Criminal Investigation Essay

what is special crime investigation essay

Criminal Investigation Research Paper

Ever wonder just how investigations are conducted? Or how detectives can figure out what seems to be impossible? The answer is simple, it lies in the process of Criminal Investigation. Criminal Investigations are used to find, analyze, and process evidence and information useful to the crime scene. Criminal Investigations help solve crimes ranging from a simple B&E to even murder. On television and shows such as, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Investigations are not always accurate. Not only are

Criminal Profiling In Criminal Investigations

Criminal profiling is a technique used to identify the major personality and behavioral characteristics of an individual based upon the characteristics of the crime they have committed (Douglas et al. 1986,p.405). This technique has become increasingly popular and notorious through its exaggerated use in television and other popular media. Particularly in the movie Silence of the Lambs a thriller in which criminal profiling is used to apprehend a serial killer. There is no doubt that due to its popularity

Patterns Of Criminal Investigation

that every American has watched or read something about a criminal investigation. With so many popular shows, movies, and books all with the same basic plot, it is almost impossible not to. Criminal Investigation stories are everywhere, including in a recent Disney movie where a bunny must solve a seemly unsolvable case and catch the bad guy. The stories always follow a similar pattern. The hero detectives invoke on a criminal investigation to solve a case, they collect evidence and begin to solve

Criminal Investigation Process

Police officers and detectives play vital roles in the detection, investigation, and solving of crimes. In order to effectively solve a crime, it is imperative that a series of procedural steps occur. It is extremely crucial that the steps be completed in the proper order, never taking any time-saving methods or skipping of steps. Furthermore, if steps in the investigation process are skipped or not executed properly, your case has just been compromised, resulting in the possibility of an inaccurate

Criminal Investigation Summary

On August 31, 2015, this investigator was assigned an internal investigation to review the Special Investigations Unit (SIU) domestic violence investigation and arrest of Officer Johnn “Jason” Scott from an August 26, 2015, incident at his house at 6140 S. Franklin Rd. in Marion County. The allegation is Officer Scott strangled Lola “Courtney” Everette during a domestic dispute. The officer’s actions scratched, bruised and caused pain to Ms. Everette’s neck. There were four juveniles (Aubrey Everett

Criminal Investigation Effectiveness

When it comes to the effectiveness of the American Criminal Justice System meeting its goals, I’ve generally always had a good opinion about how effective the goals are met. There are some cases that have happened in the past and some even more recently were I believe the goals were not met effectively. For example, when the lead detective, Steve Thomas, was working the JonBenét Ramsey case, the Ramsey’s attorneys and others that were part of Team Ramsey did not want to help Detective Thomas solve

Evidence plays a vital role throughout criminal investigations. Typically, we think of evidence as things such as fingerprints, DNA, and fibers. However, evidence as evolved as the world of technology has expanded. Digital evidence also now plays just as much of an important role as traditional evidence. When beginning an investigation that involves digital evidence, it is important for the investigator to know what evidence to look for. Identification of evidence, collection including transportation

Synthesizing In The Criminal Investigation Process

Synthesizing criminal investigation involves integration new information with that of existing information to create an original impression, a new viewpoint, or form a new view of thinking to achieve an awareness. Synthesizing process has a complex method of comprehension strategies. This process happens if we are taking in the valued meaning throughout the information that is read. Our understanding of the criminal investigation is enhancing as we read more of the provide information, (Bynum, T

Several investigation agencies adopt different investigation techniques for every crime committed. However, these investigative techniques follow four major stages in criminal investigation which include; 1. Preliminary Investigation Preliminary investigation involves the collection of information from the victims or witnesses of the crime. This is always the first step to a crime response and is usually done by the patrol officer. These preliminary investigations are aimed at collecting information

Investigation Of The Criminal Justice Process

The criminal justice process begins with a report of violation of the law by a citizen or witnessed by a police officer first hand. Then after it is investigated where the police officer is to come to the area or scene of the incident to determine the extent and nature of the crime committed. Where sometimes an arrest is made on the scene of the incident and statements of the witnesses or evidence are taken to obtain evidence of the crime. In some cases there is a preliminary investigation where

Case Analysis : Criminal Investigation

what was discussed in the textbook, as well as what has been discussed during lecture. The body of this paper will examine the case of Pamela Foddrill and compare what happened in that real criminal investigation to the theory of criminal investigation discussed in our course textbook, Criminal Investigation: The Art and the Science. I will first examine the forensics evidence and

Confidential Informants And Criminal Investigations

This chapter provides insight on controversial issues troubling the criminal justice system, such as the use of confidential informants, three strikes laws, life without parole, and sex offenders, which is no doubt relative to prison overcrowding in the United States. The most question raised is which issue has been the most detrimental to this nation and should be eradicated immediately? This question is relatively difficult for me to answer, because I think they equally contributed to the prison

Miranda Warnings In Criminal Investigations

determine is whether the type of questioning is part of a criminal or administrative investigation (Doerner, 2012). Under Miranda warnings, an officer cannot be compelled to make a statement or answer questions if they could incriminate themselves criminally. That officer would also be in a custodial situation and was not free to go. If the officer chooses to make a statement and/or answer questions, they can be used against the officer in criminal proceedings. It should be standard practice for investigators

Anonymous Informant In Criminal Investigation

category may be highly reliable, and, as such, “a strong showing as to other indicia of reliability may be unnecessary. The second class of informants is the known informant from the criminal world who has provided previous reliable tips. This informant has established a relationship with the authorities, both as a criminal and as a past informant with accurate information and a willingness to cooperate. Because of this, law enforcement tends to value these types of tips as somewhat reliable.

Investigation Of The Criminal Justice Essay

disclose the overview of the criminal justice, especially in America. The result from the interview of one of the fractioned for instance, the attorney in the criminal justice will be the cornerstone of this report. In this case, the Attorney’s view about criminal justice will be thoroughly analyzed and compared with other sources to bring out the bright image of the criminal justice in America. The arguments of whether there is the efficient administration of the criminal justice system, their methodologies

Pursuing A Career In Criminal Investigations

working. Some careers out there that I find interesting are Criminal Investigators/Special Agents, Detectives/Criminal Investigators and First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives. They are all somewhat similar and fall into the same career field. They would all require a degree in Criminal Justice, which is what I plan on getting my degree in. A Criminal Investigator/ Special Agent is someone who Investigates alleged or suspected criminal violations of Federal, state, or local laws to determine

Constitutional Protections in Criminal Investigations

Running Head: CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTIONS IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS Constitutional Protections in Criminal Investigations What are constitutional rights and why are they so important to us? Our Constitutional rights are in place to protect us from wrongful conviction and improper police behavior. Originally these rights were made in reaction to the abusive conduct displayed by British authorities during Colonial times. Without the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, we would not be a

Criminal Investigation: Start to Finish

be in. With criminal investigations, which is my field of study can be the detectives, field officers or the crime scene technicians. The crime scene tech position is what I myself am going into. I believe that there is always going to be crime with that they would need the crime scene techs and they go out and process the crime scene without getting evidence and getting it process there as well not be a case. What I would like to let you know is how the techs start their investigations and what they

Eyewitness Testimony In Criminal Investigation

Eyewitness testimony has been questioned regarding its accuracy. Discuss the usefulness of an eyewitness in criminal investigations. Eyewitness testimonies is evidence given by people who have witnessed an event, such as a robbery. Eyewitness testimonies are useful as they can be used to help identify a criminal and lower the amount of suspects who are included. Police and similar services can use eyewitnesses to narrow down their searches by asking a series of questions about what they have witnessed

Essay about Dna in Criminal Investigation

Father!” to learning the descendents of former slaves are related to President Thomas Jefferson, we have come to rely upon and expect the accuracy of DNA. DNA almost immediately transformed the American Criminal Justice System. Law Enforcement, District Attorneys, Defense Attorneys, Criminal Court and Family Court all work

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Free Crime Investigation Essay Sample


Crime investigation is a process of gathering enough evidence of a crime that has been committed. The ultimate goal of gathering evidence is to determine the truth on how the crime occurred hence look for possible solutions.

Crime scene investigation

Police officers have powers of investigating criminal through following certain techniques to get the criminal. Patrol Investigation Policy is a policy designed to outline the procedures for patrol personnel when dealing with patrol investigations. Therefore, patrol officers should be given the responsibility of investigating the crime in order to gather enough evidence which will be used to get the criminals.

Evidence collection

Physical evidence is the most convincing evidence because it establishes its own reliability basis. Police and prosecutors can build cases when using physical evidence. In the homicide case, evidence can be evaluated and linked with a crime suspect. Evidence can either be individual or class characteristics. Individual evidence like footprints and finger prints can be used to detect the criminal.

Suspected blood stains should be photographed or measured and if possible the suspected blood stain should be taken and sampled. Victims should be examined and report submitted and fingernail scrapings of victims should be used by a medical doctor to investigate the crime.DNA test is important because blood or hair may give an evidence in a case where crime has occurred.

The investigator should photograph the print when collecting patent prints and encountered items found in the rooms like handguns. Evidence technicians may take investigators where the scene occurred and investigators should begin each role of film with a photograph.

Interviewing and questioning witnesses

The investigator should interview prospective witnesses. They should be questioned on what they saw or heard, what they can recall or what they can testify. Interviews and questions should be structured to cover all factors for instance; what was the witness doing when the crime took place? What was the time when crime took place? Can the witness remember and describe the events?

Surveillance methods and undercover operations

Surveillance measures and undercover operations should be struck between the privacy right of an individual and that of state to investigate serious criminals. For instance use of tracking devices. Interception, monitoring and communication network systems should be available. Special investigation methods like electronic surveillance and undercover operations should be within domestic framework.

Criminal investigators carry the responsibilities of gathering evidence and give it to the prosecutor to present it in court. The investigator helps the prosecutor to compile the facts in the case and thereby provide the testimony if needed.

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Essay On The Criminal Investigation Process

The criminal investigation process is able to achieve justice to a great to a great extent. They are effective in achieving justice, as they are able to balance the rights of the victim, offenders and society and also provide fair and just outcomes. For these reasons, the criminal investigation process is largely able to achieve justice. The success of the criminal investigation process in achieving justice can be seen through its efforts to balance the rights of the victim, offender and the community, this is evident in the areas of police powers and discretion. Police powers constitute police officers to exercise special powers such as search and seizure and the use of reasonable force. These powers are outlined in the Law Enforcement (Powers …show more content…

In this essay, the author

The process of gathering evidence largely depends on the role of discretion by the police. Once police have decided to pursue a reported crime , they then begin the process of gathering evidence. To ensure that the process of gathering evidence is lawful, the police must follow the procedure outlined in the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW), which describes the manner in which evidence can be collected. This act imposes certain limits on the way police can gather evidence and the types of evidence that can be used. The Act is able to protect the rights of citizens by making it a requirement for the police to gain necessary legal documentation, such as search warrants, in order to obtain some types of evidence and thus, protects the rights of ordinary systems. In more recent times, the use of technology has come to play a major role in the gathering of evidence and with this comes complications in the law. New technologies in relation to the criminal investigation process are mainly in reference to DNA evidence, genetic material that can place a suspect at the scene of a crime. The introduction of DNA evidence into the criminal investigation process has been extremely effective in achieving justice, as it is able to secure convictions. Initially, there were some setbacks to the use of DNA evidence …show more content…

This is one of the most important aspects of the criminal investigation process due to the fact that if the proper procedures aren’t followed, the validity of the case will be jeopardized. The Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW) outlines the conditions of which a person can be arrested and detained. A key term in the arresting process is ‘suspicion on reasonable grounds’ as this describes the discretion of the police in making arrests. Although for most arrests, a warrant is needed, police can arrest someone if they genuinely believe that the person is guilty of a crime. After a person has been arrested, they will be detained in a police station and this process is also outlined in the Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW). The Act outlines the rights a person who has been detained, such as refreshment periods, and the procedures that the police must follow, this is all done to help protect the rights of citizens. If a person is charged with a crime, they will either be put in remand or be allowed to post bail. Bail, also referred to as conditional freedom, allows a person to retain certain rights, such as spend their time awaiting trial in their home, and this is outlined in the Bail Act 1978 (NSW). Bail is a great example in the criminal trial process achieving justice, as the concept of bail seeks to

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Course info

Special crime investigation-2.


                Photo Source: Georgetown Peabody Library


Assistant Professor –I

                                               EDWIN A. IRENE Instructor-1

                                            College of Arts and Sciences

BS Criminology

A provider of relevant and quality education to a society where citizens are competent, skilled, dignified and community- oriented.

An academic institution providing technological, professional, research and extension programs to form principled men and women of competencies and skills responsive to local and global development needs.


Northwest Samar State University commits to provide quality outcomes-based education, research, extension and production through continual improvement of all its programs, thereby producing world class professionals.


Resilience.  Integrity.  Service.  Excellence .


Creative and critical thinkers

Life-long learners

Effective communicators

Morally and socially upright individuals


Table of Contents

Type chapter title (level 2) 2

Type chapter title (level 3) 3

Type chapter title (level 2) 5

Type chapter title (level 3) 6

This CDI-3 Course Module is developed by Prof. Alberto S. Nugal, MA Crim.

And Edwin A. Irene Instructor 1 for the students’ preparation for professional Investigation. This will guide the Instructor and students through their learning semester period. Students will have the idea what will be the next activity or what activities will they have by next meeting which he/she might consider for preparation in advance.

The Module can be used either by classroom interface or distance learning. The Module’s Manuscript shows the topics and subtopics followed by Graded Exercises. The students are required to look for the definitions, concepts and theories, explanations, functions, and lists of types and classifications from the official Textbooks and other references---printed and/or online.

Course Code: CDI-3


Course Description: This course covers the special study of modern technique in the investigation of crimes involving crimes against persons, and other related offenses. This course also introduces the application of medical science in crime investigation with emphasis on the medico-legal aspects of physical injuries, death, abortion, infanticide, burn and poisoning. It develops framework of investigating crimes, crime scene processing, and report writing. The course deals with the study of major crimes based on the application of special investigative techniques. Special Crime Investigation is consisting of special investigative techniques. It concentrates more on physical evidence, its collection, handling, identification and preservation in coordination with the crime laboratory special crime investigation. It involves a close relationship between the investigator in the field and the crime laboratory technician. They work together as a team and both must be competent and well trained, sharing and extending one another’s theories and finding, working patiently and thoroughly to know the truth from their criminal enquiries.

Philippines justice system, particularly the court, relies more on physical evidence rather than extra-judicial confessions and testimonies unless supported by corpus delicti.

Course Outcomes:

            At the end of the course, students must be able to:

1.    Define Key Terminologies in Special Crime Investigation;

2.    Discuss Special Crime Investigation

3.    Understand the basics of Criminalistics;

4.    Understand the basics of Criminal Law and Jurisprudence related to Special Crime Investigation ;

5.    Demonstrate applicable concepts and theories of Special Crime Investigation in relation to Court proceedings; and

6.    Know the organisation, functions and duties of Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO)

Course Content:

This course, CDI-3 Special Crime Investigation is intended for students of Bachelor of Science in Criminology.

The table below shows the outline and description of the topics grouped into 5 Modules to be discussed in classroom or to be taken by the students for distance learning.

Course Requirements:

In general, the requirements of CDI-3 are as follows:

§  Class Participation

§  Class Report

§  Portfolio Output

§  Quizzes and

§  Exams

Grading Criteria:

Course Materials:

§  Textbooks

§  Visual Aids

§  Videos

§  Rubric Matrix for grading system

§  Course policy Manual


1.    Guevara, R.M. (2019). Criminology Licensure Outcomes Based Examination

Reviewer. Danlyn Publishing House. Philippines:Valenzuela City



MODULE TITLE: The concepts of Special Crime Investigation.

MODULE DESCRIPTION: This module provides the concepts of Special Crime Investigation particularly its focus and importance to court proceedings.


VENUE : Designated Classroom / As appropriate

TIME ALLOTTED:  Six (6) hours

ACTIVITIES: Reading Assignment (Home)

                        Student Report/Exercises

Classroom Discussion

LEARNING AIDS : (As appropriate)Textbook

Multi-Media Projector

Laptop /Computer

Projector Screen

Internet/Broadband Connection

STUDENTS’ REQUIREMENTS : (As Appropriate) Prescribed uniform (Tamang

Bihis),Paper, flash drive, ballpen, pencil, paper module, references


TRAINING GOAL : This block of instruction will help the students understand the concepts of Special Crime Investigation.

Module Outcomes: The students are expected to learn the concepts, role and importance of special crime investigation in court proceedings.

Module Requirements: At the end of this module, the students will come up with a Report Paper, outstanding portfolio and quiz.

ASSESSMENT : The students will be evaluated through Objective and Essay Tests.


Special Crime Investigation is consisting of special investigative techniques. It concentrates more on physical evidence, its collection, handling, identification and preservation in coordination with the crime laboratory special crime investigation. It involves a close relationship between the investigator in the field and the crime laboratory technician. They work together as a team and both must be competent and well trained, sharing and extending one another’s theories and finding, working patiently and thoroughly to know the truth from their criminal enquiries.

Philippines justice system, particularly the court, relies more on physical evidence rather than extra-judicial confessions and testimonies.

It generates tracing evidence that leads to the apprehension of dangerous criminals. Oftentimes, potential valuable evidences are destroyed or rendered useless be careless behaviour and handling at the crime scene (Guevara, 2019).

Definition of Terms

Look for the definition of the following:

1.    First Responder

2.    Criminal Profiling

3.    Crime Scene Processing

4.    Physical Evidence

5.    Corpus delicti

6.    Murder

7.    Homicide

8.    Parricide

9.    Murder-suicide

10. Photography

11. Sketching

12. Crime-scene sketch

13. Rough sketch

14. Court proceedings

16. Prosecution

17. Conviction

18. Acquitted

20. Court of Appeals

21. Supreme Court

Special Crime Investigation

First responders or any authority who arrived first at the crime scene are responsible to the following:

1.    Preserve life and identify the suspect/s;

2.    Locate (if evaded) the suspect;

3.    Secure witnesses;

4.    Preserve the integrity of the crime scene’s physical boundaries; and

5.    Reconstruct the Crime Scene

A.   Preservation of integrity of the Crime Scene

1.    6 Elements of Crime Scene Policy

2.    3 Barriers for Ideal Cordon

3.    Definition of SOCO

B.   Reconstruct the Crime Scene - Definition

C.   5 Categories of Reconstruction

D.   7 Steps in Reconstruction

E.   5 Basic Crime Scene Protocol

F.    Functions and importance of Special Crime Investigation to Court proceedings. Rules of Evidence (Rules 128, 130 sec 1-19; 132 sec 19-40; 133 ) transposed to Part 1 of Rules of Court

Graded Exercises:

1.    Discuss the Preservation of integrity of the Crime Scene

4.    List the 6 Elements of Crime Scene Policy. Discuss each.

5.    What are the 3 Barriers for Ideal Cordon? Explain each.

6.    What is SOCO stands for?

2.    Define the Reconstruction of  the Crime Scene

3.    What are the 5 Categories of Reconstruction? Explain each.

4.    Enumerate the 7 Steps in Reconstruction and discuss each.

5.    What are the 5 Basic Crime Scene Protocols?

6.    Discuss the functions and importance of Special Crime Investigation to Court proceedings .

7.    Keep your portfolio in an expanded envelop.

Prepare for Module 1 Quiz


MODULE TITLE: The Basics of Criminalistics

MODULE DESCRIPTION: This module provides the basics of Criminalistics particularly the tools in Forensic Sciences.


TIME ALLOTTED : Thirteen (13) hours



4.    Other online refeences

TRAINING GOAL : This block of instruction will help the students understand the basics of Criminalistics.

Module Outcomes: The students are expected to learn the basic concepts of tools of forensic sciences.

1.    Criminalistics

2.    Physical Evidence

3.    Documentary Evidence

4.    Fingerprints processing

10. Instrumentation

11. Forensic Ballistics

12. Police Photography

13. Poligraphy

14. Legal Medicine

15. Forensic Medicine

Concepts of Criminalistics

Tools of Criminalistics

1.    Personal Identification

1.1.       Preservation of fingerprint evidence

1.2.       Bite marks

1.3.       Broken fingernails

1.4.       Body fluids

1.5.       Shoe and or tire

1.6.       Hair strands

1.7.       Fibers

1.8.       Paint

1.9.       Glass

1.10.    Blood/stains

1.11.    Dried Blood Stains

2.    Police Photography

2.1.       Definition

2.2.       Forensic Photography

2.3.       Difference of Police Photography and Forensic Photography

3.    Forensic Ballistics

3.1.       Bullets and casing Examinations

3.2.       Bullets

3.3.       Cartridge Cases

3.4.       Ammunition

3.5.       Powder and Shot Pattern

3.6.       Gun Serial Number

Watch video: 1 ) watch

                                    2 ) watch

4.    Examined Questioned Documents

4.1.       Rules on Evidence Rule 130 secs 2-3; 10-19

4.2.       Examples of Documentary Evidence for special crime (death threat prior to death, letter of inciting rebellion, terrorism; official receipts, delivery receipts, bank statements, checks used in purchases to execute the crimes,  etc.).

5.    Poligraphy

5.1. Definition and concepts

5.2. Lie Detection definition

6.    Forensic Medicine

6.1.       Definition

6.2.       Importance of Forensic Medicine

6.3.       Difference of Legal Medicine and Forensic Medicine

6.4.       Concepts of Medico-legal

Graded Exercises

1.    Discuss the concept of Personal Identification in Crime Scene

2.    Define and Discuss the Following Evidences:

2.1.       Preservation of fingerprint evidence

2.2.       Bite marks

2.3.       Broken fingernails

2.4.       Body fluids

2.5.       Shoe and or tire

2.6.       Hair strands

2.7.       Fibers

2.8.       Paint

2.9.       Glass

2.10.    Blood/stains

2.11.    Dried Blood Stains

3.    Define Police Photography.

4.    What is Forensic Photography?

5.    Differentiate Police Photography from Forensic Photography

6.    Define Forensic Ballistics

6.1.       What are the 3 types of Ballistics?

6.2.       What is gunshot residue? Discuss.

7.    Define and discuss the following evidence

8.    Bullets and casing Examinations

8.1.       Bullets

8.2.       Cartridge Cases

8.3.       Ammunition

8.4.       Powder and Shot Pattern

8.5.       Gun Serial Number

9.    Define Examined Questioned Documents

9.1.       Discuss the Examples of Documentary Evidence for special crime (death threat prior to death, letter of inciting rebellion, terrorism, etc.).

9.2.       How will the suspects/accused be convicted based on the Rules on Evidence?

10. Define Poligraphy

10.1.    Lie Detection definition

11. Define Forensic Medicine

11.1.    What is Importance of Forensic Medicine

11.2.    Differentiate Legal Medicine from Forensic Medicine

11.3.    What is medico-legal? Discuss.

12.   Keep your portfolio in an expanded envelope.

Prepare for Module 2 Quiz

Prepare for Mid-term Examination


MODULE TITLE: The Basics of Criminal Law and Jurisprudence related to Special Crime Investigation

MODULE DESCRIPTION: This module provides the basics of Criminal Law and Jurisprudence related to Special Crime Investigation.

Week : 9-11

TIME ALLOTTED : Ten (10) hours


TRAINING GOAL : This block of instruction will help the students understand the basics of Criminal Law and Jurisprudence related to Special Crime Investigation.

Module Outcomes: The students are expected to learn the applicable Rules on (Criminal) Evidence and Criminal Procedure;Applicable concepts and theories of Special Crime Investigation in relation to Court proceedings

MODULE TITLE: The basics of Criminal Law and Jurisprudence related to Special Crime Investigation

The outcome of many criminal law cases will depend upon the strength and admissibility of evidence -- including physical proof, scientific evidence, and witness testimony. Criminal evidence law can be complex (Criminal.Findlaw, N.d.) and it can determine the fate of the case ---length of trial, and the conviction or acquittal of the accused.

1.    Criminal Law

4.    Corpus delicti

5.    Arrest

6.    In flagrante delicto

7.    Preliminary Investigation

8.    Search Warrant and Seizure

9.    Warrant of Arrest

10. Inquest

11. Court Procedure

12. Arraignment

13. Guilty Plea

14. Prosecution

15. Pre Trial

22. Jurisprudence

Rules on Criminal Evidence

1.    Definition of the Law of Criminal Evidence

2.    The Concept of Evidence

3.    Definition of Hearsay Evidence

4.    The Concepts of Scientific and Forensic Evidence

5.    Rule 128,

6.    Rule 130 sec 1-19

7.    Rule  132 sec 19-40;

8.    Rule 133

Rules on Criminal Procedure

1.    Rule 110; 112-14

2.    Search Warrant and Seizure, Rule 126

3.    Right of the accused, Rule 115

4.    Arraignment and plea, Rule 116

5.    Pre Trial, Rule 118

6.    Trial, Rule 119

7.    Judgment, Appeal, Rules 120-125


1.    Alphonse Bertillon methodology used

2.    DNA or fluid of the body used led to accused conviction

3.    Handwriting and signature were exhibited to the court and made the accused served in prison

4.    Fingerprints were identified, located and arrested the suspect to his judgment of a crime.

5.    Depressed marks were found by the investigators that led to suspect’s arrest and discoveries of other evidences, and the accused was convicted.

1.    What is Criminal Law?

2.    Define the Law of Criminal Evidence

3.    What is the Concept of Evidence?

4.    Discuss the Hearsay Evidence

5.    What are the Concepts of Scientific and Forensic Evidence?

6.    Discuss Rule 128, (100-200 words)

7.    Discuss Rule 130 sec 1-19 (100-200 words)

8.    Discuss Rule  132 sec 19-40; (100-200 words)

8.    Discuss Rule 133 ; (100-200 words)

9.    Discuss Rule 110; 112-14 (100-200 words)

10. What is Search Warrant and Seizure, Rule 126? (100-200 words)

11. Discuss the Rights of the accused, Rule 115 ( 100-200 words)

12. Discuss the Arraignment and plea, Rule 116 (100-200 words)

13. What is Pre Trial, Rule 118? (100-200 words)

14. What is Trial, Rule 119? (100-200 words)

15. Discuss Judgment,  and Appeal, Rules 120-125; (100-200 words)

16. Give 1 jurisprudence for the following:

16.1      Alphonse Bertillon methodology used

16.2      DNA or fluid of the body used led to accused conviction

16.3      Handwriting and signature were exhibited to the court and made the accused served in prison

16.4      Fingerprints were identified, located and arrested the suspect to his judgment of a crime.

16.5      Depressed marks were found by the investigators that led to suspect’s arrest and discoveries of other evidences, and the accused was convicted.

17. Keep your portfolio in an expanded envelope.

Prepare for Module 3 Quiz


MODULE TITLE: Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO) and Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG)

MODULE DESCRIPTION: This module introduces the organisation, functions and duties of Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO) and Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG)

Week : 12-15

TIME ALLOTTED : Six (6) hours

2.    PNP

3.    Online references

TRAINING GOAL : This block of instruction will help the students know the Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO) and Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG)

Module Outcomes: The students are expected to learn the organisation, functions and duties of Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO) and Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG)

Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO) and Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG) are operational groups of PNP.

1.    Investigator

2.    First Responder

3.    Criminal Profiling

4.    Crime Scene Processing

5.    Physical Evidence

6.    Corpus delicti

7.    Murder

8.    Homicide

9.    Parricide

10. Murder-suicide

12. Statutory Rape

13. Forensic Science

14. Forensic Evidence

Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO) Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG)

Roles of SOCO; CIDG

Functions of SOCO; CIDG

Duties of SOCO; CIDG

1.    What is SOCO? Discuss.

2.    What is CIDG? Discuss

3.    What are the Roles of SOCO?

4.    Discuss the Functions of SOCO

5.    What are the Duties of SOCO? Discuss each.

6.    Differentiate SCOCO from CIDG. (200-250 word)

7.    Watch any SOCO (of ABS-CBN) video from youtube. Summarise the story and Discuss the substandard or police officers of investigation and violations of the rights of the accused. (300-500 words)

8.    Keep your portfolio in an expanded envelope.

Prepare for Module 4 Quiz

Prepare for Final Examination


1.   To foster the values of leadership integrity, accountability and

Responsibility while serving their fellowmen community and

     2.To prepare the students for careers in crime prevention,

         Law enforcement, scientific crime detection and correction

         Administration and

     3.To encourage research and inquiry on the nature, causes

         Treatment or punishment of criminal behavior and how

          Criminal justice agencies respond to crime criminal and




      The colleges of Arts and Sciences aims to produce highly

      Skilled, proficient and competent graduates imbued with

      Values and desirable character particularly in the areas

      Of agriculture, environmental science, criminology,

      Development communication, community development,

      And guidance and counselling

Special Crime Investigation

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Chapter 1: Introduction

It is too bad we can not just provide you with a basic template to follow every time you needed to conduct a criminal investigation; but it is not that simple. Criminal investigations can be imprecise undertakings, often performed in reaction to unpredictable and still-evolving events with incomplete information to guide the process. As such, it is impossible to teach or learn a precise methodology that can be applied in every case. Still, there are important concepts, legal rules, and processes that must be respected in every investigation. This book outlines these concepts, rules, and processes with the goal of providing practical tools to ensure successful investigative processes and investigative practices. Most importantly, this book informs you on how to approach the investigative process using “investigative thinking.” In this first chapter, we set the foundation for the book by calling attention to five important topics:

Topic 1: Criminal Investigation as a Thinking Process

Criminal investigation is a multi-faceted, problem-solving challenge. Arriving at the scene of a crime, an officer is often required to rapidly make critical decisions, sometimes involving life and death, based on limited information in a dynamic environment of active and still evolving events. After a criminal event is over, the investigator is expected to preserve the crime scene, collect the evidence, and devise an investigative plan that will lead to the forming of reasonable grounds to identify and arrest the person or persons responsible for the crime. To meet these challenges, police investigators, through training and experience, learn investigative processes to develop investigative plans and prioritize responses.

In this book, these investigative responses, information analyses, and plan-making skills are broken out using illustrations of both tactical and strategic investigative thinking. The aim of the book is to guide you into the structured practices of tactical investigative response and strategic investigative thinking.

Criminal investigation is not just a set of task skills, it is equally a set of thinking skills. To become an effective investigator, these skills need to be consciously understood and developed to the point where they are deliberately engaged to work through the problem-solving process that is criminal investigation. Trained thinking and response can be difficult to adapt into our personal repertoires because we are all conditioned to be much less formal and less evidence driven in our everyday thinking. Still, as human beings, we are all born investigators of sorts. As Taber (2006) pointed out in his book, Beyond Constructivism , people constantly construct knowledge, and, in our daily lives, we function in a perpetual state of assessing the information that is presented to us. Interpreting the perceptions of what we see and what we hear allows us reach conclusions about the world around us (Taber, 2006). Some people are critically analytical and want to see evidence to confirm their beliefs, while others are prepared to accept information at face value until they are presented facts that disprove their previously held beliefs. Either strategy is generally acceptable for ordinary people in their everyday lives.

Topic 2: The Need to Think Through the Process

Diametrically opposing the analysis processes of everyday people, in the role of a police investigator, the process of discovering, interpreting, and determining the validity of information is different and this difference is critical. As an investigator, it is no longer sufficient to use the strategies that ordinary people use every day. Instead, it is incumbent on investigators to critically assess all the information they encounter because every investigation is an accountable process in which the investigator is not just making a determination about the validity and truth of the information for personal confirmation of a belief. Rather, the police investigator is responsible and empowered under the law to make determinations that could significantly affect the lives of those being investigated as well as the victims of crime.

The investigator’s interpretation of information and evidence commonly requires answers to many questions that can lead critical of decisions, actions, and outcomes, such as:

Significant to these possible outcomes, the investigator must always be ready to explain their thinking and actions to the court. For example, when an investigator is asked by a court, “How did you reach that conclusion to take your chosen course of action?” an investigator must be able to articulate their thinking process and lay out the facts and evidence that were considered to reach their conclusions and form the reasonable grounds for their actions and their investigative decision-making process. For an investigator speaking to the court, this process needs to be clear and validated through the articulation of evidence-based thinking and legally justifiable action. Thinking must illustrate an evidence-based path to forming reasonable grounds for belief and subsequent action. Thinking must also demonstrate consideration of the statutory law and case law relevant to the matter being investigated.

Considering this accountability to outcomes, it is essential for police investigators to have both the task skills and the thinking skills to collect and analyze evidence at a level that will be acceptable to the criminal justice system. Investigation is the collection and analysis of evidence. To be acceptable to the court, it must be done in a structured way that abides by the legal rules and the appropriate processes of evidence collection. Additionally, it must be a process the investigator has documented and can recall and articulate in detail to demonstrate the validity of the investigation.

Obviously, it is not possible for someone to remain in a constant state of vigilance where they are always critically assessing, documenting, and determining the validity of every piece of information they encounter. However, when on duty, it is frequently necessary for a police investigator to do this. For a police investigator, this needs to be a conscious process of being mentally engaged and “switched on” to a more vigilant level of information collection, assessment, and validation while on duty. A police investigator must master this higher and more accountable level of analytical thinking for both tactical and strategic investigative response. The “switched on” police investigator must:

Most traditional police training provides new officers with many hours of instruction in the task skills of investigation. However, the learning of investigative thinking skills is expected to develop through field experience, learning from mistakes, and on the job mentoring. This learning does not always happen effectively, and the public expectations of the justice system are evolving in a model where there is little tolerance for a mistake-based learning.

The criminal investigation of serious crimes has always drawn a substantial level of interest, concern, and even apprehensive fascination from the public, the media, and the justice system. Police actions and investigations have been chronicled and dissected by commissions of inquiry and the media.  From the crimes of the serial killers like Paul Bernardo (Campbell, 1996), and Robert Pickton (Oppal, 2013) to the historical wrongful convictions of David Milgaard (MacCallum, 2008) and Guy Paul Morin (Kaufman, 1998), true life crimes are scrutinized and the investigations of those crimes are examined and critically assessed.

When critiquing past investigations, the same types of questions are frequently asked:

Today, transparency throughout the criminal justice system and public disclosure of evidence through investigative media reports make it much easier for the public and the media to examine the investigative process. Public and media access to information about police investigative techniques and forensic tools has created an audience that is more familiar and sophisticated about police work. The ability of both social and traditional media to allow public debate has created a societal awareness where a higher standard for the investigation of serious crimes is now an expectation.

One only needs to look at the historical and contemporary judicial reviews and public inquiries to appreciate that there is an expectation for police investigators and police organizations to maintain and demonstrate a high level of competency. In a judicial review, it is often too late if an investigator discovers that they have pursued the wrong theory or they have failed to analyze a piece of critical information or evidence. These situations can be career-altering or even career-ending. A good investigator needs to be conscious of his or her-own thinking, and that thinking needs to be an intentional process.

Topic 3: Towards Modern-Day Investigation

Today, criminal investigation is a broad term encompassing a wide range of specialities that aim to determine how events occurred, and to establish an evidence-based fact pattern to prove the guilt or innocence of an accused person in a criminal event. In some cases, where a person is found committing the criminal act and apprehended at the scene, the criminal investigation is not a complex undertaking. However, in cases where the criminal event is discovered after the fact, or when the culprit is not readily apparent, the process of criminal investigation becomes more complex and protracted.

Although in both cases the criminal investigator must follow practices of identifying, collecting, recording, and preserving evidence; in the case of the unknown suspect, additional thinking skills of analysis, theory development, and validation of facts must be put to work.

The craft of criminal investigation has been evolving since the birth of modern policing in the mid-1700s when the Chief Magistrate of Bow Street, Henry Fielding, organized a group of volunteer plainclothes citizens and tasked them to attend the scenes of criminal events and investigate crimes. This group became known as the Bow Street Runners. Their existence speaks to an early recognition that attending a crime scene to gather information was a timely and effective strategy to discover the truth of what happened (Hitchcock, 2015).

From these early investigators, one of the first significant cases using forensic evidence-based investigation was recorded. To summarize the account by McCrery (2013) in his book Silent Witness ; in one notable recorded case in 1784, the Bow Street Runners removed a torn piece of paper wadding from a bullet wound in the head of a murder victim who had been shot at point-blank range. In this early era of firearms, flintlock muskets and pistols required muzzle loading. To muzzle load a weapon, gunpowder would be poured down the barrel of the weapon, and then a piece of “wadding paper” would be tamped into place on top of the gunpowder using a long metal rod. The wadding paper used in this loading process was merely a piece of thick dry paper, usually torn from a larger sheet of paper kept by the shooter to reload again for the next shot. The musket ball bullet would be pushed down the barrel on top of the wadding paper. When the gun was fired, the wadding paper would be expelled by the exploding gunpowder, thus pushing the lead ball-bullet out of the barrel as a deadly projectile. This loading process required the shooter to be in possession of dry gunpowder, wadding paper, and musket balls to reload and make the weapon ready to fire. The Bow Street Runners considered this weapon loading practice and knew their shooter might be in possession of wadding paper. Upon searching their prime suspect, they did find him in possession of that kind of paper and, in a clever forensic innovation for their time, they physically matched the torn edges of wadding paper found in the victim’s wound to a larger sheet of wadding paper found in the pocket of their suspect. From this evidence, the accused was convicted of murder (McCrery, 2013).

This use of forensic physical matching is an example of circumstantial forensic evidence being used to link a suspect to an offence. This type of early forensic evidence also illustrates the beginnings of what exists today as a broad variety of forensic sciences to aid investigators in the development of evidence. This is also the beginning of forensic evidence being recognized as an investigative tool. In 1892, not long after the Bow Street Runners investigation, Sir Francis Galton published his book on the study of fingerprints. In 1900, Galton’s work was used by Sir William Henry who developed and implemented the Henry System of fingerprint classification, which is the basis of the fingerprint classifications system still in use today (Henry, 1900).

Only a few years earlier, in 1886, the use of photography for the first Rogues Gallery of criminal photographs was implemented by the New York City Police Department. This first Rogues Gallery was an organized collection of photographs of known criminals taken at the time of their most recent conviction for a crime (Byrnes, 2015). Prior to this organized collection of criminal photos, facial characteristics on wanted posters had been limited to sketch artists’ renderings. With the advances evolving in photography, having the ability to preserve an actual picture of the suspect’s face amounted to a significant leap forward. With this innovation of photography, the use of mugshots and photographic identification of suspects through facial recognition began to evolve.

These early forensic innovations in the evolution of criminal investigation (such as physical matching, fingerprint identification, and facial recognition systems) demonstrate a need for investigators to develop the knowledge and skills to locate and utilize physical evidence that enables circumstantial links between people, places, and events to prove the facts of criminal cases. Physical evidence is the buried treasure for criminal investigators. Physical evidence can be collected, preserved, analyzed, and used in court to establish a fact. Physical evidence can be used to connect an accused to their victim or used at a crime scene to establish guilt or innocence. Forensic evidence may prove a point in fact that confirms or contradicts the alibi of an accused, or one that corroborates or contradicts the testimony of a witness.

Another significant development in forensic evidence from the 1800s started with the work of French criminal investigator Alphonse Bertillon who developed the Bertillon system of recording measurements of physical evidence (Petherick, 2010). One of Bertillon’s students, Dr. Edmond Locard, a medical doctor during the First World War, went on to further Bertillon’s work with his own theory that a person always leaves some trace of themselves at a crime scene and always takes some trace of the crime scene with them when they leave. This theory became known as “Locard’s Exchange Theory” (Petherick, 2010). To this day, Locard’s theory forms the foundational concepts of evidence transfer theory.

Today, the ability of forensic experts to identify suspects and to examine physical evidence has increased exponentially when compared to early policing. Scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines have contributed to the development and evolution of forensic specialities in physical matching, chemical analysis, fingerprints, barefoot morphology, odontology, toxicology, ballistics, hair and fibre, biometric analysis, entomology, and, most recently, DNA analysis.

Many of these forensic science specialties require years of training and practice by the practitioner to develop the necessary level of expertise whereby the courts will accept the evidence of comparisons and subsequent expert conclusions. Obviously, it is not possible for a modern-day investigator to become a proficient practitioner in all of these specialties. However, the modern-day investigator must strive to be a forensic resource generalist with an understanding of the tools available and must be specialist in the deployment of those tools to build the forensic case.

In a criminal investigation, there is often a multitude competing possibilities guiding the theory development of how a criminal incident occurred with circumstantial links pointing to who committed the crime. Competing theories and possibilities need to be examined and evaluated against the existing facts and physical evidence. Ultimately, only strong circumstantial evidence in the form of physical exhibits, testimony from credible witnesses, or a confession from the accused may satisfy the court beyond a reasonable doubt. Critically, the quality of an investigation and the competency of the investigators will be demonstrated through the manner in which that evidence was located, preserved, analyzed, interpreted, and presented.

In the past, police officers generally took their primary roles as first responders and keepers of the peace. Criminal investigation was only a limited component of those duties. Now, given the accessibility to a wide range of effective forensic tools, any police officer, regardless of their assignment, could find themselves presented with a scenario that requires some degree of investigative skill. The expectation of police investigators is that they be well-trained with the knowledge and skills to respond and investigate crime. These skills will include:

In addition to these task skills of process and practice, investigators must also have strategic analytical thinking skills for risk assessment and effective incident response. They must have the ability to apply deductive, inductive, and quantitative reasoning to examine evidence and form reasonable grounds to identify and arrest suspects.

Engaging these higher-level thinking skills is the measure of expertise and professionalism for investigators. As our current justice system continues to change and evolve, it relies more and more on information technology and forensic science. With this evolution, the need for investigators to demonstrate higher levels of expertise will continue to grow.

Topic 4: The Path to Becoming an Investigator

For many people, their idea of what an investigator does is based on what they see, hear, and read in the media, movies, TV, and books. These depictions characterize personas ranging from dysfunctional violent rebels fighting for justice by their own rules, to by-the-book forensic investigators who get the job done clinically using advanced science and technology. The truth is, good investigation and real-life investigators are unlikely to make a captivating fictional script. Professional investigators and competent investigation is about the tedious processes of fact-finding and sorting through evidence and information. It is about eliminating possibilities, validating events, and recording evidence, all the while engaging in an intentional process of thinking, analyzing, and strategically working towards predetermined goals; not to mention extensive note taking and report writing.

Sometimes, new police investigators are, at first, deluded by fictional representations, only to find out, by experience, that the real job, although having moments of action, satisfaction, and excitement, is more about hard work and deliberate attention to detail.

Another common misnomer about the job is the conception that investigation is the exclusive domain of a police officer. Although this may have been true in the earlier evolution of the investigative craft, it has become much less the case today. This change is a result of the enactment of many regulatory compliance statutes that require investigative knowledge, skills, and thinking. Compliance investigators maintain adherence to regulated activities which often involve legal compliance for industries where non-compliance can pose significant risks that threaten the lives and safety of people or the environment. These regulated activities are often responsibilities of the highest order. What starts as a regulatory violation can escalate into criminal conduct. The investigative skills of compliance investigators and inspectors must be capable of meeting the same tests of competency as the police.

Not just anyone can become an investigator. There are certain personal traits that tend to be found in good investigators. Among these traits are:

Considering this list of traits, we can appreciate that good investigators are people with particular attitudes, aptitudes, and intentional thinking processes. These traits all form part of the investigative mindset. Although you cannot teach someone to be passionate about discovering the truth, anyone who has these traits can work towards developing and refining their other traits and skills to become an investigator. Developing the mindset is a learning journey, and the first step of this journey is to become intentionally aware of and engaged in your own thinking processes.

Toward this point, the investigator must always be mindful of the proposition of Shah and Oppenheimer (2008) in their book Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort Reduction Framework . Shah and Opprenheimer remind us that people have learned to become quick thinkers using mental short cuts, known as heuristics, in an effort to make decisions quickly and problem solve the challenges we encounter. They offer the proposition that heuristics reduce work in decision-making by giving the user the ability to scrutinize a few signals and/or alternative choices in decision-making, thus diminishing the work of retrieving and storing information in memory. This streamlines the decision-making process by reducing the amount of integrated information necessary in making the choice or passing judgment (Shah, 2008).

In this book, we will point out that these heuristic shortcuts are often instinctive or intuitive reactions, as opposed to well-reasoned, evidence-based responses. Although they may serve us well in our everyday thinking, they must be monitored and recognized for their short-falls when we are required to investigate matters where the outcomes are critical.

To achieve the investigative mindset and be an objective investigator, it is important to be aware of the heuristic shortcuts and other negative investigative tendencies that can become obstacles to successful outcomes. For example, a good investigator needs to be focused on the objective of solving the case and making an arrest in a timely manner, but becoming too focused can lead to “tunnel vision,” which is the single-minded focus on a favourite suspect or theory to the extent that other suspects or alternate theories are ignored. Moreover, a good investigator needs to take responsibility and be accountable for the outcomes of the investigation; however, taken to the extreme, this can lead to an investigator taking complete ownership of the investigation to the exclusion of allowing the ideas of others to provide guidance and influence. Finally, a good investigator needs to be careful about how much information is shared with others. However, excessive secrecy can inhibit information sharing with those who might contribute to the successful conclusion of the case.

Thinking as an objective investigator, it is often necessary to consider and evaluate several competing theories or possibilities of how a crime was committed and who the suspect may be. Often, new investigators, or those uninitiated to the objective mindset, will focus on a favourite theory of events or a favourite suspect, and rush to be first to reach the conclusion and to make the arrest. There is a trap in shortcuts and the focused rush to make a fast arrest. In this trap, other viable suspects and theories are too quickly ignored or discarded. This sometimes leads to investigations being derailed by “tunnel vision.” Worse yet, tunnel vision can lead to the misinterpretation of evidence, ultimately leading to charges against an innocent person, while the guilty remain undiscovered.

To summarize the observations made by Kim Rossmo (2009) in his book on criminal investigative failures, tunnel vision and lost objectivity have been part of the findings in many public inquiries. Commissioners at public inquiries have concluded that, at times, investigators relentlessly pursue a favourite suspect. Sometimes an alternate suspect should have been apparent, or exculpatory evidence was present that should have caused the investigators to stop and re-evaluate their favourite suspect, but tunnel vision had set in and the objective investigative mindset had been lost (Rossmo, 2009).

Similarly and not totally unrelated to tunnel vision, other negative thinking responses also come into play, and can be observed in the behaviours of case ownership and excessive secrecy. It may seem that an investigator taking ownership for his or her investigation, and maintaining some degree of secrecy in the management of case related information, is completely acceptable and perhaps even desirable. However, as happens with any human behaviour, it can negatively influence the outcome of investigations. Information appropriately shared with the right people can often reveal connections that contribute to the evidence of a case, and investigators must remain open to this appropriate sharing. Many negative examples can be found where a police investigator, or even an investigative team, adopted the attitude that the conduct of an investigation is their own exclusive domain (Campbell, 1996). With that exclusive ownership, no one else is entitled or allowed to participate, and relevant information that needs to be shared with others can be jealously guarded. Opportunities are missed for other investigators to see details that could connect a similar fact pattern or make the connection to a viable suspect.

Topic 5: Understanding the Investigative Mindset

When we talk about the investigative mindset, in part, we are talking about the self-awareness and the organizational-awareness to avoid negative outcomes. Once learned and practiced, this awareness can be a safety net against destructive investigative practices (i.e. tunnel vision, case ownership, and excessive secrecy). Criminal investigation can require complex thinking where the investigator must assess and determine the validity of information and evidence to guide the investigative process. This thinking strives to move from a position of mere suspicion to one of reasonable grounds for belief to make an arrest and ultimately articulate evidence upon which the court can make a finding of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. This is a conscious process of gathering and recording information, and thinking analytically to form reasonable grounds for belief supporting defendable actions of arrest and charges. From this conscious process, the investigator in court can articulate a mental map to describe how they derived their conclusions.

As we proceed towards learning the investigative thinking process, keep in mind that:

In this chapter, we have identified the investigative thinking processes as being distinctly different from the thinking processes used by most people in their everyday lives. The critical responsibilities that exist for police investigators in conducting their duties demand that investigators learn to think and respond in a structured and accountable manner. To this end, we have illustrated some of the common negative thinking processes that investigators must avoid, and we have looked at the traits and values that need to be pursued to become a criminal investigator. We have described structured and accountable thinking as the means to achieve an investigative mindset. You will find that investigative thinking and the investigative mindset are a theme throughout this book.

Study Questions

Introduction to Criminal Investigation: Processes, Practices and Thinking by Rod Gehl is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.


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