Customer satisfaction

Another way to use questions in your content is to ask your customers for their opinions.

You want to know if you’re doing a great job or if there are aspects of your blog you could improve.

Without your readers, you don’t have much of a blog. Their satisfaction and feedback play an essential role in developing your site.

The key to making this strategy effective is to execute the ideas your readers give you.

You don’t have to apply everything your audience suggests, but you might find some tips in there that you never considered.

They are the readers of your blog, and from that standpoint, they always add value.

Create curiosity

We are all quite curious, and we seek out as many answers as we can.

If you use a question in your title, your audience is more inclined to read the post because they want to know the answer.

It isn’t a way to hook people with clickbait titles. You need to provide a great answer within your content if you use a question in your title.

Grabbing their attention with the headline and not delivering in your content will lose your readers in a flash and increase your bounce rate.

Your headline is a vital part of promoting your blog post , but always remember that it’s just the invitation.

Adding value

It is the goal of every blogger to add value to the lives of their readers; otherwise, your blog serves no purpose.

Unless you’re writing your blog as a journal entry that is only for yourself, you always need to answer questions.

When you ask a question not explicitly directed to your reader, but rather more a hypothetical question, you might get readers interested.

Even if the answer is only your point of view, you are at least giving them a new perspective.

Your readers will continue to come back to your blog if you are adding value to their lives, and they can relate to what you have to say.

What blogging is all about

There is a lot of value in using questions for article writing .

You might give it a try on your next blog post and see if your audience finds it more engaging. Or you can try editing an existing post to improve it.

You want to connect with your readers if you can.

It is how you should approach every post, but you are the expert in your field.

Your readers come to your blog for advice and information, and you should be able to deliver.

If not, they will go and find another source.

The blogging world is saturated, but there is always an audience for a truly relevant and instructive blog.

As long as you stand out from the rest, your blog will get more traffic.

We live in a world where we can all go online and find a ton of information. You want your blog to become one of those information hubs.

Search engines will also be more kind to you if you include questions in your content because it leads it to believe that there is information coming.

You can even use Q & A schema to help your page ranking.

It’s not a way to trick search engines. If your answers that follow your questions are of high value, your blog will rank higher.

Show your audience that you care about what they have to say and that you take the time to structure your content carefully for them.

By doing this, you are going to build relationships with your readers that will last a long time.

Related reading: Good Blog Writing Needs Know How And Your Imagination

Derek Haines

A Cambridge CELTA English teacher and author with a passion for writing and all forms of publishing. My days are spent writing and blogging, as well as testing and taming new technology.

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Wearing a black jacket, white shirt and checkered tie, U.S. Senator John Fetterman walks down a corridor in the U.S. Capitol along with his Congressional colleagues.

When does clinical depression become an emergency? 4 questions answered

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John B. Williamson receives funding from the Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense, National Endowment of the Arts, the International Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Foundation, McKnight Brain Research Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health

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The news that Sen. John Fetterman, a Pennsylvania Democrat, checked himself into Walter Reed National Military Medical Center on Feb. 15, 2023, to be treated for clinical depression sparked a national discussion around the need for openness about mental health struggles . This comes after Fetterman suffered a near-fatal stroke in May 2022, prompting questions about possible links between post-stroke recovery and mental health.

The Conversation asked John B. Williamson, an associate professor of psychiatry and neuroscience at the University of Florida, to explain when depression becomes a crisis and what inpatient treatment entails.

What is clinical depression?

Clinical depression, or major depressive disorder, occurs in 20% of the population over the lifetime . It can surface and differ from person to person in a variety of ways.

Clinical depression symptoms include feelings of sadness and loss of interest and motivation to engage in once pleasurable activities such as hobbies. Other symptoms include changes in appetite – either increased or decreased – changes in sleep patterns, be it too much or too little, loss of energy, restlessness and difficulty thinking and concentrating. To qualify as clinical depression, these symptoms must persist for at least two weeks.

One form of the condition can also occur in the context of stressful situations, such as the death of a loved one, divorce or loss of a job. Depressive symptoms can also occur alongside and because of other disorders and medical conditions like stroke and thyroid disease, and these conditions may complicate recovery .

Severe depression can mimic other conditions, including dementia , in which an impairment in thinking is significant enough to interfere with a person’s ability to live independently. It can also worsen the quality of life in older age. Depression has also been linked with higher rates of death from any cause , such as cardiovascular disease.

Untreated depression can negatively affect overall health and quality of life.

When does depression become an emergency?

An acute change in mood that persists for weeks or is associated with thoughts of self-harm should not be ignored . In some cases, it may constitute an emergency.

Depressed mood, whether from a major depressive episode, or in the context of another problem, can become an emergency when there are thoughts of suicide. Suicidal thoughts may be passive, such as preferring not to be alive, or active, meaning an explicit desire to harm oneself. Broadly, this means having ideas about ending one’s life.

It is important to understand the signs and risks for suicide to help prevent it, both for yourself and others. Feelings of hopelessness, agitation and lack of reasons to live are vulnerabilities for suicide . This vulnerability increases with poor sleep and higher risk-taking behavior, including substance abuse. Additional noticeable signs may be withdrawing from friends and family and increased preoccupation with death.

If a person expresses suicidal thoughts or a desire to harm or kill themselves, immediate attention is needed. Help is available through the 988 Suicide and Crisis Lifeline and any emergency room.

What is inpatient care for depression?

Inpatient mental health care is useful when a more controlled environment is needed. This environment is important for patients at increased risk for suicide and can also be a useful tool for treating substance abuse, hallucinations and paranoia or mania in the context of bipolar disorder .

An inpatient care unit is meant to be a calm environment with 24/7 monitored care. Services include evaluation by professionals and may involve medication management when necessary. Inpatient care settings will usually offer individual and group psychotherapy options, as well as art therapy and other expressive therapies such as writing. And they may include education on the management of mental health.

The primary goal is stabilizing the patient, helping them to develop coping skills and connecting the patient with services to prevent future need for inpatient care.

The average stay in an inpatient unit is about 10 days . It is possible to enter inpatient care voluntarily. Others are admitted by a physician or other authorized individual, which in most cases would be a parent, spouse or adult child. Admission sometimes occurs by way of an emergency room visit or through communication with a health care professional. For instance, sometimes a therapist or physician may facilitate inpatient admission.

Is treatment for depression effective?

The good news is that depression responds well to treatment. In cases in which thoughts of suicide with imminent risk of harm are not present, depression can be managed with psychotherapy, medication or a combination of both. There is a great deal of evidence for the effectiveness of these approaches .

Clinical depression may go into remission with psychotherapy or the use of medication. Unfortunately, about half of people who experience clinical depression experience chronic or recurring symptoms. Longer-term treatment and self-care including psychotherapy and medication may be necessary.

There are additional treatment considerations when active thoughts of suicide are involved. It is important to discuss these feelings with a medical professional. Primary care physicians commonly treat depression via medication ; slightly more than 13% of Americans take them . However, it may be beneficial to seek out treatment from mental health care specialists such as psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses and other licensed mental health care professionals.

A conversation with either a primary care or a mental health care professional is a viable route to getting started with assessment and treatment. People who get treatment for suicidal thoughts are much less likely to kill themselves .

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration operates a national helpline to assist in facilitating appropriate treatment referrals for patients (1-800-662-HELP) .

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1. Let us play ----- chess

2. She wants to become ----- engineer

3. He hopes to join ----- university soon

4. ----- Oranges are grown in Nagpur

5. This is ----- car I bought yesterday

6. I want to eat ----- apple

7. ----- lion is a ferocious animal

8. The thief was sent to ----- prison

9. ----- elephant is a vegetarian

10. Ram was ----- best student in the class

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Writing non-fiction

Non-fiction texts are those that deal with facts, opinions and the real world. Many non-fiction texts follow specific conventions of language and structure.

Writing an article

An example of how to structure and write an effective article

Here are a few places where you might expect to find an article:

An article is a piece of writing (usually around 800-2000 words) about a particular topic. Sometimes an article will offer a balanced view of a subject. At other times an article might be biased towards a person or political standpoint.

An article might also be flavoured by the writer’s style. Depending on the purpose of your article, you might use very direct informative language or more poetic language to create a sense of the subject matter.

Here are some typical subjects covered by article writers:

The basic structure of an article for a newspaper, magazine or website, is usually in three parts:

Within this structure you could also create a circular structure in which the conclusion connects back to the opening idea.

For example, an article about Kerala in India opens with the writer describing the view from a train. The middle section describes Alappuzha, the place the writer is travelling away from and goes into details about a boat trip they took there. In the concluding paragraph , the writer brings us back to the train and muses on the highlights of his trip.

The language of an article depends upon the purpose and audience . The language of the article will fit the content and the intended readers. For example, an article about a recent film release would include language that deals with actors, scripts and performance and is likely to include the writer’s opinions of the film.

Articles usually have a catchy, memorable headline . This helps to grab the reader’s attention and entice them to read the whole article.

Articles are usually written in Standard English , but colloquial sayings or phrases might be used to emphasise a point. Literary techniques such as metaphor and simile make your writing more interesting and engaging. Persuasive devices , such as rule of three, rhetorical questions and hyperbole can encourage the reader to agree with your point of view.

Here’s an extract from an article that tries to persuade the reader to eat a more balanced, healthy diet:

Eat Right: Live Longer

It has been scientifically proven that the less junk food a person consumes, the longer they are likely to live. So why isn’t everyone dumping the junk? Jordan McIntyre investigates.

Fast food equals fat

A staple part of twenty-first century British home-life is the weekly takeaway treat: finger-licking burgers, sticky ribs and crispy chicken wings are, for many, the normal Friday night feast. The average national calorie count in the UK is a whopping 4500 a day, a key factor in the obesity cases that are soaring. Fast food is packed with fat and obesity contributes to a range of health issues - most significantly heart disease and depression. So why aren’t we changing our lifestyles?

Short on time

Families these days are spending less and less time at home during the working week. School commitments, work meetings and extra curricular activities mean that time is short and fewer people are prepared to put in the effort to prepare fresh, healthy meals.

And when time is tight, it seems we are even more willing to compromise our waistlines for a little bit of what we fancy – fast fatty food.

Eat yourself healthy

However, Georgia Thomas of the University of Food says, ‘I am convinced that it is possible to live a busy lifestyle AND prepare healthy, satisfying meals. It seems that people have simply got out of the habit of cooking. We are busy people; how do we reward ourselves? You guessed it - food.’ Britain clearly needs to shift the stodge, and fast.

The headline grabs the reader's interest and introduces the article. The writer uses parallelism by using two imperative or command phrases 'Eat well' followed by 'live longer'. Alliteration is also used with the repetition of 'l'.

The rhetorical question in the opening paragraph encourages the reader to engage with the topic. The subheadings direct the reader through the text, and act as mini headlines. The writer uses colloquial sayings such as ‘a little bit of what we fancy’ and ‘shift the stodge’ to create a lively, conversational tone.

The final paragraph uses quotations from an expert to add credibility to the argument. You would expect the article to go on to explore how we can eat healthily and to conclude with an explanation of how easy it is to do this.

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How to write an article.

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This lesson was designed to help learners prepare to write articles for their L1 writing exam. 

There is a reading text "Woman ran last 18 miles of London Marathon with broken ankle" with vocab, gist and detail questions, and a few questions for genre analysis.

Then a worksheet to support learners to gain top tips from a youtube video  (watch till 2:18).

They can check their learning by reconstructing the sample text from the video, cut up into sections.

We then worked through question 1 in this Pearson past exam paper , writing each section on flipchart paper in small groups, then comparing and evaluating.

Editor's notes

Fully mapped to the Reformed Functional English content.  With answers.

How to Write Articles

Last Updated: February 4, 2023 References Approved

This article was co-authored by Janet Peischel . Janet Peischel is a Writer and Digital Media Expert and the Owner of Top of Mind Marketing. With more than 15 years of consulting experience, she develops content strategies and builds online brands for her clients. Prior to consulting, Janet spent over 15 years in the marketing industry, in positions such as the Vice President of Marketing Communications for the Bank of America. Janet holds a BA and MA from the University of Washington. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 26 testimonials and 100% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 3,220,020 times.

There are a multitude of different types of articles, including news stories, features, profiles, instructional articles, and so on. While each has specific qualities that are unique to its type, all articles share some common characteristics. From forming and researching your idea to writing and editing your work, writing articles can give you a chance to share compelling and important information with readers.

Forming Your Idea

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Researching Your Idea

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Outlining Your Idea

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Writing Your Article

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Finalizing Your Work

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Janet Peischel

To write an article, use both primary and secondary sources to gather information about your topic. Primary sources include photos, government records, and personal interviews, while secondary sources include books, abstracts, scholarly journals, other articles, and reference books. When you’re writing, use facts, quotes, and statistics from your sources to support your point, and explain your topic as if the reader has never heard of it before. To learn the different types of articles, including news, features, and editorials, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

Published on November 23, 2020 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 4, 2022.

Summarizing , or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.

There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or evaluating the source . You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).

Table of contents

When to write a summary, step 1: read the text, step 2: break the text down into sections, step 3: identify the key points in each section, step 4: write the summary, step 5: check the summary against the article, frequently asked questions about summarizing.

There are many situations in which you might have to summarize an article or other source:

When you’re writing an academic text like an essay , research paper , or dissertation , you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyze or critique it.

In any case, the goal of summarizing is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.

You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:

There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:

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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

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To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.

If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organized into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction , methods , results , and discussion .

Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.

Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?

Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.

In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.

If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.

In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement —the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.

Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.

To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

Examples of article summaries

Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarize this article , which scientifically investigates the old saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.”

Davis et al. (2015) set out to empirically test the popular saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Apples are often used to represent a healthy lifestyle, and research has shown their nutritional properties could be beneficial for various aspects of health. The authors’ unique approach is to take the saying literally and ask: do people who eat apples use healthcare services less frequently? If there is indeed such a relationship, they suggest, promoting apple consumption could help reduce healthcare costs.

The study used publicly available cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were categorized as either apple eaters or non-apple eaters based on their self-reported apple consumption in an average 24-hour period. They were also categorized as either avoiding or not avoiding the use of healthcare services in the past year. The data was statistically analyzed to test whether there was an association between apple consumption and several dependent variables: physician visits, hospital stays, use of mental health services, and use of prescription medication.

Although apple eaters were slightly more likely to have avoided physician visits, this relationship was not statistically significant after adjusting for various relevant factors. No association was found between apple consumption and hospital stays or mental health service use. However, apple eaters were found to be slightly more likely to have avoided using prescription medication. Based on these results, the authors conclude that an apple a day does not keep the doctor away, but it may keep the pharmacist away. They suggest that this finding could have implications for reducing healthcare costs, considering the high annual costs of prescription medication and the inexpensiveness of apples.

However, the authors also note several limitations of the study: most importantly, that apple eaters are likely to differ from non-apple eaters in ways that may have confounded the results (for example, apple eaters may be more likely to be health-conscious). To establish any causal relationship between apple consumption and avoidance of medication, they recommend experimental research.

An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.

For example, in a literature review or meta analysis you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.

Using national survey data, Davis et al. (2015) tested the assertion that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” and did not find statistically significant evidence to support this hypothesis. While people who consumed apples were slightly less likely to use prescription medications, the study was unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between these variables.

Citing the source you’re summarizing

When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.

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Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:

If you’re summarizing many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.

A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words.

A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarizing, and on the purpose of the summary.

You might have to write a summary of a source:

To avoid plagiarism when summarizing an article or other source, follow these two rules:

An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis , dissertation or journal article. It should summarize the whole text, not just introduce it.

An abstract is a type of summary , but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing . For example, you might summarize a source in a paper , in a literature review , or as a standalone assignment.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2022, November 04). How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 4, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/working-with-sources/how-to-summarize/

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Doctoral writing through a trajectorial lens: an exploratory study on challenges, strategies and relationships

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Doctoral writing has burgeoned as a field of inquiry in the past decade. However, questions still remain as to how doctoral researchers navigate their writing trajectories, the strategies they deploy to deal with challenges, and what and who helps to shape their writing experiences. These questions may have resulted from the rather snapshot perspective followed by some existing research, failing to reveal developmental aspects of doctoral writing. This article argues that a trajectorial perspective on doctoral writing, offered here as a methodological lens, can help to shed some light on such questions, and provide effective guidance for pedagogic interventions. A group of six doctoral researchers were interviewed about their experiences as academic and professional writers, and about the texts they had written along their writing trajectories. An analysis of the data revealed a number of challenges these doctoral writers faced at specific stages of their writing trajectory, the strategies they deployed to deal with these challenges, the relationships they established along the way and how they changed at specific times, and what they have found most helpful to advance their writing. Based on the results, this exploratory study offers possible pedagogic interventions for specific stages of the doctoral writing trajectory.

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Doctoral writing has attracted the attention of researchers in the field of applied linguistics, writing studies and academic literacies in the last decade (e.g. Aitchison, 2009 ; Aitchison & Guerin, 2014 ; Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Burford et al., 2021 ; Caffarella & Barnett, 2000 ; Carter et al., 2020 ; Casanave, 2019 ; Huang, 2020 ; Johnson, 2018 ; Kamler & Thomson, 2006 ; McAlpine et al., 2020 ; Paré, 2019 ; among many others). This increased interest in doctoral writing has resulted from a number of institutional, relational and individual reasons. The existing literature has grouped such reasons into contextual issues (e.g. increasing number of students registered on doctoral programmes, the efforts of universities to link doctoral outputs with research productivity), changes in power relations (e.g. between doctoral students and supervisors), and internal struggles (e.g. the need to develop disciplinary expertise, pressure to publish).

Despite the impressive body of literature published in the last 10 years or so, there remains a number of questions pertaining to how doctoral researchers navigate their trajectories, the strategies they deploy to deal with challenges they face, and what and who helps to shape their writing experiences. The exploratory study reported in this article argues that a longitudinal approach to doctoral writing (Bazerman, 2018 ; Tusting et al., 2018 ) can help to shed some light on these questions as well as provide effective guidance for the design and implementation of specific pedagogical interventions. To this end, the article offers a trajectorial perspective as a methodological lens to examine doctoral writing. Based on data provided by six participants, the study is presented as an exploration of these issues and a field where they can be tested before being further examined with a larger group of doctoral writers.

Doctoral writing: challenges, relationships and the trajectorial perspective

Studies on doctoral writing have focused on a number of key issues relating to the challenges that doctoral students, or doctoral researchers as we prefer to refer to them, face along their writing trajectories, the relationships they manage to establish with supervisors and other researchers, and the complex demands of academic writing. Among the main challenges that these studies have singled out, developing disciplinary expertise and the impostor syndrome seem to recur. Casanave ( 2019 ), for instance, has identified disciplinary expertise as a key challenge often reported by doctoral researchers. In particular, she refers to the tension between being an expert and displaying expertise that writing creates for them. In her own words, doctoral writing “is a performance that displays rather than embodies expertise” (p. 58). This tension between the display and embodiment of expertise seems to be a constant struggle that university students are faced with along their developmental trajectory as academic writers, requiring them to navigate the tensions between “knowledge telling, transformation and creation” (Gimenez & Thomas, 2015 ). Such tensions seem to exacerbate as they embark on doctoral studies, often leading to the impostor syndrome (e.g. Cisco, 2020 ; Nori & Vanttaja, 2022 ). As Nori and Vanttaja ( 2022 ) have recently pointed out, the high stakes of doctoral studies combined with internal and external factors such as the doctoral researchers’ background, life experiences, aims, and funding issues are all important contributing factors.

Another challenge, seldom mentioned in the literature on doctoral writing, relates to the pressure to publish. Aitchison ( 2009 , p. 905) has pointed to the growing pressure for “productivity and student output” that universities are exerting on both doctoral researchers and their supervisors. In many universities, efforts to link doctoral outputs with universities’ research productivity have intensified (Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Burford et al., 2021 ; Mason, 2018 ). For some researchers (e.g. Burford, 2017 ; Huang, 2020 ; Paré, 2019 ), the overemphasis on getting published along the doctoral journey has meant that writing as intellectual induction and academic discovery has been replaced by writing as productivity. In their view, doctoral writing has been altered from a “transformative rhetorical experience” (Paré, 2019 , p. 33) to a “preservation of market productivity” (Huang, 2020 , p. 10), something many universities seem to favour. Universities, however, are not the only source of pressure for published outputs that doctoral researchers experience (Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Huang, 2020 ). Real or perceived, demands of future academic jobs and expectations of external examiners represent other sources of stress and anxiety as confirmed by the data from the present study.

On the other hand, several studies (e.g. Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Huang, 2020 ; Mason, 2018 ) have also identified the benefits of publishing during doctoral studies for both securing a job and career progression in academia (Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Huang, 2020 ). Mason ( 2018 ) goes as far as to say that publishing as a doctoral researcher can be an indication of greater research productivity. Coupled with this, studies have emphasised the advantages of writing for publication as a learning-to-write-and-publish process, especially in the case of joint publications with supervisors (e.g. Carter et al., 2020 ; Carter & Kumar, 2017 ; Huang, 2020 ; Mason, 2018 ), as some of the participants in this study mentioned. However, research (e.g. Mason, 2018 ) has also found out that joint publications may sometimes be evaluated less favourably by examiners as it is not always easy to determine how much of the resulting outcome belongs to the doctoral researcher. Similarly, collaboration between students and supervisors may be more frequent in some disciplines (e.g. science and engineering) than others (e.g. humanities) due to the type of studies favoured in each, which may disadvantage some doctoral researchers over others. Co-authoring is, nevertheless, gradually becoming a common feature of doctoral writing across the board (Huang, 2020 ).

A second area of interest that existing research has focused on relates to the importance for doctoral researchers to establish positive relationships with both their supervisory team and peers. Key aspects that have been identified in connection to the relationship with their supervisors include negotiating a productive work pattern, building trust and co-authoring for publication (Crater & Kumar, 2017 ; Carter and Laurs, 2018 ; Huang, 2020 ; McAlpine et al., 2020 ; Wei et al., 2019 ; Wisker, 2012 ; Wisker et al., 2010 ; to mention just a few). Coupled with this, some existing literature has also looked at other writing relationships that doctoral researchers establish. Cotterall ( 2011 ), for example, examined the practices of two doctoral students as subject cases. Although her work focused on effective pedagogies for supporting the development of doctoral researchers as writers, Cotterall concluded that doctoral writing should be framed as learning through participation in a community of practice. This approach would bring to the forefront the relationships between those involved in writing as practice, considering both doctoral researchers as newcomers and their supervisors as experts, something Aitchison and Lee ( 2006 ) call the “sociality of writing” (p. 271). This relational approach to doctoral writing for both study and publication purposes would also help to relieve some of the anxiety and stress associated with writing a thesis and for publication as the responsibilities can be shared among the doctoral researchers and their supervisory team (Paré, 2019 ).

Along similar lines in her study on writing groups (WGs), Aitchison ( 2009 , p. 906) found that opportunities to reflect with peers and provide them with feedback are not always part of the relational activities offered to doctoral writers despite the benefits that these practices can bring along (Aitchison & Lee, 2006 ; Caffarella & Barnett, 2000 ; Cotterall, 2011 ; Johnson, 2018 ), an aspect which has also emerged from the present study. She further argues that such opportunities for social interaction around text offer “a rich site for the study of how writing is learnt and performed through social activity” (p. 907). From a disciplinary perspective, Odena and Burgess ( 2017 ) have argued for the analysis and discussion of discipline-specific texts among doctoral peers as an effective way of learning to write academically. Such examination and dialogue among peers would help students to master the central discourses in their disciplines and develop more appropriate levels of disciplinary criticality in their writing. Despite a few notable exceptions (e.g. Carter et al., 2020 ; Kamler, 2010 ; Martinez & Graf, 2016 ), there is little published work on the writing relationships that doctoral researchers establish with other doctoral students, and how they develop. As later explored in connection to the data of the present study, such relationships play an important role in the writing development of doctoral researchers.

Despite this impressive body of literature, of which we have only offered a snapshot here, and the issues and challenges it has managed to identify, we still know little about how doctoral researchers navigate their writing trajectories, the strategies they use to deal with challenges, and what and who helps to shape their writing experiences. This may have resulted from the rather snapshot perspective that some research has adopted to examine doctoral writing. To this end, a considerable body of recent studies (e.g. Carter et al., 2020 ; Bazerman, 2018 ; Bazerman et al., 2017 ; Tarabochia & Madden, 2018 ; Tustin et al., 2018) has called for researching doctoral writing from a developmental or trajectorial perspective as we argue in this article. Bazerman ( 2018 ), for instance, has remarked that this perspective is needed as writing development is a complex and highly individual process that presents challenges, contradictions and tensions which can only be captured longitudinally. Bazerman’s argument is echoed in Tarabochia and Madden’s ( 2018 ) work which also conceptualises writing development as located, complex and recursive. Tusting et al., ( 2018 , p. 404) further expand on these ideas by recommending that in researching writing development a range of social context aspects such as “identity, multimodality, purpose, power and access, and skills and dispositions” must be attended to. Despite these calls, little empirical research has been published from a trajectorial perspective.

At the same time, doctoral writing needs to be located in its broader context of production and consumption by examining who and what supports and becomes an integral part of the processes of writing as represented in Fig.  1 . This consideration, however, cannot be limited to supervisors. As Burford et al., ( 2021 : 9) have recently argued in the introduction of their edited collection “we need to understand what writers actually do when they write, as well as the role that others can play in the writing process”. A trajectorial lens on doctoral writing would also consider peers and reviewers as legitimate participants in the processes of doctoral writing. As we will further discuss in the next sections, an examination of the writing trajectories of doctoral researchers would facilitate access to such participants, the roles they play and at what stage of the writing processes they come into play as multiple versions of writing are produced and consumed.

figure 1

The draft-review-revise processes in doctoral writing for publication

The exploratory study reported in this article aims to add to the existing research by examining through a trajectorial lens how six doctoral researchers at different stages of their candidature went about writing. This trajectorial approach has contributed to our understanding of the challenges, strategies, and relationships involved in writing along the trajectories of these doctoral researchers. At the same time, it has thrown some light on who and what supports doctoral researchers as academic and professional writers, and more importantly, at what point of the doctoral trajectory these things happen. The results of applying such a perspective have informed a few suggestions for pedagogical interventions at specific stages of the writing trajectory of individual doctoral researchers.

The questions the study set out to answer were:

What main challenges did the doctoral researchers in the study face at different stages of their writing development?

What strategies did they deploy to deal with the challenges?

What writing relationships did they establish? How did such relationships influence writing along their trajectory?


Aims and procedures.

The research reported on in this article aimed to examine the main challenges six doctoral researchers faced, the strategies they used to deal with such challenges, and the relationships they established along their writing trajectories, focusing on the texts that they had produced for publication in parallel to their doctoral thesis. Multiple, rather than single, versions of such texts were examined in order to bring to the fore patterns and directions of travel within the written texts (Gimenez, et al., 2020 ). By following the processes of drafting, reviewing and redrafting the same text over time, this research aims to reveal the complexity of the practices involved in doctoral writing experienced by the participants as well as the different agents involved in such practices. In designing the research, a model of the writing processes (draft, review and revise) was developed (see Fig.  1 ) to aid in drawing out the processes of production and consumption of a particular text over time. Looking at writing in this way was important to examine doctoral writing from a trajectorial perspective.

To ascertain what was happening at each stage of this process, a trajectorial lens was applied. This methodological tool, illustrated in Fig.  2 , allowed us to trace the developmental path of doctoral writing along space and time. To this end, a mix of interviews and textual analysis of documents was undertaken. Two interviews of a semi-structured nature were conducted with the participants covering different stages of their doctoral trajectory. These semi-structured interviews [INT] allowed for free-flowing conversation about academic writing in general and writing for publication in particular. Interviewees were selected through a combination of seeking volunteer respondents and then selecting those who had “particular experiences” (Blee & Taylor, 2002 : 92) in relation to writing beyond their thesis (e.g. for publication). Between the interviews, the participants shared drafts and iterations of the work they were producing, including comments from reviewers, supervisors and, where applicable, peers. Thus, the second interview was actually a talk-around-text (Ivanic, 1998 ; Ivanic & Satchwell, 2008 ) discussion [TAT] which provided insights into the practices, agents and challenges involved in drafting and redrafting of their doctoral texts.

figure 2

A trajectorial lens on doctoral writing

The participants and their writing context

As shown in Table 1 , the participants were doing doctoral studies in a number of knowledge areas and were investigating topics that showed a range of disciplinary interests. Five were studying on a full-time basis and one was a part-time doctoral researcher although this did not show any significant differences in the data collected. The participants were at different stages of their doctoral trajectory.

The participants were enrolled on a doctoral research programme in their own disciplines at a university in London. The programmes are co-ordinated by the Graduate School of the university, and they facilitated access to the participants by circulating an invitation to all doctoral research students once ethical clearance was obtained by the researchers. Besides writing for their dissertation, most researchers on doctoral programmes at the university are strongly encouraged to write for publication before they are examined.

Data collection and analysis

As mentioned above, the study collected the lived experiences of six doctoral researchers on two occasions: a semi-structured interview and a talk-around text discussion. In order to fully understand the materials collected through interviews and various iterations of writing, it was important to undertake a structured and systematic review of the data collected. Following the work of Saldaña ( 2021 ), interviews and discussions underwent a process of first and second cycle coding—including eclectic coding, simultaneous coding, writing memos, and theming. All interviews followed an interview protocol and guide, but allowed interviewees to elaborate on certain points or to bring new ideas into the discussion. The design of the protocol and guide was informed by existing literature (e.g. Aitchison & Guerin, 2014 ; Badenhorst et al., 2021 ; Huang, 2020 ) and adapted to support the trajectorial perspective of the study. The guide, which interrogated aspects of doctoral trajectories such as research area, challenges and achievements, approaches to and processes of writing, writing relationships, and writing for publication, was updated and added to throughout the research as new themes and patterns began to emerge. Talk-around-text discussions were guided by the analysis of the drafts the participants had made available to the researchers.

The data collected were examined in order to reveal the way in which writing changed or was preserved through different iterations of the writing process and to provide context relating to how, in their production and consumption trajectories (Gimenez et al., 2020 ), texts become “associated to a new context and accompanied by a particular metadiscourse which provides a sort of ‘preferred reading’ for the [new] discourse” (Blommaert, 2005 : 47). Such examinations allowed for a deeper understanding of the challenges the participants faced, the strategies deployed to deal with the challenges, and the relationships they established at different stages of their doctoral trajectory.

In all, three top level codes and 14 sub-themes were identified and used in the analysis of the interviews and talk-around-text discussions (see Table 2 ).

Findings and discussions

The findings have been grouped into challenges, strategies, and relationships, following the research questions of the study.

Developing and displaying expertise

The tension between feeling an expert and displaying expertise has often been explored in the literature on doctoral writing (e.g. Carter et al., 2020 ; Casanave, 2019 ; Huang, 2020 ; Kellogg, 2006 ). The data from the present study have revealed that the participating doctoral researchers also experienced a strong sense of “impostor syndrome” (Nori & Vanttaja, 2022 ). They reported strong pressure to display expertise in the topic they were researching as a “rite of passage”. This is possibly the result of how doctoral programmes in countries like the UK have been set up. On these programmes, doctoral researchers are not registered as such until they have been upgraded after one or two years into the programme. The upgrade system requires candidates to show they have developed substantive expertise in their field of research as well as in academic writing to merit being upgraded to doctoral status. This type of enrolment system seems, at the same time, to be part of a larger contextual and power structure where the display of expertise serves as the rite of passage to being considered of doctoral standard.

From a trajectorial perspective, our data showed at what point in the trajectory the need to display expertise is the strongest (also see Fig.  2 ). At the beginning of their doctoral trajectory, interviewees showed the typical signs of the impostor syndrome. As NO3PT mentioned, “I…I was not, I I wouldn’t… I wouldn’t have even pretended to be an expert in the area you know…” [INT]. However, as they progressed along their trajectories, the feeling of being an impostor diminished and a sense of expertise in both their disciplinary knowledge and writing capabilities started to develop. This sense was sometimes even reinforced by comments from supervisors. As AP4FT expressed:

I think there was one instance where they were reading over a chapter and um my main supervisor put a note in the text which they said something like you’re the you’re now the expert on this bit … [INT].

However, our data indicated that the need to display expertise, but not the impostor syndrome, resurfaces again towards the end of the trajectory when doctoral researchers have to put their chapters into a coherent narrative for submission, and prepare for the viva. As SB4FT mentioned when they referred to their final submission “…making sure my supervisors and the examiners too realise I know what I’m talking about.”

As suggested by previous research (e.g. Carter et al., 2020 ; Casanave, 2019 ; Huang, 2020 ), the data from the present study indicated that owning and displaying expertise is a recurrent challenge faced by doctoral researchers. At the same time, our data have also highlighted the specific points along their trajectory when showing expertise feels more crucial, something which would have been lost without a trajectorial lens. This should help to design pedagogic interventions to support them at specific times as we suggest later in the paper.

Pressure to publish

The second main challenge that emerged from the data relates to pressure to publish. As mentioned in the literature (e.g. Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Huang, 2020 ), many doctoral researchers feel under pressure to publish their work at some point in their doctoral trajectory. From the trajectorial perspective, three most significant aspects of such pressure emerged from the participants’ narratives: the nature of the pressure, the time when it happens and intensifies, and its negative consequences. As to its nature, and different from what has been reported in the existing literature (e.g. Aitchison, 2009 ; Huang, 2020 ), participants experienced more internal than external pressure to publish. Some of them reported they wished to pursue a career in academia and so they felt that they needed to have some publications even before they applied for a teaching job. Others thought that having publications, which they could refer to in their doctoral thesis, would be seen in a favourable light by the external examiners as publications may help to strengthen the quality of their work. However, they admitted not having discussed this with their supervisors, emphasising the internal nature of the pressure. EC3FT mentioned that they had developed a certain degree of internal pressure after discussing the importance of publishing with their peers. They particularly felt the pressure when peers spoke about either their published papers or their ambition to publish, thus making EC3FT wonder whether they should also be doing the same.

The following quotes from our interview data reflect the nature of the pressure to publish experienced by some of the participants. Although external factors (e.g. expectations of job interviewers and examiners) may have triggered a sense of pressure in the participants, the language they used to refer to this pressure (e.g. “I know…”, “I understood…”, “If I was going to make the case…”, “…you wonder what am I doing…”) seems to indicate that the pressure had already been internalised at the time of being interviewed:

SB4FT: I know that in order to to get a a lecturing position or a research position that you need to publish, preferably during your PhD you need a PhD and then then preferably some publications as well. [INT]. NO4FT: I understood that you know if I was going to make the case that you know this is a quality piece of work, I would need to get it published and so that’s the way I’ve kind of thought about it [INT]. EC3FT: …when I see the ambitions of other people like this is their ultimate goal probably this is when you feel some pressure, right? Like you wonder what am I doing or why I’m not so pressured to publish. [INT].

Another related aspect of the pressure to publish emerging from the data of this study refers to the stage at which it happens and the point at which it intensifies, which has been under-researched in the literature. Not surprisingly, participants who were in the early stages of their doctoral studies saw the value in the opportunity, but did not feel the pressure to publish as yet. One participant who was at the data collection phase of their research felt that there was little in the way of pressure. As they approached the end of the journey, however, some participants reported different “degrees of pressure”. Those that were nearing a middle point in their trajectory for instance, referred to feeling some sense of pressure, while those in their final year made explicit reference to being under pressure to publish. Obviously, the intensity of the pressure increased towards the end of the doctoral trajectory. One of the final year participants felt that they needed at least one publication before submitting their thesis, even when they were not pressured by their supervisor to do so:

NO3PT: I think you do need to have at least 2 to 3 publications. It could be even more or even less, but the bottom line is that you would need to kind of have at least one publication by the time you finish. [INT].

Our data have also shown that pressure to publish can also have negative consequences for doctoral researchers, especially those studying at universities which strongly encourage publication before thesis examination. One participant mentioned that, after having submitted a manuscript multiple times to different journals, they finally decided for a less prestigious journal with a higher acceptance rate but with a publishing fee charge (NO3PT: They’re not prestigious journals by any stretch of the imagination…You need to pay and it’s not cheap [TAT]). They thought this option was preferable to not having the manuscript published at all.

By the same token, examining where the pressure comes from and how widespread it is is also important for helping us to understand the ways in which these doctoral researchers might be supported in their desire and dispositions to publish, or to remove this pressure when it is seen as detrimental. What became clear from this study is that the pressure to publish is something that is highly internalised, as reflected in the interview responses by some of the respondents. While the literature suggests that pressure to publish comes from considerations around career progression (Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Huang, 2020 ) and improving productivity (Mason, 2018 ), these reasons were less explicitly reported by the participants of this study. Rather, interviewees noted that publishing was something they “were meant to have done” (SB4FT, INT). Others suggested there was a perception that everyone else was doing it, so it felt they had to be doing it too, the main pressure being the “ambition of other students” (EC3FT, INT).

Contrary to what previous research has suggested in terms of pressure to publish by universities (e.g. Aitchison, 2009 ; Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Mason, 2018 ), there was little evidence of such pressure in our study. However, the doctoral researchers nearing the end of their trajectories did feel an enormous pressure to get at least one publication “under their belt” before they finish their studies. This mismatch in expectations has led to some unintended consequences related to the support provided to doctoral researchers in their efforts to publish. The lack of pressure from supervisors—a position that reflects a caring and compassionate approach to supervision that tries to shield the researcher from other pressures so that they might focus on their work—might actually be having a detrimental effect. Rather than discouraging doctoral researchers from publishing, this position results in them attempting to publish—driven by the wider higher education expectation—with less support than might be required. Following a trajectorial perspective, consideration needs to be given to this balance in order to ensure doctoral researchers are given support to write for publication at the right time, while also ensuring that this does not transform into pressure to do so where this might be detrimental to their core research work.

Our data have also shown a series of strategies the doctoral researchers interviewed deployed to deal with the challenges they faced. In relation to developing writing expertise, AB1FT, for instance, recounts how they moved from analysing the writings of what they considered to be good writers in the field to imitating them:

… one of the strategies is that when I see experts writing and you get a sense of their writing styles. And that really helps me. So if I read an author I download a few articles from that particular author and I seem to get a sense of what, how they write whether it flows well […] So after a while you can start to discern a good writer from a not so good writer and so imitate the good ones. [INT].

Co-writing with more seasoned writers such as supervisors is another strategy that our participants used to develop as experts in both their discipline and in doctoral writing. When discussing their contributions to the content of a paper they had co-written with their supervisor, AB2FT said “Yeah this was learning in progress of both things [expertise in their area of research and in writing] and I think this will happen with every other article I will be co-writing.” [TAT]. Other interviewees also mentioned resorting to networking, including their supervisor’s professional connections, as a strategy not only to develop their expertise in the field but also to improve their future career prospects:

I have become more experienced and know more about my topic as I’ve expanded my network in academia and I think that has also improved the relationship with my supervisor because he’s a very well networked academic himself, kind of quite public which has helped [SB4FT, INT].

From a trajectorial perspective, our data have also shown the stages at which the strategies the participants had self-consciously developed became important: from analysing to imitating other writers at the beginning of the doctoral trajectory to co-writing with supervisors and other professionals towards its end.

Strategies to deal with the pressure to publish also emerged from the data. As mentioned above, AB2FT had co-authored a paper with their supervisor, a process which they found to be extremely helpful and supportive. They explained that their supervisor helped to structure the paper and that they reviewed each other’s sections of the work, a development strategy AB2FT had found very useful. They further mentioned that seeing how their supervisor responded to reviewers’ comments was also good modelling behaviour—both for future publication and in addressing comments related to their own thesis.

In the case of interviewees who had little opportunity for co-authorship or were unsupported in publishing on their own, other strategies were deployed. In the case of SB4FT, whose supervisor only suggested which journals to submit to, they turned to peers to have feedback on their draft papers even if this happened only sporadically. NO3PT’s supervisors were a little more involved but not to the point of “co-writing” as in AB2FT’s case. They therefore resorted to what may be considered a “negative strategy”, that is, submitting their work to prestigious journals and deciding after several rejections on a not-very-prestigious, pay-to-publish journal.


The existing literature has identified the role that the relationship with supervisors plays in doctoral studies, in particular in connection with establishing productive work patterns, building trust, dealing with feedback, and co-authoring for publication (e.g. Aitchison & Lee, 2006 ; Asante & Abubakari, 2021 ; Kamler & Thomson, 2006 ; Paré, 2019 ). It has also looked at relationships with peer doctoral researchers, especially in relation to peer feedback and disciplinary discussions (e.g. Aitchison, 2009 ; Odena & Burgess, 2017 ). Following a trajectorial approach, our study reveals some equally important relational aspects of doctoral writing.

Relationship with supervisory teams

As would be expected, the closest writing relationships are often established between the doctoral researchers and their supervisors, who could be considered the primary “literacy brokers” (Lillis & Curry, 2010 ). Although this term has previously been assigned to mediators in the texts of established academics, many doctoral students have aspirations to publish, and their degree of expertise in their chosen field may be in advance of already published writers. The participants in our study all acknowledged the influence of their supervisors in the development of writing, albeit with different expectations from the point of view of both doctoral researcher and supervisor. This seems to reflect wider issues of contextual and power structure by which supervisors who are experts in the field of research of their supervisees appear to be more involved in their supervisee’s writing trajectory. Both SB4FT and NO3PT felt that although they were given some advice on writing practices, they were mostly left to navigate the research process by themselves, as supervisors saw the doctoral researchers as self-directed and independent, or because they were not experts in their field.

The trajectorial approach of the present study has also revealed that the participants’ relationship with their supervisors was by no means static but developmental. An examination of how the participants at different stages of their trajectories referred to their relationship with supervisor and the roles they played shows the developmental aspect of relationships. These move from distant, directive and expert-to-novice at the beginning of the doctoral trajectory to more involved, academically and pastorally more supportive, and colleague-to-colleague as the relationship developed. As indicated in Fig.  2 , this type of relationship appeared “less developed but more important” at the beginning of the doctoral trajectory and “more accomplished and important” towards the end. This is illustrated by the following quotes:

I think our relationship is more involved now. It’s really getting to know the other person, so I I’m getting a better idea of what to expect and all of them looking for in terms of my research… (AB1FT, INT). I don’t only get their support for the writing and the things that I do for the PhD, but just so you know, some personal support. And they expect me to ask for help and advice. That's nice when you have good relationship with your supervisors. (AB2FT, INT). We’ve become.. moved more towards.. being colleagues rather than being a student teacher relationship (AP4FT, INT).

What seems important to note in the quotes above is that the main roles and expectations of both supervisors and doctoral researchers changed as their relationship developed. As they moved along their trajectory, doctoral researchers changed their expectations about the role of their supervisors (e.g. from directive to collegial) and their supervisors of them (e.g. from dependent to self-directed and independent). This important aspect of the supervisor-doctoral researcher relationship would have gone unnoticed should a snapshot research perspective had been taken.

Relationship with peers

Establishing and maintaining productive relationships through participation in a community of practice has been identified as a key element for the development of doctoral researchers (Cotterall, 2011 ). However, our data suggest limited opportunities for engagement in a community of practice (CoP), with any writing relationships serving more as a functional product of limited peer review activities. For example, AP4FT discussed how it was useful for them to have conversations with fellow doctoral researchers from a similar professional background as they had a mutual understanding of their topics, something which also contributes to developing their expertise. Discussions typically took place in informal settings such as a pub near the university, or in the university’s dedicated PhD room. During the COVID-19 pandemic, these informal meetings were no longer possible, although weekly Zoom meetings were set up for doctoral researchers to present and discuss their work. However, EC3FT, who was nearing the end of their doctoral trajectory, felt very protective of their work and believed that sharing it or participating in a CoP would be intimidating and even possibly detrimental to their progress. Other participants, notably SB4FT and ON3PT, acknowledged that engagement with other doctoral researchers was at best sporadic, and both would have appreciated a more developed sense of a CoP. One reason for CoP not being established and maintained was a lack of formal taught modules, where new doctoral researchers could form both working and personal connections with peers.

The relational approach to peer writing (Aitchison & Lee, 2006 ), where doctoral researchers are encouraged to engage in writing as a social event, was not something that participants were familiar with. Our findings correlate with the experiences of other doctoral researchers in which good practice in relational activities was recognised but not experienced (Aitchison & Lee, 2006 ; Caffarella & Barnett, 2000 ; Cotterall, 2011 ; Johnson, 2018 ). There were different but related reasons among participants of this study why WGs were not exploited as means of fostering peer engagement. SB4FT admitted that they did not find the university, and especially the library at their campus, a motivating place to work. They added that it was primarily because they did not live near the campus, and that living in a smaller city might have made a difference. Similarly, NO3PT expressed a preference for working from home, as a shared office space for writing was not an attractive proposition. In both these cases, the lack of an inviting common space and of a sense of academic community was a barrier to establishing WGs.

Unlike WGs, activities based around peer review were a more appealing idea. Although being at the start of their trajectory and having not yet started writing, AB1FT recognised that engaging in writing activities with peers would be beneficial. Interestingly, they expressed a desire for peer review from other disciplines as this would expose them to a wider variety of writing styles and research methods. Their desire challenges much of the current literature (cf., Doody, 2021 ) which does not feature the benefits of interdisciplinary peer review. Additionally, peer review can sometimes be seen as not equally beneficial for all participants. For example, SB4FT mentioned that when engaging in peer review activities they were doing more for others. Doctoral researchers may be less likely to participate in such activities if they perceive it as not being cost effective in terms of the time and effort invested. Furthermore, if doctoral researchers are not made aware of the benefits of peer review, or not given the opportunity to take part in it, while recognising the roles their peers can play, then the forging of potentially valuable professional relationships could be missed.

Pedagogic interventions

As doctoral researchers move along their trajectory, the challenges they face and the relationships they have established change, thus producing new realities and needs. For instance, as they near the end of their trajectory, they feel more in control of disciplinary expertise and they may start to feel the need to get their work published. Similarly, the recognition of expertise in their research areas and academic writing by their supervisors changes the nature and dynamic of their relationship, creating a new set of expectations and exerting new pressures. This developmental view calls for a set of pedagogical interventions that take into account the changes that doctoral researchers experience along their trajectory and the stages at which they would be more effective. Some such interventions are presented in the following.

Writing as participation in a doctoral community of practice

As doctoral researchers develop from novices to experts in their disciplines and academic and professional writing, the support they are provided with could be scaffolded to reflect such development and thus be offered when most needed. For instance, interventions could begin by organising relational activities to bring together doctoral researchers supervised by the same team. These activities would offer opportunities for the analysis and discussion (consumption) of disciplinary texts among peers. Building upon this, a second phase of the intervention could bring participants together with a view to co-authoring (production) such texts. In universities that have an academic writing team to support doctoral researchers like ours, writing workshops and retreats could be organised to provide doctoral researchers with a space for sharing experiences and useful developmental strategies. This would also create opportunities for reflective practices between newcomers and experts, leading to the development of expertise in their research areas and specific genres which are central to their disciplines, including the doctoral thesis.

Writing as relations development in a doctoral community of practice

As doctoral researchers advance in their trajectory, relationships become more central to the development of their disciplinary and writing expertise, as our data have shown. An effective way of supporting them is by setting up WGs as the existing literature has demonstrated (e.g. Aitchison, 2009 ; Aitchison & Guerin, 2014 ). Although organised mostly for doctoral researchers, these groups may also include supervisors who could play different roles (e.g. mentors, readers, co-authors), depending on their expertise, availability and disposition. A scaffolded version of WGs could provide face-to-face and/or virtual spaces for working with peers first, and may include supervisors at a later stage, thus providing opportunities for relationships to develop in nature and dynamics: peer-to-peer, novice-to-novice, novice-to-expert, and expert-to-expert.

Writing as participation in a larger community of practice

As discussed above, publishing seems to become a concern for most doctoral researchers at some stage of their trajectory. Thus, doctoral researchers concerned with publishing their work could be supported by means of specific interventions which cover issues ranging from choosing an appropriate journal for their work and meeting its requirements for publication to creating a quality manuscript, dealing with reviewer feedback and the politics of publishing. Ideally, these interventions could include activities involving the analysis and discussion of previously published manuscripts in the chosen journals. This could be complemented by recorded advice on how to get published by journal editors and reviewers, supervisors, and writing specialists. Many journals now include video clips with such advice. In this way, the complexities and dynamics of publishing could be unpacked more effectively, and the negative consequences resulting from the pressure to publish minimised.


There are two main limitations to this study. Firstly, it only followed the trajectory of a very limited number of participants ( n  = 6). This has a direct effect on the generalizability of the results. We cannot know, for example, whether other doctoral researchers in our university, let along other institutions, experience the same challenges, deploy similar or different strategies, and establish similar or different relationships with supervisors and peers. Secondly, the data have been collected from one university in the UK. Thus, the results reported here may be rather idiosyncratic and lack wider representation.

The exploratory study reported in this article examined writing practices within the context of a programme for doctoral researchers at a London university. In particular, it examined the development of disciplinary and writing expertise, and the increasing pressure to publish as key challenges faced by the doctoral researchers participating in the study. It also looked at the strategies they used to deal with such challenges, and the relationships with supervisors and peers that they established and developed along their doctoral trajectory, and how these influenced or failed to have an impact on their writing development.

Despite its limitations, a number of observations have emerged from the analysis of the data. First, the role of supervisory teams in contributing to and even developing both disciplinary and writing expertise should be examined as it changes at different stages of the trajectory of doctoral researchers. This could also help supervisors decide when they are mostly needed and when they could take a back seat. Secondly, the strategies that doctoral researchers self-consciously develop from interactions with supervisors and peers to become experts in their fields and to cope with a number of challenges could be more widely discussed so that other doctoral researchers could benefit. Thirdly, both supervisors and their doctoral researchers would benefit from becoming aware that the different stages along the doctoral trajectory may pose different challenges but many also bring about new opportunities like co-writing for publication with supervisors and peers.

We are aware that the exploratory nature of the study requires more data to further explore these emerging tendencies in the trajectories of doctoral researchers. It would be interesting to further investigate this specific area of study in a series of larger scale studies in a number of different international contexts, following a trajectorial perspective. We hope this paper will serve as a springboard for such studies.

Data Availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author.

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Article Writing

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There is so much to read and learn these days. Have you noticed how your favourite bloggers or writers come up with unique content on new topics almost every day? In the digital era, writers have to be extra careful about how they present their ideas. It should be collated in such a way that it influences a larger audience at the same time. However, article writing is not everyone’s cup of tea and needs creative thinking .  Whether you want to pursue Content Writing courses or want to flourish your Journalism career , adhering to the structure along with presenting ideas in a well-structured way is what a writer needs to take care of. Yes, even articles have a distinct structure. Before delving into how to write an article should look, let us first understand the basics of it. 

How To Be A Content Writer? [Step-by-Step 2022 Guide]

This Blog Includes:

What is article writing, objectives of article writing, tips for writing a good article, heading or title, byline or name of the author, body of the article, step 1: find your target audience, step 2: select a topic and an attractive heading, step 3: research is the key, step 4: write and proofread, step 5: add images and infographics, sample of article writing, article writing on covid-19 for students, article on my vision of india in the future, article writing topics, common mistakes to avoid in article writing, points to keep in mind, ppt on article writing , scope of article writing.

Playing a major role in society, an article is a piece of information that is written to influence or provide information to people at large. The form and the style of article writing may vary from one topic or writer to another. Yet, an ideal article provides all the relevant factual information to the people which catches their attention, allows them to think and triggers them to act. There are several types of articles, including:

An article must be written with the following objectives in mind:

Here’s a step-by-step guide with plenty of helpful hints to help you write an excellent article in no time:

Know the Difference Between an Author and a Writer !

Article Writing Format

Whatever you wish to write, it is important for you to first know the structure of the article and then mention the details accordingly. Divided mainly into 3 sections- Heading, Byline and Body , let us have a look at the article writing format you should keep in mind while composing your piece of information.

The first thing to be noticed and the most important component in article writing is the heading/title. To draw the attention of the readers, it is important to give a catchy heading of not more than 5 to 6 words to the article. 

Below the title comes the byline which states the name of the author who has written the article. This part helps the writer earn the actual credit that they deserve.

The body consists of the main content of an article. Be it story writing or article writing, it is completely upon the author to fix the length of the composition and the number of paragraphs that would embed the information. Generally, an article contains 3 or 4 paragraphs wherein, the first paragraph introduces the readers to what the article will be about and all the prerequisite information. The second and third paragraphs will cover the crux of the topic and here, all the relevant data, case studies and statistics are presented. Following this, the fourth paragraph will conclude the article where the solutions to the problems, as presented in the second and third passages (if any) will be discussed. 

Also Read: How to Write a Book?

Step By Step Guide for Article Writing 

After knowing the format, let us have a look at the 5 simple steps involved in the process of article writing: 

Before writing on any topic, it is important for a writer to first identify the audience the article targets. It can be a particular group of people, children, students, teenagers, young adults, middle-aged, elderly people, business people, service class, etc. Whichever group of people you choose to write for, select a topic that directly or indirectly impacts their lives or spreads the relevant information. 

For example, if the article focuses on parents, then you might write about child psychology, the daily nutritional diet of a child, etc. The tone and the language should also match the suitable audience in article writing. 

After you have chosen your target audience, the second important step in article writing is to choose an apt topic for your composition. This gives an idea of how you should process with the article. After you select the topic, then think of an intriguing title for the same. 

For example, if you want to make the students aware of the various MBA specializations available, you can write – “ Everything you need to know about MBA specializations ”.

Consequent to selecting your targeted audience, topic and title of the article, research is the most important thing in article writing. Read umpteen articles, statistics, facts, data, and new governing laws (if any) to get a hang of all the information to be incorporated in the article. Additionally, check the authenticity of the data, so that you do not state anything outdated. Before proceeding with the article writing, prepare a rough draft or an outline of the article in bullet points and keywords so that you don’t miss out on the important information. 

Once you have collected all the facts and data, you can now begin your article writing. As discussed, start the article with an introductory paragraph, followed by a descriptive and a concluding paragraph. After you have written everything, it is pertinent to proofread your entire article and check whether there are any grammatical errors. As a reader, it becomes a major turn-off when you spot even the minutest of a mistake. Also, make sure that the content is not copied from some other website. 

To make your content even more attractive for people to read, you can also include some infographics. Adding images makes the article even more engaging and it proves to be more influential. Thus making the purpose of your article writing successful!

Given below is a sample that can give you more clarity on how to write an impeccable article: 

Know What is Technical Writing !

Covid -19 for Students By Sahil

Covid-19 has affected all sections of human life. While it affected all industry sectors it has a major impact on education. Classes were switched from offline to online at night but it created confusion among students, especially the ones that were about to enter college. Students even took a gap year hoping for the situation to get better. While schools and colleges are opening because vaccination is in full swing across the globe there are still many challenges.

Understanding COVID-19, how it spreads, and how to protect ourselves are the most important things to be learned first as soon as the school reopens. Students should know the rules they are going to follow and the benefits of following the covid-19 Safety Rules in the School Classroom. It’s very difficult to make the children understand because innocent minds may not get acquainted with the current situation.

To avoid the risk of contracting the Covid- 19, these rules should be followed by every student and school faculty at all times. Students must carry hand sanitisers at all times. Students should never sneeze on their hands, rather they should cover them with their elbows, or may use a tissue or a handkerchief. Inform students not to touch their eyes, nose, and mouth frequently. As chances are high that the virus gets spread through the touching of the eyes and nose. If students and teachers follow these basic rules, the spread can be stopped and schools can reopen.

My Vision of India in the Future By Aayush

Most of us have a psychological barrier to looking at India’s future vision, and those who perceive the future as coming straight out of the present typically have their perspective narrowed as well. I believe that the year 2050 will belong to individuals who strive to recognise diversity as a virtue in and of itself, rather than as a tool for combating new mental monocultures or a necessary compromise for social and ethical concord. In the future, India will be in the centre of the world, with variety valued as a goal in itself. My vision statement is neither a forecast of what will happen nor a wish list of desirable but unreachable goals.

It’s a statement of what we believe our country can achieve, given the level of concern that our current youth has about issues like corruption, pollution, and mismanagement of natural resources, among other things. Recognize that the elements that affect national development have changed in recent years and will continue to change in the future when imagining India in 2050. This is expected to create more opportunities than ever before.

The expanding impact and influence of India in domains such as technology, education, information, and productive skills supports the belief that India will attain and sustain higher economic growth and development in the decades ahead.

writing an article questions

Do you have to write an article that is trending right now and will help you score better or help you practice better? Here is the list of current topics for article writing:

Explore some Creative Writing Topics

The likelihood of errors increases now that you understand the phases of article writing and the article writing format. The following are some examples of common blunders: 

6 Recommended Travel Writing Courses

Whether you want to work as an article writer for your current employer or make a name for yourself in the journalism world, your voice and skill are in high demand. What matters is that you keep writing and learning.

The road may be difficult at first. Even if you have a good idea of who you are as a writer and where you fit best, there will be obstacles. At first, every writer experiences this.

Or you may have no idea what intrigues you or what format works best with your natural writing strengths. Keep your cool! You’ll keep learning as you go. When your work is published and assignments begin to flood your inbox, the road will become smoother.

When written well, it becomes a natural part of the audience’s experience. Article writers influence how content is presented and how people think. Even when trying to write someone else’s vision, your talent makes it worthwhile to read.

An article is a piece of information that is written to influence or provide information to people at large. The form and the style of article writing may vary from one topic or writer to another.

Not using facts or quotes or similar cases Using a tone that is too formal Using difficult vocabulary without knowing its meaning Not using a catchy title for your article No use of paragraphs to bifurcate information Not expressing personal views or opinions

The style of article writing varies from one topic or writer to another.

Thus, article writing is a form of art that improves only with practice and the right approach. If you want to pursue a career in a field where writing plays an essential role but are confused about the program then take the assistance of Leverage Edu ’s AI tool which will curate a list of the most suitable universities and courses that align with your professional goals!

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