Written by the educators who created Ecofying Cities, a brief look at the key facts, tough questions and big ideas in their field. Begin this TED Study with a fascinating read that gives context and clarity to the material.
Right now, our economy operates as Paul Hawken said, "by stealing the future, selling it in the present and calling it GDP." And if we have another eight billion or seven billion people, living on a planet where their cities also steal the future, we're going to run out of future really fast. But if we think differently, I think that, in fact, we can have cities that are not only zero emissions, but have unlimited possibilities as well. Alex Steffen
The urgency of urban planning today
Within a few decades' time, we can expect the planet to become more crowded, resources more precious, and innovative urban planners increasingly important. By midcentury, the global population will likely top nine billion, and more than half will live in cities. What will these cities look like? Will we have the resources to power them and comfortably provide for their residents? Will global urbanization harmonize with efforts to curb climate change and secure a sustainable future, or are these forces hurtling towards a head-on collision?
The TED speakers featured in Ecofying Cities underscore the urgency, but also suggest that some optimism's in order as they outline the issues and offer imaginative solutions.
There's no single reason for or response to the complex environmental, economic and social challenges that are part of our future in cities. They call for multiple approaches, originating from different sources — individuals, communities, governments, businesses — and deployed at different levels — in the home, the neighborhood, the city, region, nation and across the globe — to respond to the challenges at hand. As Alex Steffen reminds the urban planners, architects, designers, elected leaders and others involved in the effort, "All those cities are opportunities."
Urbanism and the environment: A brief history
For centuries, successful city-building has required careful attention to the environmental consequences of urban development. Without this, as Jared Diamond demonstrated in Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed , a city inevitably ended up fouling its nest, thus entering a spiral of epidemics, economic hardship, decline and, ultimately, oblivion. Civilizations evolved different ways of dealing with environmental considerations — some with more success than others. For example, thanks to elaborate aqueducts and sewer systems, the Romans were able to build and sustain for centuries large cities that featured a reliable public water supply and state-of-the-art public health conditions.
In other civilizations, however, residents simply abandoned cities when they could no longer rely on their environment to supply the resources they needed. Often this was a direct result of their own activities: for example, deforestation and the attendant erosion of fertile soil, epidemics due to contaminated water and, with the advent of coal-fired industrialization, air pollution.
Urban planning got its start as a profession largely dedicated to averting different types of crises arising from urban growth and providing conditions for public health. This was particularly true in the many 19th century European and North American cities transformed by industrialization and unprecedented rates of population growth. Rapidly deteriorating air and water quality made it necessary to introduce regulations to protect the health of the residents of these cities.
The planners' first-generation improvements included sewers, water treatment and distribution, and improved air quality through building codes and increased urban green space. It's especially remarkable today to think that these interventions were adopted in response to observable health consequences, but without knowledge of the contamination mechanisms at work: germ theory didn't arrive on the scene until Louis Pasteur published his work in the 1860s. From the late 19th century onward Pasteur's findings bolstered the case for even more urban sanitation improvements, particularly those designed to improve water quality.
Starting in the 1950s, however, planners no longer narrowly targeted immediate health effects on urban residents as their chief environmental concern. Their work also absorbed and reflected Western society's deeper understanding of, and respect for, natural processes and growing awareness of the long-term environmental impacts of cities from the local to the planetary scale.
Rachel Carson is often credited as the first to popularize environmentalism. Published in 1962, her landmark book Silent Spring sounded a warning call about how pesticides endanger birds and entire ecological systems. Soon after, air pollution became a rallying point for environmentalists, as did the loss of large tracks of rural and natural land to accelerated, sprawling development. Today, sustainable development and smart growth, which largely overlap and address multiple environmental considerations, enjoy wide currency; most urban planning is now based on these principles.
Today, as we reckon with population growth, advancing rates of urbanization, and widespread recognition of climate change, we know that the cities of the future share a common destiny. The choices we make about how we build, inhabit and maintain these cities will have global and long-term effects.
Sustainable development: Two schools of thought
In modern urban planning, there are two general categories of sustainable development. The first doesn't challenge the present dynamics of the city, allowing them to remain largely low-density and automobile-oriented, but still makes them the object of measures aimed to reduce their environmental load (for example, green construction practices). Ian McHarg spearheaded this approach as a way to develop urban areas in harmony with natural systems; the planning principles he formulated gave special care to the preservation of water and green space. His lasting influence is visible in many of the more enlightened suburban developments of recent decades which respect the integrity of natural systems. Today, the Landscape Urbanism movement promotes these same ideas.
A second school of urban development focuses on increasing urban density and reducing reliance on the automobile. This approach advocates transit-oriented and mixed-use development along pedestrian-friendly "complete streets." On a regional scale, it aims to reduce sprawl by creating a network of higher-density multifunctional centers interconnected by public transit. Today, it's common for plans with a metropolitan scope to follow this approach.
Studying the city: About these materials
Cities are arguably the most complex human creation (with the possible exception of language) so it's not surprising that we study them at multiple scales and from diverse perspectives. We can approach cities through a narrow focus on an individual building or a neighborhood, expand the investigation to consider a metropolitan region in its entirety, or study the global system of cities and its interconnections. What's more, we can think about cities as built environments, social networks, modified ecologies, economic systems and political entities. Aware of the multiple ways that we engage with cities, the Romans had two words to refer to them: urbs referred to the physical city with its wall and buildings, and civitas , the city as a collection of residents.
Ecofying Cities explores urban areas at different scales. In some cases, the TED speaker focuses on a neighborhood project, like The High Line in Manhattan; others describe city-wide transformation, as in Curitiba, Brazil, or a regional or national initiative like China's plan for a network of eco-cities to house its growing urban population. Likewise, the talks explore cities from different disciplinary perspectives including urban planning, urban design, transportation planning, architecture, community organization and environmental science. What unites them all? A commitment to sustainability and a belief that sustainability is more about creating positive effects rather than reducing negative impacts.
The message emanating from Ecofying Cities is one of complexity, optimism and uncertainty. We can't be sure that the changes these speakers suggest will be enough to help us balance supply and demand in the sustainability equation. But we can expect that their ideas and efforts will improve the built environment — as well as quality of life — in cities, thereby providing hopeful perspectives for a sustainable future.
Let´s begin with writer and futurist Alex Steffen´s TEDTalk "The Sharable Future of Cities" for a look at the interplay between increasing urban density and energy consumption.
The shareable future of cities, relevant talks.
A song of the city.
Greening the ghetto.
Building a park in the sky.
Using nature's genius in architecture.
Cradle to cradle design.
James Howard Kunstler
The ghastly tragedy of the suburbs.
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Urbanized knowledge syndrome—erosion of diversity and systems thinking in urbanites’ mental models
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What is Urban Sustainability? The Overview
Urban sustainability definition, urban sustainability challenges, the planet has biophysical limit, human and natural systems are tightly intertwined, urban inequality undermines sustainability efforts, cities are highly interconnected, air, sanitation & water pollution, ecosystems & farmland protection.
Urban Sustainability refers to Urban planning actions and guiding principles to improve and build our cities without actively using our resources forever. Urbain sustainability builds along the three pillars of sustainability : Environmental Eco Sustainability (resource consumption with environmental impact), Economical Sustainability(resource use efficiency and economic return), and Social Sustainability (Social well-bring and health).
There are different areas of interest to improve sustainability, for example, the financial industry has promoted the practice of ESG investing to encourage development and investment in the development of sustainable technologies. The increased popularity of Sustainable living promotes green livings. Urban sustainability has guided development in urban and metropolitan areas to achieve heightened standards of sustainability in social, economic, and environmental terms. The goals principally focus on lowering urban carbon footprints and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by targeting resource and energy consumption in the construction, operation, and maintenance of the urban built environment. Implicitly, the goals informed practical measures in energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy generation; incidentally the same three aspects for 100% renewability.
One of the biggest challenges in urban sustainability is that it is very difficult to measure. First, the scope of urban sustainability is very board, for example, the three pillars measure across air quality, water quality, ecological footprints, financial health, infrastructure, education, and community health. Each of the require different sets of indicators and measurement method and also involves a large variety of professionals from scientists to engineer to accountants to social workers.
Principles of Urban Sustainability
According to “Pathways to Urban Sustainability” published by National Academy of Sciences , there are at least four principles of urban sustainability.
Other than solar energy that comes directly from the Sun, everything we have on our planet is limited. There won’t be more after we exhaust them. For example, resource depletion, land-use change, habitat and biodiversity loss.
Human cultures are connected globally, the relationships of people and their interactions increase in cities. It is important to plan urban sustainability with a global and diverse mindset.
If you can’t even put enough food on your family table, building a sustainable environment may be the last thing on your mind. Hence, reducing severe economic, political, class, and social inequalities in a diverse and inclusive environment would be an important principle of urban sustainability.
All cities are planned individually, but they need to interact with other cities. Urban Sustainable models demands new models of governance, institutions, and innovative partnerships that can address multiple dimensions of a city’s connections with other places, stakeholders, and decision making.
Areas of Urban Sustainability
There are many areas to develop in the scope of sustaining urban cities, one of the major ones is having clean air, water, and hygiene systems. Examples of such urban sustainability work include:
- green building design to reduce operational consumption and to optimize building orientation for solar generation;
- compact development to minimize gray energy use;
- medium- to low-rise building construction to conserve materials and energy;
- building renovation and reuse to increase efficiency and material conservation; mixed uses to reduce distances to services and conserve fuels;
- urban greening to save energy in the cooling of urban heat islands;
- networked public transport for increased modalities and lowered dependence on private motor vehicles;
- connected public spaces to save energy in the daily movements through the city
Sustainable surrounding is also important, for example, if the development of a new urban or suburban area means removing the natural habitats, that’s like taking resources from the planet without using them. Some examples of ecosystem plus urban sustainability planning include
- Safe nesting havens for birds and inest throughout the city so these birds and insects can co-exist with human
- Creating green route and safe passage for animals to safely move or migrate to safe habitats.
- Utilize undevelopable green areas such as lands under power tower for farmland
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Green Cities and Urban Sustainability Strategies Essay
By the beginning of the 21st century, the vast majority of the planet’s population has moved from rural to urban areas around the globe. This gradual phenomenon is associated with the increased urbanization that is still expected to occur worldwide within the next several decades; namely, it is projected that at least two-thirds of the global population will relocate to live in cities in the next three decades, thus creating an inflow of urban population as large as two and a half billion people (Kammen and Sunter 922). The rapid growth of the urban population has produced a set of negative effects on the cities causing urban decay, the serious strain on infrastructure, and the overconsumption of resources. Moreover, due to the influx of population in urban areas, the adverse environmental outcomes of anthropogenic nature on the areas strengthened. In particular, the increased use of motor vehicles and activity of industries resulted in the production of more emissions of greenhouse gases aggravating the change of climate. As a result, cities began to require a new approach to development and planning based on a higher level of sustainability. This goal can be achieved through a series of initiatives aimed at the minimization of the negative effects of the growing population density and the maximization of the efficiency of resources and services in the areas. The purpose of this report is to discuss three urban sustainability strategies focusing on transportation means, built environment, and urban agriculture and identify their main challenges and opportunities, best policy instruments, as well as the issues of effectiveness and equity for city sustainability.
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The Best Policy Instruments and Infrastructure Investments for Sustainability
In their report, Pucher and Buechler indicated that the surveys of the carbon footprints of the countries of Europe compared to those of the United States showed that the former states seemed to be more productive and successful in their attempts to cut carbon emissions released by motor vehicles (“Walking and Cycling for Healthy Cities” 6-8). However, the authors also specified that a more detailed review of the findings revealed that the major differences in the intensity of the carbon footprints of the two areas were based majorly on the sizes of their territories and the location and planning of urban regions (Pucher and Buechler, “Walking and Cycling for Healthy Cities” 6-7). In particular, it was noted that in larger territories where people had to travel several kilometers to various destinations, they were more likely to use cars instead of bicycles or walking. Due to the larger territory, the United States tends to have larger and more highly populated cities where people are to travel long distances to get from one location to another; accordingly, the US has more cars that are used more frequently. In that way, some of the best instruments for the popularization and promotion of cycling and walking is the sustainable planning where the most common destinations and resources are located closer to one another thus reducing the people’s need to use motor vehicles to navigate the urban areas.
The Issues of Effectiveness and a Concern for Equity within the City
It goes without saying that riding a bicycle and walking are known as the healthiest means of transportation that are also safe for the environment because they produce no GHG emissions and also offer a good amount of physical activity to the people who use them. In that way, health benefits are generated both directly and indirectly due to the reduction of emissions and the improvement of the quality of air as well as the facilitation of healthy lifestyle choices (Pucher and Buechler, “Walking and Cycling for Healthy Cities” 2). However, apart from this aspect, the aforementioned modes of transportation present a series of other advantages for the population of urban areas. In addition to the benefits of having good quality air in urban areas, the increased use of bicycles and walking also contributes to the reduction of noise pollution – another common and quite harmful effect of the use of motor vehicles in highly populated districts. Moreover, it is also important to notice that the GHG emission produced by cars results in the pollution of water sources that are impacted by the presence of harmful combustion byproducts in the atmosphere. Finally, another obvious factor that contributes to the overall value of the use of bicycles and walking as means of transportation is the reduction of the prevalence of dangerous traffic accidents (Pucher and Buechler, “Walking and Cycling for Healthy Cities” 2). Also, in regard to financial benefits, walking and bicycle riding are rather cost-effective and economical as they require less costs than cars in terms of personal use, maintenance, and infrastructure arrangements (Pucher and Buechler, “Sustainable Transport in Freiburg: Lessons from Germany’s Environmental Capital” 47). These modes of transportation are affordable for most people, and this factor contributed to the strong equity of the use of walking and cycling as parts of sustainable development and planning of urban areas. All in all, walking and cycling are unbeatable as the sources of heath, environmental, and economic benefits which makes them a very valuable solution.
The Biggest Challenges and Opportunities
One of the main challenges related to the promotion of the use of bicycles and walking as preferred modes of transportation is based on the implementation of controversial policies to which members of the general public can react negatively (Pucher and Buechler, “Sustainable Transport in Freiburg: Lessons from Germany’s Environmental Capital” 60). Such policies should be implemented gradually and in several stages to ensure a smooth transition. Also, the promotion of these means of transportation requires the reorganization of infrastructure and resources in a manner that makes this solution appropriate for residents. In well-planned areas, a policy supported by the higher level of government is an excellent long-term opportunity with multiple lasting benefits.
Most of the contemporary large urban areas are unequipped to face and handle the rapid growth of the population in a sustainable manner; in order to increase the sustainability in regard to the improvement of the quality of air and the reduction of GHG emissions, cities are to focus on low carbon and eco-friendly sources of renewable energy one of which is solar energy. Mainstream urban construction oriented at the inclusion of solar panels as a part of the city planning is likely to achieve what can be referred to as zero energy and reduced carbon built environments and homes (Berry and Whaley 91-92). Infrastructure investments allowing the implementation of solar energy generation for the urban use should be directed at the standardized installation, renovation, and construction of the required photovoltaic equipment in the built environments which may result in flawed delivery and thus call for more costs than planned at first (Berry and Whaley 97). In that way, policy instruments should aim at the optimization of the building design for the appropriate performance levels and be based on thorough evidence and research.
As mentioned previously, the installation and the adjustment of the new standards for solar equipment must match the environments in which it will be used. Inappropriate or flawed research and calculations, as well as the errors during installation, will lead to the ineffective use of equipment and the loss of costs (Berry and Whaley 98). In that way, it can be said that the effectiveness and equity of this particular policy are highly dependent on the city structures as well as the solar radiation levels in the area and throughout the seasons. For some organizations and buildings this adjustment can be unacceptable or unreasonable due to their location; also, the implementation of this policy will call for the reduction of the number of trees located closely to the populated areas which can negatively impact the quality of air.
The main challenge related to the switch to solar energy is the need for investment in the equipment that may not work properly or not result in the expected benefits due to insufficient research, inappropriate location, seasonal changes in solar radiation levels, and flawed installation and maintenance. However, the opportunity to create zero carbon and zero energy homes is highly beneficial for urban areas, and even if only some of the districts can be equipped with solar panels – it could still be advantageous (Kammen and Sunter 922).
Kirshnan et al. defined urban agriculture as “the growing, processing, and distribution of food and other products through intensive plant cultivation and animal husbandry in and around cities” (325). Best policy instruments for the change aimed at this innovation should aim at the effective and alternative use of land (Wier and Zomer). In addition, Kirshnan et al. recognize food charters as a convenient and effective policy instrument allowing the promotion of the ideas of food security, sustainability, and safety driven by urban agriculture (338-339).
Similarly to the issues faced by innovative planning strategies aiming at the increased use of solar energy in urban areas, urban agriculture also deals with the issues of equity since the relocation of the sources of consumable foods and grown non-food resources to the urban areas is possible in the cities that have the appropriate structures and spaces (Rainwater 46-47). However, the equity is high with this initiative and under the sufficient planning, the areas suitable for urban agriculture can be found if not within, then near the city, thus placing the source of consumable goods closer to the city and minimizing the energy and time spent on the delivery and making the supply chain shorter and more efficient.
The major challenge faced by urban agriculture is linked to the lack of awareness about this practice, and thus the insufficiency of support for its implementation is present (Kirshnan et al. 335-340). In that way, the policies aimed at the introduction of this innovative practice to the urban planning initiatives are to take into consideration the social perception of this change and the potential barriers slowing down its enforcement. The promotion of appropriate values is necessary for the urban authorities to ensure the positive social attitude to this change and a high level of readiness to embrace it and participate in its development. The major opportunity for the promotion of urban agriculture is the modern social trend for food consciousness, which makes many modern urban citizens more appreciative of a high quality of food, as well as of the chance to learn in detail how it is produced and delivered.
Of the three domains of the sustainable urban planning discussed in this report, the one supporting the healthy and environmentally safe transportation options seems to be the most promising way to reduce the carbon footprint of the city. In addition to the obvious benefits such as the reduction of GHG emissions produced by motor vehicles, the increased use of bicycles in urban areas is also beneficial for the public health and safety because it offers a daily exercise for a better quality of life and safer roads with lower and less dangerous traffic. Also, in well-populated city centers, this initiative can be gradually introduced due to the dense location of destinations and resources; whereas, in less active urban areas, certain infrastructure adjustments and a more effective placement of common destinations will be needed for the change to work properly (Condon 68).
Condon, Patrick M. Seven Rules for Sustainable Communities . Island Press, n.d. Berry, Stephen and David Whaley. “The Implications of Mandating Photovoltaics on All New Homes.” Energy Procedia, vol. 83, 2015, pp. 91 – 100. Kammen, Daniel M. and Deborah A. Sunter. “City-Integrated Renewable Energy for Urban Sustainability.” Urban Planet , vol. 325, no. 6288, 2016, pp. 922-928. Kirshnan, Sarada et al. “Sustainable Urban Agriculture: A Growing Solution to Urban Food Deserts.” Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture , edited by Dilip Nandwani, Springer, 2016, pp. 324-344. Pucher, John and Ralph Buehler. “Sustainable Transport in Freiburg: Lessons from Germany’s Environmental Capital.” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation , vol. 5, 2011, pp. 43–70. —. “Walking and Cycling for Healthy Cities.” Built Environment , vol. 36, no. 4, 2010, pp 391-414. Rainwater, Brooks. Local Leaders in Sustainability. The American Institute of Architects, 2009. Wier, Emily and Alisa Zomer. “Land Use Planning: The Critical Part of Climate Action Plans that Most Cities Miss.” The Nature of Cities , n.d. Web.
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Essay on Sustainable Development: Format; Examples
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- Nov 22, 2022
One of the most debatable and relevant issues in the contemporary times, Sustainable Development is becoming the need of the hour. Selfishly pursuing modernization, humans have frequently compromised with the requirements of a more sustainable environment. As a result, the increased environmental depletion is evident with the prevalence of deforestation, pollution, greenhouse gases, climate change etc. The concept of Sustainable Development in India has even greater relevance due to controversy surrounding the big dams and mega projects and related long term growth. Since it is quite a frequently asked topic in school tests as well as competitive exams , we are here to help you understand what this concept means as well as the mantras to drafting a well-written essay on Sustainable Development with format and examples.
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What is sustainable development, 250-300 words essay on sustainable development, 300 words essay on sustainable development, 500 words essay on sustainable development, introduction, conclusion of sustainable development essay, importance of sustainable development, examples of sustainable development.
As the term simply explains, Sustainable Development aims to bring a balance between meeting the requirements of what the present demands while not overlooking the needs of future generations. It acknowledges nature’s requirements along the human’s aim to work towards the development of different aspects of the world. It aims to efficiently utilise resources while also meticulously planning the accomplishment of immediate as well as long-term goals for human beings, the planet as well as future generations. In the present time, the need for Sustainable Development is not only for the survival of mankind but also for its future protection.
Looking for ideas to incorporate in your Essay on Sustainable Development? Read our blog on Energy Management – Find Your Sustainable Career Path and find out!
To give you an idea on the way to deliver a well-written essay, we have curated a sample on sustainable development below, with 250-300 words:
To give you an idea on the way to deliver a well-written essay, we have curated a sample on sustainable development below, with 300 + words:
Must Read: Article Writing
To give you an idea on the way to deliver a well-written essay, we have curated a sample on sustainable development below, with 500 + words:
Before drafting an essay on Sustainable Development, students need to get familiarised with the format of essay writing, as to know how to structure the essay on a given topic. Take a look at the following pointers which elaborate upon the format of 300-350 word essay.
Introduction (50-60 words) In the introduction, students must introduce or provide an overview of the given topic, i.e. highlighting and adding recent instances and questions related to sustainable development. Body of Content (100-150 words) The area of the content after the introduction can be explained in detail about why sustainable development is important, objectives and highlighting the efforts made by the government and various institutions towards it. Conclusion (30-40 words) In the essay on Sustainable Development, you must add a conclusion wrapping up the content in about 2-3 lines, either with an optimistic touch to it or just summarizing what has been talked above.
How to write the introduction of sustainable development essay? To begin with your essay on sustainable development, you must mention the following points:
- What is sustainable development?
- What does sustainable development focus on?
- Why is it useful for the environment?
How to write the conclusion of sustainable development essay? To conclude your essay on sustainable development, mention why it has become the need of the hour. Wrap up all the key points you have mentioned in your essay and provide some important suggestions to implement sustainable development.
The importance of sustainable development is that it meets the needs of the present generations without compromising on the needs of the coming future generations. Sustainable development teaches us to use our resources in the correct manner. Listed below are some points which tell us the importance of sustainable development.
- Focusses on Sustainable Agricultural Methods – Sustainable development is important because it takes care of the needs of future generations and makes sure that the increasing population does not put a burden on Mother Earth. It promotes agricultural techniques such as crop rotation and effective seeding techniques.
- Manages Stabilizing the Climate – We are facing the problem of climate change due to excessive use of fossil fuels and killing the natural habitat of animals. Sustainable development plays a major role in preventing climate change by development practices that are sustainable. It promotes reducing the use of fossil fuels which release greenhouse gases that destroy the atmosphere.
- Provides Important Human Needs – Sustainable development promotes the idea of saving for future generations and making sure that resources are allocated to everybody. It is based on the principle of developing an infrastructure that is can be sustained for a long period of time.
- Sustain Biodiversity – If the process of sustainable development is followed, the home and habitat of all other living animals will not be depleted. As sustainable development focusses on preserving the ecosystem it automatically helps in sustaining and preserving biodiversity.
- Financial Stability – As sustainable development promises steady development the economies of countries can become stronger by using renewable sources of energy as compared to using fossil fuels, of which there is only a particular amount on our planet.
Mentioned below are some important examples of sustainable development. Have a look:
- Wind Energy – Wind energy is an easily available resource. It is also a free resource. It is a renewable source of energy and the energy which can be produced by harnessing the power of wind will be beneficial for everyone. Wind mills can produce energy which can be used to our benefit. It can be a helpful source of reducing the cost of grid power and is a fine example of sustainable development.
- Solar Energy – Solar energy is also a source of energy which is readily available and there is no limit to it. Solar energy is being used to replace and do many things which were first being done by using non-renewable sources of energy. Solar water heaters are a good example. It is cost-effective and sustainable at the same time.
- Crop Rotation – To increase the potential of growth of gardening land, crop rotation is an ideal and sustainable way. It is rid of any chemicals and reduces the chances of disease in the soil. This form of sustainable development is beneficial to both commercial farmers and home gardeners.
- Efficient Water Fixtures – The installation of hand and head showers in our toilets which are efficient and do not waste or leak water is a method of conserving water. Water is essential for us and conserving every drop is important. Spending lesser time under the shower is also a way of sustainable development and conserving water.
- Sustainable Forestry – This is an amazing way of sustainable development where the timber trees that are cut by factories are replaced by another tree. A new tree is planted in place of the one which was cut down. This way, soil erosion is prevented and we have hope of having a better, greener future.
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Effect of Urban Living on Sustainability
- rural to urban migration (mostly in LEDCs and NICs)
- natural increase (birth rate exceeds deathrate) (mostly in LEDCs and NICs)
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Urban Sustainability and Urban Food Security
“Urban Sustainability and Urban Food Security”
Economic growth is facilitated by political stability and capitalism, which favor sustainability of the urban areas and food increment. As a result, sustainable growth and development are viewed as a development strategy that establishes and upholds the conditions under which people and nature can freely exist and live in productive harmony Barthel (1338). As a result, sustainable development provides for the wants of current group without interfering with provision of same resources for future generation. It is aimed to meet the needs of human beings without overexploiting the natural resources. As such, it is evident that there is equity in intra and inter generation.
The main pillars of sustainability are economic growth, protection of the environment and social equity. The components are viewed as a sustainable development, which results in food security, and urban developments. Discourse is strict on the environment as compared to social justice issues such as education, food, and housing. Besides, there are social and economic challenges that affect the performance of sustainable developments. Capitalism is a major hindrance to the protection of the environment. Patriarchy and racism affect achievement of social equity objectives. There should be effective strategies to ensure environmental sustainability by conserving the environment. Measures should be set aside to provide recycling of waste products to avoid the rate of pollution .
Sustainability and neoliberalism
A mix of larger social, economic circumstances, urbanization trends and demographic offer explanation to the changing development of slums in the developing nations. Belo Horizonte uses neoliberal for sustainable development. In this strategy, there is privatization of different services, and an individual fee is charged for instance in garbage collection. This makes it hard for people who do not have money to acquire such services, for example for garbage collection S. a. Barthel (234). As a result, their garbage remains uncollected, and the environment becomes dirty due to waste disposal at all over the place. The trash left on the ground results in environmental pollution such as blocking of drainage and this interferes with the hygiene of the environment. Consequently, the sustainability of the region is affected. Undermining of sustainability has significantly influenced the environment and resulted in higher levels of pollution.
Besides, justice of the environment has been neglected and the distribution strategies reduced. For example, plastic bags are distributed in in slums and poor areas across the country. The plastic bags result in higher levels of environmental pollution in such areas, and this affects the sustainability of the environment. The plastic bags are not environmental friendly because they do not compose and they end up blocking the drainages. This results in a reduction in environmental friendliness. The bags are breeding sites for mosquitoes which may lead to the rise of disease endangering the lives of the people. The bags also result in blocked gutters which result in flooding in the areas which may result in loss of lives and increase in disease incidences. Poor families living in the slums do not have money to purchase improved health services even after.
Distribution of the bags is affected by political and economic factors resulting to an inequitable delivery of the plastic bags. A collection of waste materials is privatized, and this is an economic factor which affects environmental sustainability and results in food shortage in majority of the countries across the globe Mok (43). Poor families live in dirty environments, and this threatens their lives because they become susceptible to disease incidences such as cholera and typhoid. Political reasons result in deregulated private segment resulting in charges for collection of garbage and other services.
Neoliberal involves Privatization of natural resources such as land. The privatization strategy reduces the productive land for crop production and other activities. As a result, it results in a reduction in food production and food shortage affects such countries to a greater level. Privatization cause environmental injustices arising from Colding (166). There is reduced distribution of resources in the low-income regions as compared to higher income regions. This results to the oppression of the people in such regions leading to the suffering. Ownership of natural resources such as land and natural oils have been made private, and this hinders the capability of poor people acquiring them, and they end up suffering. Privatization limits distribution of services such as food and education to the poor families living in the slums and this result in higher levels of suffering due to food shortage.
Renewable energy and green jobs
Recycling plays a critical role in enhancing environmental sustainability while at the same time generating employment to some people. The recycling strategies are comprehensive and lower the rate of a landfill and open employment opportunities. Besides, recycling encourages social equity in the country by allowing people to get passes by exchanging for waste materials Besthorn (203). It allows some people and families to commit themselves to accumulating and exchanging waste products as their source of income. The country acquires income by selling the recyclables for reprocessing to some factories, and the money is used in social developments.
Schools and communities can set up gardens to produce crops while conserving the environment. Besides, sale of extra crops can be useful in generating funds for different projects reducing the level of poverty . Countries should adopt the strategy of producing food in their own country, and this reduces global warming resulting from carbon emitted during the transportation of food products. Internal growing of crops will create employment for people working in the farms, and this will improve the economy of the country. Besides, it ensures access to nutritious, fresh and affordable food.
However, it is challenging to ensure availability of food and employment while protecting the environment at the same time. Failure of government support in crop production activities results in poor strategies which pollute the environment. Lack of labor hinders comprehensive production activities in different sectors such as industries resulting in environmental pollution Marsden (226). Privatization of business activities lowers corporation amongst people and this results in environmental pollution. Commercialization of some services such as garbage collection results environmental degradation. Poor families do not have money to purchase the services and as a result, they end up disposing the waste temporarily on the environment resulting in pollution. In some instances, environmentalists fail to educate the public on environment conservation and some of them do not have knowledge regarding the environment.
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- Urban sustainability: how can cities become sustainable?
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- Urban Sustainability in Europe — Glossary of key terms and concepts
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Europe is a highly urbanised continent. Today, around 75 % of Europe’s population live in urban areas. Estimates predict that European urban population will rise to 80 % in 2050. The urban landscape of Europe is heterogenous and characterised by a diversity of mostly small and medium cities.
of European population live in urban areas, in 2021
There are less than 30 cities in the EU with a population of more than one million. According to an assessment by UN-habitat in 2016 , of these cities, only Paris and London can be considered megacities – high density metropolises of more than 10 million inhabitants.
The urbanization pattern of Europe
The EU has a key role in promoting sustainable urban development. But cities (local authorities in general) have their own governance setting and therefore, are best placed to take local action to tackle and resolve environmental challenges, whilst ensuring a good quality of life for their citizens. Traditionally, they are crucial in improving waste and water management, public transport and efficiently using land by implementing integrated urban planning. Today, they also take centre stage on climate change adaptation and ecosystems preservation and restoration.
How can cities transform to become more sustainable ?
Urban systems are inherently complex. With the ample support of urban stakeholders, the EEA developed a conceptual model and selected six observation and analysis lenses to assess the role of cities in urban transitions towards environmental sustainability, within the broad European Green Deal framework and the EU Urban Agenda. Based on the stakeholders-led assessment process several outputs have been co-created.
Conceptual framework for urban environmental sustainability
Eea outputs on the relevance of cities’ environment transitions towards sustainability.
Read the assessments
- Urban sustainability in Europe – What is driving environmental change?
- Urban Sustainability in Europe – Opportunities for challenging times
- Urban sustainability in Europe – A stakeholder-led assessment process
- Urban sustainability in Europe – Glossary of key terms and concepts
- Urban sustainability in Europe – Avenues for change
- Urban Sustainability in Europe – Learning from nexus analysis
- Urban sustainability in Europe – Post‑pandemic drivers of environmental transitions
Explore other EEA products supporting knowledge towards sustainability at the city and local level
The resilient city.
City, in which the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems enable them to survive, adapt, and grow in response to chronic stresses and acute shocks.
- How are Europe’s cities adapting to climate change and moving to a sustainable future?
- Sustainability: What are the alternatives to economic growth?
- Growth without economic growth
- EU renewable electricity has reduced environmental pressures; targeted actions help further reduce impacts
- Urban adaptation in Europe: how cities and towns respond to climate change
- Urban waste water treatment for 21 st century challenges
- Towards ‘just resilience’: leaving no one behind when adapting to climate change
The green city
City models based on approaches to functional and ecological urban development design, provide healthy and sustainable environments for both natural systems and communities.
- Nature-based solutions in Europe: Policy, knowledge and practice for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction
- Access to green urban areas within a ten minute walk in cities across Europe
- Bio-waste in Europe – turning challenges into opportunities
- Floodplains: a natural system to preserve and restore
- Tools to support green infrastructure planning and ecosystem restoration
- Mapping Europe’s ecosystems
- Land systems at European level – analytical assessment framework
- Copernicus Urban Atlas used for assessing access to green areas in Europe's cities
- Urban Green Infrastructure, 2018
- Urban tree cover
- Who benefits from nature in cities? Social inequalities in access to urban green and blue spaces across Europe
The low carbon city
City that has achieved or moving towards achieving low-carbon practices in all its aspects including economy, daily life (e.g., travel, politics and culture).
- Transport and environment report 2020 – Train or plane?
- Cutting greenhouse gas emissions through circular economy actions in the building sector
- The first and last mile – the key to sustainable urban transport
- Trends and projections in Europe 2020
The inclusive city
City, in which the processes of development include a wide variety of citizens and activities and involving spatial, social and economic inclusion.
- The sustainability transition in Europe in an age of demographic and technological change
- Drivers of change of relevance for Europe’s environment and sustainability
- Is Europe living within the limits of our planet?
- Sustainability transitions: policy and practice
- Unequal exposure and unequal impacts: social vulnerability to air pollution, noise and extreme temperatures in Europe
- Towards ‘just resilience’: leaving no one behind when adapting to climate change
- Exposure of vulnerable groups to climate risks
The healthy city
City with physical and social environments and community resources, which enable people to perform all the functions of life and develop to their maximum potential.
- European city air quality viewer
- Health risks caused by environmental noise in Europe
- Air quality in Europe – 2020 report
- Healthy environment, healthy lives: how the environment influences health and well-being in Europe
- Assessing air quality through citizen science
- Environmental noise in Europe - 2020
- Europe’s urban air quality – re-assessing implementation challenges in cities
The circular city
City, in which all product and material streams can be brought back into the cycle after use, and become a resource for new products and services.
- Digital technologies will deliver more efficient waste management in Europe
- A framework for enabling circular business models in Europe
- The case for increasing recycling: estimating the potential for recycling in Europe
- Europe’s consumption in a circular economy: the benefits of longer lasting electronics
- Construction and demolition waste: challenges and opportunities in a circular economy
Background information: Cities’ influence in policy making
The influence of cities in EU policymaking has been increasingly recognised over the last few decades, including through the establishment of the Committee of the Regions in 1994 and the signing of the Leipzig Charter in 2006 (updated in 2020). The Pact of Amsterdam from 2016 culminated in the Urban Agenda for the EU , giving new impetus to and integrating the already many instruments dedicated to cities. Furthermore, city networks and associations are becoming increasingly important in shaping global climate and sustainability agreements.
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For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/sustainability-transitions/urban-environment/urban-sustainability or scan the QR code.
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The Importance Of Sustainable Urban Development
Analysis of parable of the sower by octavia butler.
As the world’s population continues to migrate and live in urban areas, planners, engineers, and politicians have an important role to ensure that they are livable and sustainable. But what defines an urban area and what makes it so attractive? In my opinion, urban areas are places that consist of a variety of land uses and buildings, where services and amenities are easily accessible to the general public, and includes an established multimodal transportation network. Also, it should be a place where people can play, learn, work, and grow in a safe and collaborative manner. Based on that definition, the novel, “Parable of the Sower” by Octavia Butler mostly portray cities as a problem due to their lack of safety and the oppression
Rise Of Urbanization In The United States
As the development of the society and the rise of capitalism, modern cities appeared and urbanization become possible in the United States. Urbanization is “the process through which people migrate from the countryside to urban centers” (Boyle, 311). People move to cities due to various factors, and one of the main reasons is that there are many new opportunities in the urban areas, which attracted people to come. As a result, people could earn money, enjoy better social services, and increase social class at cities. People understood urbanization through urban ecology, which is also an idea from Darwinian “the process through which social groups compete for urban space and shift and sort themselves into different neighborhoods or niches, according
The Importance Of Gentrification
Gentrification to me is nothing more than a system that robs the locals of their neighborhood by changing what made the neighborhood unique in order to turn a profit and make it a more desirable place to live. It is easily recognizable by the amount of construction occurring and the remodeling of homes, stores parks etc. this is commonly seen in low-income neighborhoods because it has a great starting ground. In order to attract more upper-class citizens, a legion of buildings is built that are usually expensive and caters to individuals of that class. This becomes problematic because the cost of living in that highly is likely to rise and the lower income family that once strive in that neighborhood would have to leave
Cities improve due to innovation, but humans residing in them may not. The Industrial Revolution was a period in time where new inventions helped labor become less taxing and more efficient in the South. On the other hand, the North developed urban cities, which attracted many people. Urban cities had become the epitome of civilization: ease of life and wealth was present, but not available to everyone. To elaborate, these urban cities provided job opportunities to women. Nevertheless, the poor lived in terrible conditions, child labor was common, conflicts arose between immigrants and American citizens, and the government approved of rich people’s selfishness.
The Role Of Capitalism In The Urban Environment
Capitalism plays a direct role in shaping the urban environment and the city. The geography of the city is not formed by natural forces. But rather, it is the result of the power of capitalism, through creating markets and controlling the workforce.
Urbanization: Annotated Bibliography
8. Urbanization: • Urban population: 99% of total population (2016 est.) • Rate of urbanization: 3.0% annual rate of change (2015 est.) • Major cities – population: DOHA (capital) 344,939 (2016) 9. Sex ratio: • At birth: 1.02 male(s) / female • 0-14 years: 1.03 male(s) / female • 15-24 years: 2.75 male(s) / female • 25-54 years: 4.8 male(s) / female • 55-64 years: 3.37 male(s) / female • 65 years and over: 1.5 male(s) / female • Total population: 3.29 male(s) / female (2014 est.)
Argumentative Essay On Urbanisation
Urbanization can be a good impact to a country and has the ability to improve its economy and the life of people but it also has the ability to destroy the country and the life of all the people that exist there.
Problems Of Sustainable Construction
In today’s world, most developing countries are in a race to build up the necessary infrastructure to scale up there operations and become the next global superpower. In this process, a lot of energy is consumed – be it for transportation, manufacturing or construction. This rapid growth of energy use seen over the past two decades have raised concerns for governments and energy-related organizations alike. Questions with regard to the supply, sustainability and exhaustion of energy sources abound, and while most developed countries have taken active steps to reduce consumption of scarce resources, the position of developing countries in this regard is still lacking.
How Does Climate Change Affect Society
The debate surrounding climate change as an urgent issue that is a threat to global security has gained momentum over the last decade. The Stern Review in 2007 brought out the reality that is associated with the extent to which climate change can impact our society. In economic terms, climate change is nothing but a classic example of a market failure, a negative externality. The development around the globe has come with the cost that is climate change. The harmful effects of industrialisation on the environment will have to be paid for by the present and future generations alike. Inequality is a much-discussed phenomenon in most international forums today. Capital growth around the world has led to the generation of arbitrary and unsustainable inequalities , leading to the dominance of the Global North over the South. The review highlighted an important relation between inequality and climate change. It stated that the poorest countries and societies, the ones with the least available resources
Short Essay On Sustainable Living
As cities began to grow with the population increase, the need for a sustainable development became more apparent as resources began to diminish in quantity and value.
Strengths And Weaknesses Of Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is a model that aims to link the idea of what is to be sustained, with what is to be developed, and focuses on three pillars, economics, social and environmental (Kates, Parris, and Leiserowitz, 2005; pp. 3). As a holistic approach it seeks to develop the three pillars, on a local, regional and global level. This paper will analyse the concept of sustainable development and the strengths and weaknesses of this approach will be discussed. Firstly, a background of this model will be presented, which will explore the three pillars. Secondly, the strengths and weaknesses will be evaluated, and lastly, a brief contrast will be provided of the opinions of sustainable development between the Global North and Global South. The conclusion conveyed at the end of this paper, will be that sustainable development is a concept with weaknesses however, the strengths outweigh them.
The Importance Of Sustainable Development
Sustainable development, as its name suggests, is a concept continually elaborating. The most commonly used definition, according to World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), is the development which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987). It shows the importance of considering benefits for both current and future generations and strongly supports economic development, while it also implies when accessing environment and natural resources, human beings tend to take an anthropocentric view, that the primary goal is to satisfy human needs. With no regard for earth as a life-support system, a development will not be considered sustainable. Therefore, by taking economic, social, environmental issues into accounts is a key approach to develop sustainably in different contexts.
Three Pillars Of Sustainable Development
I agree with the assertion that in the context of Sustainable Development ‘the reality of life today is that the economy dominates environment and society.
Essay On Urban Land Use System
To meet the higher urbanization and higher population new infrastructure has to be provided and as well as has to upgrade the current
The Three Pillars Of Sustainable Development
Kahn’s (1995) approach to the sustainable development theory is consistent with the modern day development techniques of Europe 2020 priorities; smart growth, sustainable growth and inclusive growth. The adoption of some innovative strategies such as the utilisation of renewable energy as an integral part of the energy mix could result in growth of the economy, which will eventually trickle down to the poor or extend to the rural or disadvantaged areas of the country. The social sustainability generally explains the idea of equity among the people, empowerment, participation, accessibility and institutional stability. It seeks to ensure a good standard of living in the country by alleviating poverty. Environmental sustainability seeks to explain the ways in which exploitation and utilisation of the natural resources will not be made to negatively affect the environment or the health of human beings (Kahn 1995). Environmental sustainability considers the ways through which resources will not be used up faster than they are being replenished, and the transition toward low carbon emissions despite the increasing population.
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International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, Volume 15, Issue 1 (2023)
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------------------------------------------------- Associate Level Material Urban Sustainability – Option 2 Project Name: Holly’s Home and Garden | Project Goals: 1.) Energy Efficiency2.) Water Efficiency3.) Transportation | Summary: The following principles were implemented into the sustainability table below: 1) Organizational sustainability 2) Economic sustainability 3) Environmental sustainability 4) Social sustainability. To avoid employing these principles would mean that the balance within the ecosystem is not my main priority and that monetary gratification would be. Each of the principles are important to the other in such a way that removal of any of the four principles would be lethal to the ecosystems survival. | Plan Outline | Sustainability Measures Needed | What You Need to Learn and/or Investigate | Information Sources Used | Short-term Costs | Long-term Savings | How it benefits me and my family | How it Promotes Urban Sustainability | | Lifestyle | Materials | | | | | | | Energy Efficiency | | | | | | | | | Electricitya. changing light bulbsb. timersc. dimmers | Yes | Yes | Exactly how many kilowatts per hour for each unit will be saved | United States Department of Energy energy.gov | Buy efficiency light bulbs, timers, and dimmers | 1.2% - 2.4% or $50 on the annual electric bill. | Replacing 15 inefficient incandescent bulbs in your home with energy-saving bulbs | Reduces the amount of kWh output which maintains the environment and ecosystems | Heating/Coolinga. solar energyb. wind energy | Yes | Yes | Low cost energy savings | Solarcity.com | Zero down/ pay mthly for power they produce at lower rate | 6-8 years payback on investment and 30 year protection plan | No air pollution and 30% or more on tax credit | Reduces air pollution and also the use of non-renewable resources. Maintains...
...Urban Sustainability Sci – 275 10-10-14 Instructor: Karen Marasigan By: Tyler Vesneski The program that I chose to implement into my hometown is “How to Build a Cooler City.” “From 1878 to 2005, Los Angeles temperatures rose 4 degrees on average, climbing from around 62 degrees to 66 degrees.” Urban areas such as Downtown Los Angeles are likely to rise 4 to 4.5 degrees within the next 10 years. My goal is to cut the cost of electric energy and make the city of Los Angeles a much cooler place. The first challenge I will have is to go to city council and try to get them to back up my project and me. The next step would be to get a budget from the city and start working. I can lower the temperature of Los Angeles by implementing green roofs across the city and in particular downtown Los Angeles. The other is to lay down permeable material throughout alleyways and select streets. Both of these solutions have been used in Chicago to help lower the physical temperature of the city. For example the City Hall building in Chicago is half a regular black top roof and the other half a green roof. When measuring the temperature the black topside of the roof was about 160 degrees Fahrenheit, when on the other side of the same building, the green roof side, and the temperature dropped to about 80 degrees Fahrenheit. That is an 80-degree difference. The reason the roofing is such an issue is because all that heat is trapped on top of the building and then moves into the......
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With Reference to Either Waste Management in Urban Areas or Transport Management in Urban Areas, Discuss the Extent to Which Sustainability Can Be Achieved.
...With reference to either Waste management in urban areas or Transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability can be achieved. Answer 1 (Transport) Sustainable management in urban areas is a constant theme for urban areas in both LEDCs and MEDCs. This essay will be based on whether transport management can be achieved sustainably and whether or not it is only transport management that can achieve sustainability or other aspects such as improved housing, preventing urban sprawl and protecting the environment also add to the possibility of achieving sustainability. Transport management in urban areas is approached differently in both LEDCs and MEDCs. However the problems as a result of increased congestion in cities are similar. Some of those problems include deliveries being late, causing businesses to slow down and therefore the economy of the area; increased car ownership and therefore congestion releases a lot of pollutants such as carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere. These cause problems such as acid rain when sulphur dioxide combines with water vapour forming sulphuric acid and carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas so increased levels add to the greenhouse effect and therefore global warming. Increased car ownership also lacks sustainability in terms of natural resource use so managing this transport in cities is important. In MEDCs the problem of obesity is rife with one in four adults in the UK that are obese and 10% of......
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To What Extent Can Urban Areas Be Sustainable
...Urban sustainability is the idea that an urban area can be organised without excessive reliance on the surrounding countryside and be able to power itself with renewable sources of energy. The aim of this is to create the smallest possible environmental footprint and to produce the lowest quantity of pollution possible, to efficiently use land, compost used materials, recycle it or convert waste-to-energy, and to make the urban area overall contribution to climate change minimal. Therefore allowing the next generations and future generations to have the required resources without compromising them. It is estimated that over 50% of the world’s population now lives in urban areas and that this will rise to 70% by 2050. Such a change will influence urban sustainability even more. One major area in sustainability for urban areas is the environment. Waste management is a very important aspect for urban areas as not only is the amount of waste increase as the population of urban areas increases. Within the UK the average person produces 517kg of household waste every year but luckily waste disposal in the UK is fairly efficient. However many other countries are more efficient in waste management and recycling such as Germany 48% and Switzerland 52%. Resources need to be managed rather than disposed of as landfills are the least sustainable option and cost money to manage. The best way on managing waste in urban areas is to try and reduce, reuse and recycling. Businesses are......
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College Park Analysis
...Term Paper #3: Urban Sustainability GEOG330 Due: December 11, 2015 I am analyzing College Park, Maryland. College Park is a city in Prince George’s County, Maryland that is occupied by more than 31,000 residents. (College Park MD, Welcome To College Park Intro Paragraph) Majority of the economy in College Park is fueled by the jobs offered through the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD). This university host over 13,000 employees, making them the biggest employer in the city. University of Maryland, University College is the second biggest employer, providing work for 2,790 employees. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Koppen Climate Classification system, College Park has a humid subtropical climate. (Climate, Climate: College Park) I currently live in Lanham, MD, which is about 12 miles away from College Park. As a kid, I always passed by the city and always dreamed about going to the University of Maryland. I attended multiple basketball and football games as a kid, and attended programs that occurred on campus. As a close residing area, College Park is considered home to me. I’ve lived in this area all my life. When my parents moved from Nigeria to the United States, they chose to live in this area because of the lack of extreme weather and excellent higher-level education system provided in the area. I would love to stay here after graduation, but I will go wherever my......
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...State of Australian Cities Conference 2015 Sustainability at the Australian local government level: Is there room for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)? Umberto Baresi1, Karen J. Vella2, and Neil G. Sipe1 School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland 2 School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology 1 Abstract: Recent calls in Australia have addressed the need for better integration of planning processes. The consequent effort made by the government has been, and still is, reshaping the way urban and regional planning and sustainability are managed. Focusing on planning practices at the local and regional levels, we investigate how environmental sustainability is pursued from an institutional perspective. Specifically, we analyse the way that planning in Australian cities aims to achieve sustainable strategies and reflect on the relationship with ‘Strategic Environmental Assessment’. This paper has four goals. First, sustainable planning practices at the local and regional levels are analysed considering the legislative and organizational frameworks of each state. The goal is to identify, through an analysis of planning documents, how much discretion is given to local councils to address sustainable strategies. Second, we focus on two regions and four cities in Queensland, to outline strengths and weaknesses of current legislative and practical frameworks. We use analytical criteria......
Words: 5661 - Pages: 23
Sustainbale Media Journal
...Sustainability Media Journal 111857253 Xuxu Miao The concept of sustainable development spread first into the mainstream in the 1980s. These years, driven by internal and external factors, many corporations are beginning to integrate sustainability into their business models to gain competitive advantage in today’s market. This essay will introduce what forces the corporation to become sustainable and what corporation can do to achieve sustainability while listing an example of an ideal corporation in this term. Both of the external and internal drivers accelerate transformation towards sustainability for corporation. The worsening environment in China is prominent power for moving to sustainability currently. The push to clean up the country's air, land and water has forced company to transform its developing model. Though China has become the world's second- largest economy, it is still in the lower part of the world's industry chain and has a lot of industries with excessive energy consumption and high pollution. Due to social and economic factors, Hebei provincial government in January this year has banned approvals of new steel, cement, glass and nonferrous metal plants-these industries are both environment killers and economic drivers in Hebin (Jin Haixing 2014). It can be seen that these industries have to change their way of operation, which can add the most value with the least use of resources and pollution. Meanwhile, increasing public awareness of......
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Green vs. Gray
...and lead a more eco-friendly lifestyle. We have learned that the actions we take today will affect us tomorrow. If we take the time to take care of our earth, our quality of life can be improved. Recycling affects the species that live on the planet. For animals to thrive on our planet we must have a clean environment with little waste. Everyone has seen the pictures of the animals that experience deformities due to being stuck in plastic rings. Biodiversity is essential for the functioning and sustainability of an ecosystem. Different species play specific functions, and changes in species composition, species richness, and functional type affect the efficiency with which resources are processed within an ecosystem. This project reminds us that we can all be doing our part by recycling and taking action to help reduce waste. Q: What did you do? – be very specific – include plant names, soil types, names of groups and individuals A: I visited Kathleen Grady at the Office of sustainability and learned of the expansion of Temple’s recycling program. I was assigned the task of traveling to the different schools on Temple’s campus to hand out flyers and magnets that helps spread the awareness of the program expansion. I gave people in faculty office these messages so they could be hung accordingly. Temple expanded its recycling program so that members of the university community can now recycle mixed plastics, Nos. 1-7. Examples of newly accepted items include yogurt cups,......
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...Architecture and the Environment Architecture is an art and above others, combines expression, technology, and the satisfaction of human needs into the structures that are designed and built (Moore, 1979). Physical structures tend to have a significant effect on human behavior based on its design. As people began to spend more time inside, it is valuable to design structures that integrate features from the natural environment and structural landscape features in the man-made environment (Joye, 2007). It is important to understand the full aspect of how architecture affects humans, controls behavior, and supports sustainable development. Researchers often suggest that the design of residential and commercial space has pervasive effects on its inhabitants and is an important consideration in architectural design. Physical Structure and the Effects on Human Behavior Architecture as an art is a symbolic and intentional design that seems to reflect the psychology of its designers regardless of time, culture, and perhaps even gender. The space, form, and light are main elements generally incorporated purposely or unconsciously for aesthetic and practical reasons that give the creations meaning, purpose, and stability among an ever changing physical universe (Papow, 2000). Some people perceive architecture as functional and all designs are not esthetically pleasing, similar to the effect of any other art form. Architecture also can be an expression of cultural pride,......
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Climate Change Report
...and fauna. The challenge now ahead of mankind is to focus on sustainable development and fight against issues like global warming and delayed rainfalls. Both the renewable and nonrenewable resources are under the threat of depletion. Issues like growing human population, deforestation, acute fuel shortage, and food production crisis drives our attention to sustainable development. The concept of sustainable development is making rounds ever since its inception in 1987. This paper proposes to build a conceptual model that relates social system and ecosystem with social, economic and environmental factors so as to build a System Dynamics model highlighting sustainable development. Keywords: Social Sustainability, Ecological Sustainability, Economic Sustainability, Environmental Sustainability, System Dynamics. Introduction: Sterman (2012) states that human civilization is unsustainable and is deteriorating rapidly. Fast paced life, desire for wealth creation, and rapid urbanization have...
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...into a company that is a pioneer in development and sustainability, and a global leader in the development, production and management of renewable energy, water and infrastructure with the minimum environmental impact. This achievement would not have been possible without ACCIONA’s pioneering background. It was created by the first merger in Spain’s construction industry and, in the 1990s, it was the first non-utility to move into renewable energy. ACCIONA is the construction company that has most successfully diversified followed by a process of concentration. Sustainability is a core axis of its strategy, and energy, infrastructure and water are the vectors of future growth. In 2004, José Manuel Entrecanales was appointed Chairman, and he spearheads the Company’s transition towards these three pillars of growth. In 2005, ACCIONA strengthened its position using an innovative strategy based on orienting those businesses towards sustainable development, with a strong international approach. This sweeping transformation was also possible thanks to the enormous investment effort and social commitment as a creator of quality employment. In addition to its ten key markets, ACCIONA operates in a total of 32 countries; it has over 35,000 employees and obtained more than 12.7 billion euros in revenues in 2008. acciona completed its transformation into a pioneering company in sustainable development 6 AccionA Sustainability Report 2008 Company profile Transformation of...
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...In ecology, sustainability is how biological systems remain diverse and productive. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. The organizing principle for sustainability, is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains, ecology, economics, politics and culture. Sustainability science is the study of sustainable development and environmental science. Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of humans and other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact are environmentally-friendly chemical engineering, environmental resources management and environmental protection. Information is gained from green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems. Moving towards sustainability is also a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban planning and transport, local and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganising living conditions (e.g., ecovillages, eco-municipalities and sustainable cities), reappraising economic sectors (permaculture, green building, sustainable agriculture), or work practices (sustainable architecture), using science to develop......
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...Making the Environment and the People In It Sustainable In the summer of 2015, I was afforded the opportunity to do a six-week program at Howard University. This program, HCOP (Heath Careers and Opportunity Program), allowed me to expand my vision of what it really means to be in the STEM and health fields. On Wednesdays, we would have discussions about the contributions to health disruptions and disparities in our global society. The discussion that stood out to me the most is the one regarding environmental racism. Environmental racism is the systematic disruption of the livelihoods of people due to the environmental risks they face in their communities everyday. This injustice usually affects people of color and those is a lower socio-economic...
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...What is Environmental Sustainability? | Environmental sustainability is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.EPA efforts in the area of sustainability practices and approaches include labeling green products and promoting green chemistry and engineering, managing materials rather than creating waste, using green infrastructure to manage storm water runoff, and supporting the sustainable design of urban communities | | Supporting development and conservation strategies that help protect our natural environment and make our communities more attractive, economically stronger, and more socially diverse. * Environmentally Responsible Redevelopment and Reuse (ER3) * Green Buildings * Green Homes * Making Smart Growth Happen * Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research * Sustainable Skylines Air, Climate & Energy Working to reduce atmospheric levels of pollution and greenhouse gases, promote green energy, and adapt to a changing climate. * Air, Climate and Energy Research * Clean Energy * Clean Automotive Technology * Greening EPA * Green Power Partnership * Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) * SmartWay Transport Water Helping to manage, protect, and restore water resources and ecosystems through sustainable management of natural resources. * Green Infrastructure * Safe and Sustainable Water Resources......
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...Given the small land size of Singapore, what are the main urban obstacles facing the citizens? It is because of Singapore’s small land size that we’ve had to reconcile liveability, environmental sustainability, and economic competitiveness more so than many other cities, even as urban density increases with population growth. As a city-state, Singapore has limited resources. The scarcity of land has been and will continue to be a challenge we face, both for our citizens and the government. The small land area is related to other urban challenges such as traffic congestion and maintaining a liveable environment with adequate greenery and a sense of space. The challenge of balancing economic and population growth with liveability and sustainability is multi-faceted. Besides policy and technology innovations, the key is for all stakeholders to work together – government, businesses and the people to engage in positive interactions and collaborate on all fronts in order to overcome the urban obstacles. As many cities globally face increasing urban density, Singapore’s experience in ensuring a liveable and sustainable environment in spite of our population density is very relevant. At the same time, Singapore has much to learn from other cities. This is why platforms such as the World Cities Summit play a crucial role in facilitating necessary sharing and learning. The World Cities Summit from June 1-4 will have more than 130 mayors and city leaders gathering in Singapore,......
...Afgan, et al 2005. Multi- Criteria Assessment of New and Renewable Energy 27 (739-755). Bell, et al 2010. Nonprofit Sustainability: Making Strategic Decisions. Villiers Publication. London (114). Blackwood, et al 2011. The Nonprofit Sector in Brief: Public Charities, Giving, and Volunteering. Washington D.C Urban Institute (53-65). Bowman, et al 2011. Financial Capacity and Sustainability of Ordinary Nonprofits. Management and Leadership 3rd Ed. Oxford University Press (37-51). Brandlow,K. 2007.The Role of Government in Community Development in Aotearoa New Zealand. Victoria University o Wellington (13-42). Bray, Llona 2010. Effective Fundraising for Nonprofits: Real-World Strategies that Work 2ndEd. Macmillan Press Limited (71-90). Bridger, et at 2004. Building the Sustainable Community. University of Texas Press, USA (462-92). Cavallaro, F. 2005. Integrated Multi-Criteria System to Assess Sustainable Energy Option.Oxford University Press (140-154). Chile, L. 2006. Good Development Practice: An Instrument for Building Community SocietyNew York. Orbis Books (400-412). Costanza, R. et al 2007. An Introduction to Ecological Economics. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, Florida (4-93). Dorothy, A. Johnson 2005. Center for Philanthropy and Leadership 4th Ed. Villiers Publication. London (77-98). Hackler, et al 2007. The Strategic Use of Information Technology by......
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Example Of Essay On Sustainability
Type of paper: Essay
Topic: City , Los Angeles , Development , Housing , Homelessness , Nature , People , Sustainability
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Over the years, there have many cities within the United States that have been developed in terms of infrastructure and housing facilities, leaving the case for landscape and sustainability of the natural resources behind. Historically, Los Angeles is one of the big cities that have been developed on the basis of utilizing the natural resources of the nearby region and focusing on building an urban metropolitan city. Sustainability has been put on the backfoot, for the past century as urbanization and incoming flow of population has seen investment in every form of infrastructure, leaving the once naturally beautiful region with significant park and recreation crisis and converted the river into an industrial sewage draining system. Overtime, industrialization, increasing housing developed with the flow of population has seen the city and the nearby region losing its natural beauty with no focus on sustainable development (Davis, 1988, p. 59-61).
Analysis of Situation
The problem of sustainability has been present in the city of Los Angeles, especially with its willing intention of being stingy for providing public spaces. The focus on building the most developed city in the west coast of America and making sure they do not fall behind other cities such as Seattle with better natural beauty. With limited public spaces such as parks and other recreational facilities, the people of Los Angeles have been deprived of basic facilities that are present in other major American cities. The things that made Los Angeles naturally beautiful, suffered majorly through the incoming population and infrastructural development. As a result, the Los Angeles environment suffered significantly due to the continuous form of neglect from the people in charge of development (Davis, 1988, p. 59-67). One of the essential contributors of the mismanagement of sustainability in Los Angeles was the treatment of the Los Angeles River. As the river used to flood the city in the 19th century and there has been devastating results of the flood in the past, the city focused on the development of public works to build necessary infrastructure to avoid any future floods in the 1930s. The new deal financed the public works developed and provided work for many unemployed Americans in California. As a result, the state was able to generate jobs for people, but overtime the result of the public works in and around the Los Angeles river increased beach pollution to such a level that it possibly killed the Santa Monica Bay area and increased sewage in the river due to the wastage coming from the industrial plants (Davis, 1988, p. 67-72). Housing is another source of destruction of the Los Angeles greenbelt as incoming population required increased housing development. Millions of people came to the Los Angeles are every century and with time it became clear that more houses were needed for housing them. The Los Angeles neighborhood started filling with more housing projects; amazingly all of them without any greenbelt for the local community. Regions such as Santa Barbara, San Fernando Valley and Santa Monica Bay area were filled with more housing projects, with demand for housing increasing with time and increased industrialization and population flow. The government also played a major role in helping housing companies to develop more projects and ensure limited land was available for parks and recreational facilities. Many farmers were forced to sell off their lands and the lands were reappraised for residential real estate, it was like a “self-fulfilling prophecy which spread like wildfire” (Davis, 1988, p. 76). With continuous negligence from the California government from the destruction of the landscapes and thousands of trees, Los Angeles became home to millions and several industries. The sprawl of land became a national scandal and the Kennedy administration went ahead by passing legislation in 1961 to develop urban open spaces. Conservation of the natural areas came to forefront to protect the accelerated neighborhood decay. Several conservationists also joined the bandwagon and worked on protecting several landscapes in the Southern California region nearby the city of Los Angeles. The need of developing open spaces and maintaining the greenbelt came to the fore as Eckbo from environmentally planning firm EDAW claimed that population needs to be relocated for redevelopment of the erstwhile landscapes. Eckbo also added that, “no comparable urban region in the nation even remotely approaches the basin’s inadequacy” (Davis, 1988, p.83) Over the years, Los Angeles city lost its Eden, with massive development efforts to ensure it was the primal city of the west coast. But, things have been changing since the 1970s and the efforts of conservationists and development of new cities that are based on the concept of maintaining the nature of the region, rather than working of the destruction of the natural greenbelt. Cities such as Newhall Ranch is one of the promising regions that have been built for the need of marinating natural resources and have been the cause of many people relocating from the city of Los Angeles as it lacks the necessary facilities such as parks and beautiful California landscapes. Conservation has been the primary focus of the new cities and several people from the city are realizing the need to redevelop the LA greenbelt through sustainable development (NPR, 2013).
Davis, M. (1998). How Eden Lost its Garden. In Ecology of fear: Los Angeles and the imagination of disaster (pp. 59-91). New York, NY: Metropolitan Books. NPR. (3 November 2013). How An Aqueduct Turned Los Angeles Into A 'Garden Of Eden'. Retrieved 10 February 2016 from, http://www.npr.org/2013/11/03/242819699/how-an-aqueduct-turned-los-angeles-into-a-garden-of-eden
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In the midst of the global environmental crisis, only sustainable families, households, communities, and cities will have a chance to survive. New strategies are developed to improve energy efficiency, resource utilization, resource efficiency, and transportation in cities. They promise to make the lives of people in cities easier and healthier. In July 1995, Chicago witnessed one of the most dramatic ecological catastrophes in its history. The unprecedented caused more than 700 deaths. The tragic experiences became a starting point in the development of a new, “cooler city” vision that currently guides all sustainability efforts in Chicago. The program to be implemented in my hometown will be aimed at reducing the devastating effects of heat and global warming on residents and systems/resources. The proposed project is designed to rebuild the community infrastructure in ways that will minimize and optimize the negative effects of high temperature on residents, buildings, the system of transportation, and other community resources. The project will empower the community to improve the quality of life and raise the level of wellbeing. It will contribute to the development of other sustainable initiatives and facilitate further optimization of resource allocation and utilization, making the hometown more attractive to residents and newcomers. The money and resources saved with the program will be used to support other ecological and community programs, including child development and public health.
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The cooler city program implemented in Chicago is a role model, which can be followed by any community that seeks to protect itself from the damaging consequences of global warming. First, the community must become greener. It is with the help of plants and vegetation that the effects of heat on residents and buildings can be effectively moderated. Chicago officials promote the use of green spaces and vegetation in every place possible (Melker, 2012). In the proposed project, ecologists, environmentalists, infrastructure development professionals, and community officials will work collectively to define the scope and limits of planting according to the goals of the project and the financial resources available for it. The task is to define those community areas and places that need additional vegetation most urgently. Another task is to avoid planting trees and flowers in the areas that will hardly benefit from them.
Second, community authorities will develop an infrastructure redesign to enhance energy efficiency of the town buildings. It is not a secret that many ‘green’ technologies allow saving considerable costs on cooling homes and office premises in summer. The Chicago project proposes creating rooftop gardens, which have proved to be energy-efficient and have a remarkable cooling effect (Melker, 2012). However, not everyone community member can afford creating and maintaining a rooftop garden. Owners of office buildings may not be willing to spend their limited resources on arranging rooftop gardens. Thus, community authorities will develop a list of recommendations to be followed during summer heat. For instance, the use of interior fans is a good alternative to costly air conditioning. The local government may finance the provision of special window blinds to reduce temperature in houses and offices buildings. The process of constructing new community buildings will be constantly monitored to ensure that they match the newly established standards of energy efficiency and sustainability for cooling.
Third, in the proposed project, the amounts of CO2 coming from vehicles will be strictly monitored and regulated. The third step of the proposed program will emphasize the role of optimal vehicle use during the hottest times of the year. The community will design a new bicycle infrastructure to encourage more active use of bicycles instead of vehicles. City transportation networks will be adjusted to suit the emerging needs of the local population, so that residents do not need to use their cars too often. Local authorities may organize vehicle-free days and initiate the development of bicycle-sharing programs similar to those in France and Belgium. However, a great amount of resources will be needed to make the program real and workable.
Chiras (2013) is right: to be sustainable, cities and communities need to ensure smooth and continuous supply of resources. Such resources are not limited to finances. Professionalism and experience of environmental and infrastructure specialists will become the most valuable resource in the proposed program. The community will need to find the best professionals to implement the project. Equally important will be securing continuous legislative and policy support from higher authorities, mostly at the state level. The town will have to develop and maintain collaborative ties with other cities, towns and communities that have successfully implemented their sustainability programs.
Community support will play a bigger role in the success of the project than the support provided from the top. Community residents must have enough motivation to meet the goals of the project. Community meetings will be held to advocate the development of a sustainable community and persuade residents that it is vital for their health, wellbeing, and future survival. Incentive programs will become a strong factor of motivation, particularly in relation to home owners. The community will develop a system of sustainability standards, coupled with bonuses for active participation in the program. All community residents will realize the value of their efforts, once the effects of cooling on their homes and offices become visible.
To conclude, global warming creates considerable environmental complexities, but sustainable development leaves much room for optimism. The proposed project promises to make the town cooler, with the help of vegetation, new infrastructure designs, and reduced vehicle use. The town will need sufficient material resources to make the proposed program work. However, even more important will be community support. All town residents should realize that sustainability is a key to their future survival.
- Chiras, D.D. (2013). Environmental science, 9e. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
- Melker, S. (2012). How to build a cooler city. PBS. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/climate-change-july-dec12-chicago_10-09/.
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As Putin continues killing civilians, bombing kindergartens, and threatening WWIII, Ukraine fights for the world's peaceful future.
Urbanization spurs a unique set of issues to both humans and animals.
The promise of jobs and prosperity, among other factors, pulls people to cities. Half of the global population already lives in cities, and by 2050 two-thirds of the world's people are expected to live in urban areas. But in cities two of the most pressing problems facing the world today also come together: poverty and environmental degradation.
Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments. Strong city planning will be essential in managing these and other difficulties as the world's urban areas swell.
- Intensive urban growth can lead to greater poverty, with local governments unable to provide services for all people.
- Concentrated energy use leads to greater air pollution with significant impact on human health.
- Automobile exhaust produces elevated lead levels in urban air.
- Large volumes of uncollected waste create multiple health hazards.
- Urban development can magnify the risk of environmental hazards such as flash flooding .
- Pollution and physical barriers to root growth promote loss of urban tree cover.
- Animal populations are inhibited by toxic substances, vehicles, and the loss of habitat and food sources.
- Combat poverty by promoting economic development and job creation.
- Involve local community in local government.
- Reduce air pollution by upgrading energy use and alternative transport systems.
- Create private-public partnerships to provide services such as waste disposal and housing.
- Plant trees and incorporate the care of city green spaces as a key element in urban planning.
New York's Grand Central Station overflows with a sea of commuters and travelers at rush hour. Every day, 1.3 million commuters travel into Manhattan to work for the day and then return to their homes at night.
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The Role of Urban Planning in Achieving Sustainable Urban Development
OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 23-26, 2011
4 Pages Posted: 7 Jan 2012
Islamic Azad University (IAU) - Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch
Islamic Azad University - Faculty of Art & Architecture; Urbanism Collage, Najafabad Branch
Date Written: December 30, 2011
The Sustainable development strategies’ focus is on five dimensions: economic sustainability, social sustainability, ecological sustainability, sustainable spatial development, and cultural continuity. Thus, sustainable housing is one of the fundamental pillars of sustainable development, and sustainable urban development can be discussed in this context. The target of sustainable urban development process is to achieve the status of "sustainability" in urban communities and also to create or to strengthen the sustainability’s characteristics of economic, social, cultural and environmental city. This essay tries first to have a brief review on the history of sustainable development. Then, it continues to find out how to promote that concept and why it is necessary to be focused through different definitions. To understand the principles and pillars of sustainable development, based on the current worlds’ environmental, economic, social and political realities, concepts, words and condition of the Earth Summit, the Rio Declaration and the Works Program of 21 and the different experts and researchers’ views are used. Then by reviewing the principles and concepts of sustainable development (in general), a primary concept of sustainable urban development (in particular) is achieved. Finally, some general suggestions are made on the sustainable urban development, urban planning and the importance of providing realization conditions of the urban sustainable development. What is important here is to emphasis on Physical – space considerations which are under focus in this research too. And the most important points which should be considered as a Physical consideration in sustainable settlement is also mentioned in this paper. By comparing what should be done with what is today common in urban development planning, and according to above-mentioned comments and topics, it can be concluded that to achieve the urban sustainability, It is necessary to make some structural reforms and to create some deep and fundamental changes in all levels of society, especially in the three levels of: ‘government and management’, ‘technology’ and ‘life methods’
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Urban Sustainable Development, Urban planning-development Strategies
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Fereshte Ahmadi (Contact Author)
Islamic azad university (iau) - department of art and architecture, science and research branch ( email ).
Hamedan, Iran Iran Tehran, Isfahan 461-15655 Iran
Islamic Azad University - Faculty of Art & Architecture; Urbanism Collage, Najafabad Branch ( email )
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- 13 Works Cited
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Urban Drainage System Sustainable Urban Book Report
Excerpt from Book Report :
Benchmarking The Code for Sustainable Homes is holistic in its approach to sustainability. Coed Darcy should achieve level 4 compliance with the code. There are a number of areas that SUDS can contribute to the overall rating. The assessment criteria will inform the designers so as to achieve the target rating. Given that this is a sustainable village, the compliance to the code has financial implications for the developers. The first step is to appoint appropriately qualified personnel. Performance of flood risk assessment should prelude the design process and there should be provision for allowances for changes in climate. The peak run-off and volume run-off must be follow the methodology laid out in the SUDS Manual, CIRIA C697 (2007). The SUDS will contribute credits for efficient energy use and CO2 emissions reduction. It will also score under the item for water use, surface water run-off, pollution reduction, and ecology . 7. Interdependencies It is clear from the foregoing discussions that SUDS are part of a wider scheme for sustainability of urban spaces. The major aim is to control surface water run-off, yet in the process also reduces energy use, encourages re-use and waste management , improves the ecosystem , increases the aesthetic value of the spaces, and significantly reduces carbon emissions. The National Planning Policy Framework has combined 44 documents into a single report that covers diverse sectors and issues. This demonstrates the interdependent nature of sustainability issues. Designers have to plan SUDS within the wider context of the development, bearing in mind other policy documents and major aspects like cost. In conclusion , the SUDS will be instrumental in ensuring the sustainability of Coed Darcy. Their implementation shall start right from the design stage up to the post-construction stage. Bibliography Apostolaki, S., Jefferies, C., Smith, M. & Woods-Ballard B. 2002, Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 5th Symposium of the International Planning and Environmental Association. Oxford, September. Apostolaki, S, Jefferies, C. & Smith, M. 2003, the Perception and Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Development & Management of the Subsurface. 5-7 Nov. Utrech, the Netherlands Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2000, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems -- design manual for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Report No. 521 Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2002, Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces. Report No. 582 Gardiner, J. 1991, River Projects and Conservation: a Manual for Holistic Appraisal. John Wiley and Son, Chichester. Jefferies C. 2003, SUDS in Scotland -- the Monitoring Programme of the Scottish Universities SUDS Monitoring Group. Scotland and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) Report No. SR (02)51, August. Macdonald K.C.B. 2003, the Effectiveness of Certain Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems in Controlling Flooding and Pollution from Urban Runoff. PhD Thesis, University of Abertay, Dundee. Roesner, L.A., Campbell, N. And D'Arcy, B.J. 2001, Master Planning Storm water Management Facilities for the Dunfermline, Scotland Expansion Project. Proceedings of Novatech 4th International Conference on Innovative Technologies in Urban Storm Drainage. Lyons, France, June 25-27. Wild, T.C., Jefferies, C. & D'Arcy, B.J. 2002, SUDS in Scotland -- the Scottish SUDS database. Scotland and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) Report No. SR (02)09, August. Villarreal, E.L., Semadeni-Davies, a. And Bengtsson, L. 2004, Inner city storm water control using a combination of best management practices . Ecological Engineering 22: 279-298. Ahern, J. 2007, Green infrastructure for cities: The spatial dimension, a chapter in Cities of the Future: Towards integrated sustainable water and landscape management (V. Novotny, and P. Brown, eds.), IWA Publishing, London, UK. Anon. 2008, Resource from Waste -- Integrated Resource Management Phase I Study Report, Prepared for BC Ministry of Community Services, Victoria, BC, Canada IPCC 2007, Summary for Policy Makers, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Scientific Basis, Fourth Assessment Report, Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change, Working Group (WG 1), Geneva. Heaney, J. 2007, Centralized and decentralized urban water, wastewater & storm water systems, in Cities of the Future: Towards integrated sustainable water and landscape Management (V. Novotny and P. Brown, eds), IWA Publishing, London, UK Hill, K. 2007, Urban ecological design and urban ecology: an assessment of the state of current knowledge and a suggested research agenda, in Cities of the Future: Towards integrated sustainable water and landscape management (V. Novotny and P. Brown, eds), IWA Publishing, London, UK Novotny, V. And P. Brown 2007, Cities of the Future: Towards Integrated Sustainable Water and Landscape Management (V. Novotny and P. Brown, eds),…
Sources Used in Documents:
Bibliography Apostolaki, S., Jefferies, C., Smith, M. & Woods-Ballard B. 2002, Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 5th Symposium of the International Planning and Environmental Association. Oxford, September. Apostolaki, S, Jefferies, C. & Smith, M. 2003, the Perception and Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Development & Management of the Subsurface. 5-7 Nov. Utrech, the Netherlands Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2000, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems -- design manual for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Report No. 521 Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2002, Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces. Report No. 582
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