- Save your essays here so you can locate them quickly!
- House Of Commons
- Parliament Of The United Kingdom
- United Kingdom
- Member Of Parliament
- Westminster System
- Prime Minister
- British Parliament
- Prime Minister Of The United Kingdom
- House Of Commons Of The United Kingdom
British Parliament 3 Pages 663 Words
The House of Commons and the House of Lords The British parliament consists of the Queen and two chambers, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The functions of the parliament are to pass laws, to provide taxes and to control the actions of the government. The Queen still plays a role, but only a formal one. In law, she is the head of the executive, a part of the legislative and the head of the judiciary. The members of the house of commons are elected directly by general majority in geographically defined parliamentary constituencies.The minimum age for franchise is 18 since 1969. At present, the house of commons is consisting of 659 MPs which are distributed on the base of the number of inhabitants (around 60.000 in each constituency in the United Kingdom) and the total number of MPs which is fixed only by the house of commons itself. The parliament has a quorum when 40 MPs are present. The legislative period lasts 5 years by law – in case of special national crisis, for example war, there can be exceptional decisions to break up the period earlier or lengthen it. All of the members of the house of commons can be elected again. It is not possible for any member of the house of lords, certain clericals, employees of the government, peace lawyers or officers charged with realization of elections to be candidate for the house of commons. Theoretically every member of parliament can initialize bills of law, practically most of the bills are initalized by the ministers in charge.The bills passed by parliament are mostly rather general – they get passed more detailed either through royal prescriptions(decrets???) or are prepared by the ministries in charge and then proclaimed by the crown. The cabinet appears along the pinciple of collective responsibility as a unit. If the parliament votes against an important legislative intiative or puts up a vote of no confidence, the consequence i ...
Continue reading this essay Continue reading
Page 1 of 3
British Parliament Essay
How well does parliament perform its various functions essay.
The House of Lords is the second chamber of the UK Parliament and is independent to the Commons although it complements the work of the Commons. Members of the Lords play a vital role in scrutiny, there are two main reasons for this, the first being that they are independent to the Commons and in many ways have increased power which they often use to stand up to the Commons by blocking reforms. Lords also have a better balance of parties so no government has a majority. The Government however can override Lords by using Parliament Act; this was used when the fox hunting ban was being put through under Blair’s government as there were too many in opposition of the ban in the House of Lords. The Parliament Acts, although rarely used, provide a way of solving disagreement between the Commons and the Lords. The Parliament Act of 1949 also prevents Lords from delaying bills for more than one year.
Government Esssay Essay
I am here by writing this essay to explain, how these organizations in the United States such as the MADD, LULAC, and NAACP can educate and help our fellow citizens of America change laws that might well need to be changed. As well as explaining the common interest these groups are concerned with.
The Legislative Branch Essay
The legislative branch is the most powerful branch in government. The legislative branch is in charge of making and passing laws. They have the power to override a president’s decision, stop laws from being passed, and basically control all decisions the governments makes. The legislative branch, also called the congress, consists of the House of Representatives and the senate. The reason for two houses of congress is to balance out the concerns of smaller but more populated states against states that are larger but with less population (www.Usgovinfo.com).
Pros And Cons Of A Congress
The executive branch in a parliament is held accountable to the legislative branch and the head of the government. A parliament is usually found in the United Kingdom, like Great Britain and other Asian Areas that were once ruled by Britain. The Parliament has two houses. There is an upper house and a lower house. The upper house is known as the Senate and the lower house is known as the National Assembly. A Prime Minister is elected by the majority of the parliament party vote. They are expected to follow all rules and laws strictly. The parliament has a house of the Lord and House of the commons. The parliament is under a Prime Minister. To be a member of a parliament, one must be chosen by a political party. If a bill goes before a parliament, it is done by a majority vote for the bill to pass. In Congress the selection is done by the people based upon their political career, plans and profile and future while they are serving in office (Wilson, Dilulio, Jr. and Bose
America and Congress Essay
In the past century, people continued to express an increasingly discontent view of Congress especially true when one looks back before the Clinton Impeachment debacle As the size of the nation and the number of congressman have grown, the congress has come under attack by both public influences and congressman themselves. Yet looking at one congressman's relationship with his or her constituents, it would be hard to believe that this is the branch of government that has come under suspect. In "If Ralph Nader says congress is 'The broken branch,' how come we love our congressman so much?" author Richard F. Fenno, Jr., provides insight into this view and why, through congress coming under fire, constituents still feel positively about
United States Government Essay
- 6 Works Cited
The United States has a deeply rooted and embedded tradition through the Constitution of having a federalist style of governing as its structural framework for operating and guiding the government of the country. The form of governing is best described as a balance between powers of the central government and the powers of each independent and autonomic state. “Federalism is a system in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial (state) governments, creating what is often called a federation” (Wikipedia 1).This style of governance has not been the only structure instituted in American history in order to implement civilized law and order among the people of the land. Prior to the
How Well Does Parliament Perform Its Various Functions?
Parliament is designed to hold the executive accountable; therefore it goes about this by various means of government scrutiny, such as Prime Minister’s Question Time. In addition, Parliament is expected to perform a legislative function, creating the process of a bill becoming a law after undergoing many stages between the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Finally, Parliament is also required to be representative of the nation, with constituencies creating a strong local link between the electorate and their MP.
Popular Views Of Congress Essay
When the United States’ public thinks of congress it can normally be assumed that they believe that Congress is a very incompetent and inefficient governing body. However in two books, How Congress Works by Lee Hamilton and Act of Congress by Robert Kaiser, we find out that Congress in fact is a large, complicated, yet organized institution. The popular views on congress are often not what is actually true, in these two novels, it is explained and argued that in fact Congress is a strong institution that has problems due to the scope of its job and the sheer amount of legislative debate and work required.
Essay on The Power and Significance of Congress
The Power and Significance of Congress Firstly it is important to look at the power and significance of congress as a legislative body. This includes the creation of law, and the scrutiny of the executive. Because the US federal system is ruled
Presidential vs parliamentary systems Essay
the chief executive and the head of state. The President is elected independently of the
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Political Systems Essay
There are two main types of political systems, one being a presidential system and the other being a parliamentary system. Both of them have their own benefits as well as their own disadvantages. No political system can be perfect or can always have stability, but shown in history there are successful countries that use either one. Also there are countries that have failed with one of the two systems.
Presidential and Parliamentary Systems of Government Essay
- 11 Works Cited
Every country differs in their preference of political system to govern their countries. For democratic countries, two possible choices of governing are the presidential system and the parliamentary system. Since both the presidential and the parliamentary systems have their own strengths and weaknesses, many scholars have examined these two forms of government, and debate on which political system is more successful in governance. In this paper, I will first provide a detailed analysis of both the parliamentary and the presidential system. I will also evaluate each system’s strengths and weaknesses, addressing any differences as well as any commonalities. Finally, I will conclude by using historical examples to analyze and support the
Parliamentary Sovereignty Essay
Is the orthodox view of parliamentary sovereignty still relevant in the modern British constitution? Why (not)?
United Kingdom Essay
The United Kingdom is a country located in the North West of Europe that has four parts, England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The capital city is London, which the River Thames flows through from Thames Head to 140 miles later at Teddington Lock where it ends. Compared to the United States, the United Kingdom is quite small in fact it is approximately the size of New England. Despite being diminutive in size, there is layer upon layer of cultures and history. Also, it has geographic diversity, from the moors of Devon to the swamps in the southeast to the highlands of Scotland. Although dwindling, many native languages survived and still spoken to this day. Some of those are Celtic, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh.
Essay on Government
Government! You can't live with it! You can't live without it! It is the "common cold" that everyone dreads. The American Heritage College Dictionary, Third Edition defines government as, "The exercise of authority in a political unit in order to control and administer public policy." Webster's Desk Dictionary of the English Language defines government as, "The political direction and control exercised over a nation, state, community, etc." The common individual might define government as the root of all evil. The thing about government is that no one stops to think about how government came about.
- House of Lords
- Parliament of the United Kingdom
- United Kingdom
- Westminster system
- House of Commons of the United Kingdom
Free British Parliament Essays and Papers
British Parliament Case Study
government governs in and through the assembly of the parliament, thereby fusing the executive and legislative branch of government. Heywood (2000:313). Although they are formally distinct, the assembly and the executive are bound together in a way that violates the doctrine of separation of power. The British Parliament is one of the oldest parliaments in the world. This study is concerned with understanding the efficiency and effectiveness of the parliament in producing legislation. It should be noted that
British Parliament Many of the political observers consider functions of the British Parliament as a constantly changing in accordance with public demands and political ambitions. In the 11th century for example when Parliament has had its origins
Analysis Of Edmund Burke's Speech To British Parliament
given to British Parliament. The essay utilizes two different perspectives to see the speech through individuals living in 1775. The speech, itself, took place on March 22, 1775. Edmund Burke delivered the speech to Parliament in the House of Commons, England as a form of resolution to halt American-British conflict. Burke’s speech conveyed the ideas of possible nonviolent, perhaps diplomatic resolutions. The perspectives applied to the speech are that of a colonial farmer and British Parliament
Boston Tea Party
- 5 Works Cited
years of bad feeling between the British government and her American colonies. The controversy between the two always seemed to hinge on the taxes, which Great Britain required for the upkeep of the American colonies. Starting in 1765, the Stamp Act was intended by Parliament to provide the funds necessary to keep peace between the American settlers and the Native American population. The Stamp Act was loathed by the American colonists and later repealed by parliament. (http://www.bostonteapartyship
form a union of the colonial states into one country, united into one body on our American principles, no longer under the rule of the British Parliament and its ridiculous taxes and misrepresentation. Paine delivers one of the most compelling arguments I have heard on why there should be a division between the English and the Americans. 	The British Parliament has long been a bane to the colonists in the New World, with the passage of all their "acts" to tax us simply because we are
two sides. Because of these viewpoints, both sides saw force as the next logical step. The Tea Act was passed by Parliament in 1773. It gave the British East India Company a virtual monopoly on the tea trade in North America while keeping the Townshend tea tax. The monopoly lowered the price of tea, but it hurt colonial businessmen. Soon the colonies started to boycott tea. For the British, the Tea Act sounded like a wonderful idea because it lowered the price on tea. The Tea Act could also let the
The Causes of the American Revolution
the Revolution, there is no doubt that the American view that they were entitled to the full democratic rights of Englishmen, while the British view that the American colonies were just colonies to be used and exploited in whatever way best suited the Great Britain, insured that war was inevitable. 1754- French and Indian War 1770- Boston Massacre 1764- British Impose New Taxes 1770 Townshend Act Repealed 1765- Stamp Tax Passed 1772- Cutter Gaspee Burned 1766- Sons of Liberty Formed 1773-
Political, Social, and Economic Causes of the American Revolution
- 3 Works Cited
elite. Each of these strata had its own set of expectations and fears, which lent a new dimension to the cause of the Revolution. The pressure of these internal, and often overlapping groups, combined with the oppressive external tyranny of the British Parliament gave momentum to the already snowballing revolt. My goal in this paper is not to diminish the cause or tenets on which this country was founded, nor to mar the character of those Founding Fathers, but rather to illustrate some of the political
Slavery in Jamaica
- 6 Works Cited
Jamaica has been a land exploited and oppressed by white nations for much of its history. First colonized by the Spanish and then the British, it seems hard to imagine a time when it was just the native people living in peace and harmony with the land. Many years after the white man first jammed himself onto the beaches of Jamaica, reggae music was born. A continuing tradition, this easy-to-groove-to music style originated as a voice against this oppression; it was the peaceful islanders way of finally
Death of a Salesman
made people suspect him of a British agent. He made did very well with understanding tax codes and he knew the majority of merchants in Boston because of his father being a merchant. Samuel Adams was a very popular leader in his time who spent a great deal of time in the public. Adams became more involved in politics. He belonged to several patriotic clubs and was an important person in Boston town meetings. Adams did not like several laws passed by the British Parliament in the American Colonies. Those
The Declaration of Independence
piece toward many audiences. He wanted not only King George III and the British Parliament to know the American's feelings, but also the entire world. The time had come for an immense change amongst the American colonists and Jefferson made sure everyone was aware of it by using his superior strategies of persuasion. The Declaration of Independence is focused for the most part toward King George III and the British Parliament. Jefferson wanted them to understand the reasoning behind the American's
My Great-grandmother Was Not A Person
supposed to be pregnant and barefoot in the kitchen. At least that's the perception that the laws enforced. (For ex: The Election Act of the Dominion of Canada and The Common Law of England) As part of the British Commonwealth many of our laws were the same as England's and enforced by British parliament. One such law from the Common Law of England stated that "A woman is not a person in matters of rights and privileges, but she is a person in matters of pains and penalties." This gave women second class
Pennsylvania, in which the best laws after having been passed by the Representatives of the people were constantly defeated by the veto of the Governor and Council, seems to have produced a strong impression on his mind. He also referred to the British Parliament as a proof that the voice of the people expressed by their representatives is often silenced by an order of men in the legislature, who have interests to s...
17th century english writers
due in large part to the captured markets in North America and the West Indies which had made many a merchant richer than their aristocratic brethren. The British Parliament had seen its power expand over the last hundred years and would continue that trend in the 17th century finding itself with the power to behead even the king.(1) As Parliament flexed their new found muscle the king was forced to find the funding for his political intrigues among the new merchant class. In addition to this new found
Legal Development of Abortion
- 4 Works Cited
Legal Development of Abortion This essay traces the development of abortion law in English and American society up to the time of Roe v. Wade in 1973. Beginning with Biblical citations, the essay researches the Early Church Fathers on the issue; the American colonies; developments of the 1800's which caused change, and so on. Up to the time of the Protestant Reformation, the English society inherited its traditional anti-abortion law from the Church practice of 1500 years standing; which
Gentlemanly Ideals in Emma and Reflections on the Revolution in France
untouchable. British society considered privilege a reward for refinement and expected a gentleman to distinguish himself by following a specific code of conduct. However, his duty and honor depended on more than a code; he also had to feel sympathy for the weaker sex and the lower classes and know when to act accordingly. This sensibility made him “gentle” and a just participant in the governing process. In the 1790’s and 1800’s these gentlemanly ideals were eroding. Yet, while the British did not guillotine
English common law forbade abortion. Abortion prior to quickening (feeling life) was a misdemeanor and a felony after that. In the early 1800s it was discovered that human life did not begin when she “felt life” but at fertilization. In 1869 the British Parliament passed the “Offenses Against the Persons Act” Eliminating the bifid punishment and dropping the felony punishment back to fertilization, so across the middle years of the 19th century each state passed their own laws against abortion. In 1967
George III of Britain: Popular with the People, but not with Parliament
not with Parliament Although history has labeled King George III of Britain primarily as the “mad” king responsible for the loss of America, a closer look at the 1780s, the heart of his reign, proves George III to be a particularly effective monarch rather than the bungling idiot some scholars have dubbed him. George III’s effectiveness, during the 1780s, stemmed from his immense popularity with the common people, which lay in direct contrast to his lack of popularity with Parliament. The popularity
Why the Executive is Able to Dominate Parliament in the British Political System
Why the Executive is Able to Dominate Parliament in the British Political System The executive has always been a fundamental body in the British political system, the executive’s dominance is a result of party politics and of reformation designed to undermine the bodies responsible for scrutinising the Government. Patronage has always been essential in maintaining the power of the executive, especially the Prime minister. Discipline is promoted in the governing body with the use of whips
Essay On Parliamentary Sovereignty
of the British legal system. A. V. Dicey states “Parliamentary sovereignty means … that Parliament … has the right to make or unmake any law of England as having a right to override or set aside the legislation of Parliament.” This means that Parliament’s power is unlimited, its validity cannot be questioned, and no one Parliament can bind its successor. It was stated in Madzimbamuto v Lardner-Burke  by LJ Reid that there are no constitutional or legal mechanisms to prevent Parliament from acting
- British People
- British Petroleum
- British Politics
- British Raj
- British Royal Navy
- British Rule
- British Society
- British Soldiers
- British Television
- British Troops
- British Victory
- British Women
- British Writer
- Britney Spears
- Broadcasting Company
- Broader Perspective
- RESEARCH PAPERS AND ESSAYS
- ESSAY TOPICS
- PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES
- Joseph Robinette Biden
- Donald Trump
- Barack Obama
- States Ranked by Size & Population
- States Ranked by Date
Essay On British Parliament
How to create corruption in the united states congress.
Congress is the legislative branch of the federal government that represents the American people. The United States Congress has many roles such as making laws, implementing national policy and viewing over the other two branches of government. These are a couple of obligations the Congress has. Although they are essential to our government, there are potential problems which includes corruption, inefficiencies and equal representation. Individuals are not generally happy with the time span engaged with passing a law as well as the halt Congress put on some issues.
Pros And Cons Of Triple E Senate
There are many different opinions about the Senate. Some poeple want to abolish, reform, or keep it as is. The Senate costs us $60 million. However, if the Senate is reformed and the members are elected, it will cost $120 million every year. The Senate acts as the "sober second thought". Their main role is to provide a final check on the legislation passed in the House of Commons. Some people believe this isn't necissary and that we should not spend so much money on it. Additionally, some people feel that we are alreadt overgoverened in this country. We have municipal governments, urban hamlets, towns and villages, rural municipalities, countries, school boards, hospital boards, provincial governments, the federal House of Commons, and the Senate. Some people think that
Argumentative Essay: Should The Senate Be Abolished?
The Senate has and still continues to be criticized for its role in Canadian government. Some say it should just be terminated, others say it is an essential role today still. I say we should keep the Senate for three main important reasons. These reasons are they overlook the House of Commons, they represent, investigate and deliberate, also it may not be perfect but we can make changes to it.
Rights Vs English Bill Of Rights Essay
The British have a Parliament, with the upper House of Lords and the lower House of Commons. Members of the House of Commons are elected by their constituencies, and the leader of a dominant party in Commons is appointed by the queen to be prime minister. The House of Lords is an unelected body of people that can check the power of the Commons by reviewing and amending bills. Britain had no supreme court before 2009, the House of Lords acted as the final
The legislative branch consists of the two houses of Congress that have been decided upon by the Great Compromise (the House of Representatives and the Senate). Joint together as one system, Congress has the powers to create laws, declare war, override veto, and impeach the president. Secondly, the executive branch—consisting of the president, vice president, and the Cabinet—has the power to carry out laws (approve), negotiate foreign treaties—such as alliances—, and can grant pardons for federal offers. Finally, the judicial branch, or the Supreme Court Justices can interpret laws, declare laws unconstitutional, and declare the president unconstitutional. Having three branches of government helps keep the government in check, and it prevents one branch becoming more powerful than the other branches. Having these checks—called checks and balances—help keep our government from being tyrannical and ruthless, like the British king and Parliament
Argumentative Essay: We Should Keep The Senate In Canada
The Senate: “The upper chamber of Parliament where there are 105 members who are appointed until age 75 by the Crown on the advice if the prime minister.” (Rules of the Game pg 106)The original Senate that was created in 1867 had only originally 72 seats. It was created to counter balance representation population in the House of Commons, although in recent years the Senate has become to reinforce representation of groups that have often been underrepresented in parliament, examples; Aboriginals, visible minorities and women. There has been a huge debate’s on whether Canada should keep the Senate. The people all over Canada have mixed opinions on if we should keep the Senate or not. Some Canadians believe that we should abolish it. Others could
Essay On Parliamentary Sovereignty
Parliamentary sovereignty is a feature of Britain political system, it is a key principle of the U.K.’s uncodified constitution. Parliamentary sovereignty makes the Parliament the supreme legislative authority of Westminster which means Parliament has the right to make, amend and repeal laws.
Characteristics Of Liberal Democracy
Rather than establishing regime change through violent revolution, Great Britain’s adoption of liberal democracy came following the 1688 Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the limitation of the monarchy’s power through legislation. Working in tandem with the 1215 Magna Carta —which protected church rights, nobles against illegal imprisonment, established habeas corpus, and instituted swift justice, and served as a foundational document for future democracies— the English Parliament passed legislation that ultimately rendered the monarchy powerless within the political sphere. Although the people of Great Britain did oppose the authoritarian, undemocratic influence the monarchy had on politics, the cultural significance of the crown was, and still is desired. Although the Glorious Revolution ultimately led to the country’s liberation, the development of the constitutional monarchy was not caused by a catalyzing event, but was rather a gradual transition that occured over hundreds of years. The monarchy is able to coexist within the parliamentary system because it no longer serves as the head of state, rather than the head of government, which is now the role of the Prime Minister. The responsibilities of the monarchy are purely cultural, meaning its primary purpose is to unite the nation and preserve its historical significance. Not only is the Monarch barred from directly participating in government, but they are also prohibited from expressing any political opinion whatsoever, allowing the country to maintain the title of liberal democracy. Since the monarchy lost its political power, Great Britain has implemented a bicameral Parliament in which members of the House of Commons are elected by their constituents, and the House of Lords, where members have inherited their position through heredity or are appointed by the Prime
How To Abolish The Senate In Canada Essay
Canada has two legislative bodies in the parliamentary system, one is the Senate of Canada which is constituted by the appointed members. Secondly, is the House of Commons, which is made up of elected officials. The Senate is consisted of 105 members that are recommended by the Prime Minister and the appointed by the Governor General. The members of the Senate can be made up of business people, lawyers, doctors, hockey players, and many more, because of the variety of experience from the individuals of senators gives a better understanding of the people they represent and of the problems that Parliament must try to solve.
Comparing The American Government Before And After The Glorious Revolution
A bicameral government means it consists of two parts.The Parliament is the National Legislature of England. After the Glorious Revolution the two sections of the Parliament included the Council of State and the House of Burgesses. The House of Burgesses is the assemblies second house, they were elected by colonists to represent Virginia. The Council of State was the 1rst colonial legislature, members were elected by advisory council participants and VA. company members. The Privy Council or advisory council was a group of royal advisors that set English policies in the colonies, they allowed most colonies to run their own affairs.. Today we also have a Bicameral Government that consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Does Congress Have More Power
When it comes to the President and Congress, many people have different views on who holds the most power. Some people believe the President has more power, some may believe that Congress has more power, and others may think that the two share power equally. While I do believe that the President is one of the most powerful figures in the country, overall I think that Congress does hold more power in most situations. Congress is composed of two different houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate. These two houses are also known as the legislative branch. The main responsibilities of the legislative branch is to make and pass laws. The Senate and the House of Representatives must work together in order to run smoothly.
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Parliamentary Sovereignty
In South Africa we have different political parties that citizens vote for to represent them in Parliament and have their best interest at heart. The struggle against apartheid is over and we now live in a democratic society. Parliamentary sovereignty is done away with and replaced with constitutional supremacy which means the constitution is supreme and the highest law in South Africa. The majority party is the ANC which puts the DA second in line however the question is whether having such a strong majority party could have a negative impact on the parliaments function to represent the citizens of South Africa.
Summary: The Canadian Parliamentary System
Parliament’s legislative branch of Government, with the three-part component, it is composed of the House of Commons, the Senate and the Queen (McTeer, 1995), who is represented by the Governor General in Canada (currently David Johnson) (G.G., 2015). These components of government serve more as a ceremonial role with such responsibilities as: “the installation of the Governor General; the Opening of Parliament; the Speech from the Throne, and Royal Assent ceremonies” (Parl. Library, 2011). The Governor General is appointed by the Prime Minister, who advises the Queen about who shall be appointed with a lengthy term of five years, which may eventually be extended (Parl. Library, 2011). The other part of the puzzle consists of the Executive branch of government. This branch consists of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The Prime Minister runs the Cabinet; he/she controls the ministerial appointments (Parl., 2012). Being responsible for government policy, it is crucial for the Cabinet to have confidence of the House of Commons (Parl., 2012). Not everyone can be a part of Cabinet, so the Ministers who are chosen by the Prime Minister are “Members of House of Commons… and at least one Senator… who serves as the Leader of the Government in the Upper house (Parl., 2012). Each Cabinet Minister is assigned specific roles they must fulfil within government (House of Commons, 2008), and the Cabinet lasts as long as the Prime Minister is in power. Another factor that grants the responsible government power is winning majority seats in the House of Commons. Simply defined by Joseph Howe, responsible government indicates the responsibility to the people in Canada; as it “is more commonly described as an executive or Cabinet that is dependent on
Essay On Australian Democracy
Never before have there been so many democracies in the world or so many competitive elections conducted at national, subnational and region levels. Democracy is now prescribed as inseparable from good governance and an antidote to corruption. The key aspects of what makes Australia a democracy being the electoral role, Australian Electoral Commission (AEC), referendumsm, the rule of law
Differences Between Parliamentary Sovereignty And Constitutional Supremacy
The doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty of the United Kingdom parliament is often presented as a unique legal arrangement without parallels in comparative constitutional law. By giving unconditional power to the Westminster Parliament, it appears to rule out any comparison between the Westminster Parliament and the United States Congress or the Malaysian Constitution, whose powers are carefully limited by their respective constitutions. Parliamentary sovereignty is thus seen as a unique feature and a result of the unwritten constitution. If parliamentary sovereignty is to be a legal doctrine, it must rely on a list of powers that belong to parliament as an institution. These legal powers are organised in powers and disabilities and are thus both empowering and limiting. In other words, all legally organised parliaments have limited powers. The Westminster Parliament has constitutionally limited powers, very much like its American and Malaysian
More about Essay On British Parliament
- Separation of powers
- United Kingdom
- Westminster system
- United States
- House of Lords
Free law study resources
Disclaimer: This essay has been written by a law student and not by our expert law writers. View examples of our professional work here .
View full disclaimer
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of LawTeacher.net. You should not treat any information in this essay as being authoritative.
House of Commons and Parliament
Info: 1812 words (7 pages) Essay Published: 7th Aug 2019
Jurisdiction / Tag(s): UK Law
A Key Function Of The House Of Commons Is To Hold The Executive To Account. How Effectively Does The House Of Commons Carry Out This Function?
Parliament in the UK is made up of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The House of Commons is the lower, pre-eminent chamber of Parliament, which contains more legislative power than that of the upper chamber, the House of Lords. One of parliament’s primary functions is to hold the executive to account, this means that the house of commons forces the government to do things such as justify bills, explain decisions and their motives defend their actions, and defend their policies. This form of accountability is the most frequent case, as whatever the government decides to do; the House of Commons will always look for a reason why they decided to carry it out. The only time this does not happen is during election times, where the general public holds the executive to account by voting for or against them.
Firstly, the meaning of ‘accountability’ is a complex concept, and has been used in a variety of ways. The main meaning is; being held account, scrutinised or being required to give an explanation. Lord Sharman in his 2001 Report reviewing audit and accountability for central government split the notion into four different aspects;
- giving an explanation – perhaps through an annual report, outlining performance and activity;
- providing further information – perhaps by providing information (e.g. to a Select Committee) on performance, beyond accounts already given;
- reviewing and, if necessary, revising – examining performance, systems or practices, and if necessary, making changes to meet the expectations of stakeholders; and
- Granting redress or imposing sanctions – stakeholders might enforce their rights on those accountable to effect changes.
To hold the government to account, in constitutional theory, there are a lot of parliamentary mechanisms, or ‘checks’ carried out by the House of Commons, such as questioning, debates, and select committees. The government relies on these, and parliament, to stay in power. It does not matter as to how much of a majority the party may have in government, if there is a vote of no confidence from the House of Commons, the party in office will be expected to resign and a general election would be called. The last time this happened was in 1979, when James Callaghan was the Prime Minister of the UK.
The main methods of holding the government to account in the Commons are; Parliamentary Questions, Parliamentary debates and the select committee system. Firstly, Parliamentary Questions are seen as the best method of gaining and accessing information on the government’s intentions, these are also seen as opportunities for MP’s to ask questions regarding their constituency, and allow them to get answers to questions asked by their constituents. Obviously, this can be seen as a very effective method, as topical political questions will be asked, and answered by the Prime minister and his ministers, this can make the government accessible and transparent.
However, Parliamentary questions can also be seen as quite ineffective. During Parliamentary questions an MP may only ask up to two oral questions and any amount of written questions a day, and only one per minister. Supplementary questions can only be asked if the speaker allows it, and questions can be examined as to whether or not they comply with the rules. This lack of freedom to ask as many questions, to whoever, on any issue is surely detrimental. Furthermore, all questions must be given in advance, so that the ministers of the specified departments are able to draft an answer, this, and the fact that some questions (relating to security service, or commercial confidence) are refused to be answered by ministers, weakens the effectiveness of Parliamentary questions. If MP’s are given the chance to draft a generic answer then it means they aren’t put on the spot spontaneously with the expectation of being able to answer a question. Some may think this makes a mockery of the job they are doing, as they aren’t able to answer a question on it, however it must be said that giving the MP time to formulate a good response can increase the likelihood of the person questioning receiving a good answer.
Furthermore, in relation to Parliamentary questions, Prime ministers question time takes place every week. This, like earlier stated, can be effective in that the Prime minister is able to explain policies and answer any questions; however, it can also be seen as ineffective because he is also able to formulate a generic answer. Also, some believe that it has become more of a ‘contest’ between the opposing party leader and the Prime minister, in which a ‘slagging match’ takes place, which is more like a media show than real accountability.
Parliamentary debates are also ways in which the government is held to account. Adjournment debates take place during an adjournment period for half an hour at the end of every working day, in these, MP’s can use a motion to adjourn the House of Commons to raise issues which relate to their constituency. Again, questions are given in advance and answers are drafted, a ballot is then held once a week and four MP’s are given the chance to ask questions. This is a good thing as backbenchers are given the opportunity to speak and question the government, however not for long, as four MP’s asking questions in half an hour gives them less than ten minutes each. Also, again, answers are drafted so generic answers will be given.
This is typical in the other types of debates, Opposition day debates where the opposing party is given the chance to choose the topic for debate, these take place 20 times a year, 17 times the ‘government in waiting’ is given the chance, and the other 3 days are given to the second largest opposition party. These are a good thing as the opposing parties are given a duty to scrutinise and criticise government bills. Similarly in estimates day debates and early day motions, generic answers tend to be given, underlining the ineffectiveness of them.
Most debates are undermined by the fact that most people who vote on them in the House of Commons are in fact ‘whips’ and members of the party in power. This means that most of the time the leading party will win any debates being held. This is a similar situation to the select committee system.
The purpose of select committees is to supervise policies, decisions and the various activities carried out by their specified government department, they then report on their findings. In 2002 the Liaison committee set out core tasks which select committees are expected to undertake. MPs who are part of select committees are expected to cross examine and question ministers in relation to their department, allowing in-depth examination of departmental activities, which cannot be sought by debates and parliamentary questions. Select Committees are advantageous, as they tend to have specialist knowledge in the department of which they scrutinise, and have the ability to decide on what issues to look at, meaning they can decide to look at the more topical issues. Their reports include useful public records of information on government policy, which usually wouldn’t have been publicised. Also, the reports can influence current political debates in regards to the governmental powers and they draw media attention to them. Furthermore, they can influence debates on the provisions of a bill in concerns to the legislative process. The government is then expected to respond to reports, meaning that they are always forced to explain themselves.
Although they can be seen as effective, select committees do have disadvantages. Sometimes they do not always get the information they want (i.e. the arms Iraq affair), so scrutiny cannot be carried out effectively. Also, reports can be ignored by a strong government as they are merely recommendations and are not enforceable. Another problem is the lack of assistance available to a select committee, although they contain specialists in the required field, there can sometimes be a lack of resources for a select committee. Moreover, there is a problem in regards to the composition of a select committee, as backbenchers tend to have too much control over them, and therefore, like with debates and questions, the party in government will have a lot more control and power, and committee reports will tend to favour the government.
In my opinion, the way in which the House of Commons holds the executive to account can be very effective, if it is done in the correct way. It gives the Prime Minister and ministers a chance to explain policies and actions, and answer any queries regarding them. This way, there is theoretically a lot of transparency in the government, so the public is aware of what is going on in the country and whether or not it is being run in the correct way. However, it is not as well carried out as well as it can be for a variety of reasons, making it quite an ineffective process in some circumstances. Generic answers to questions which are given previous to debates and question times undermines their value as ministers aren’t expected to spontaneously answer questions, also the mass support in the commons for the leading party in the form of whips means that there is a tendency that all debates go their way, this is also the case as I have mentioned with the select committee system, as the members are chosen by the Prime minister and powers tend to lie with the backbenchers, so, again all decisions are leaned towards the favourable outcome of the leading party, which I believe makes a mockery of the whole system.
- “Accountability of government.” Www.parliament.uk |Home page. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. .
- “House of Commons of the United Kingdom: Definition from Answers.com.” Answers.com: Wiki Q&A combined with free online dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopaedias. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. .
- “Separation of Powers – Government Essay.” Free Online Research Papers: Free Essays & Term Papers. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. .
- “UK Parliament – Select Committees.” Www.parliament.uk |Home page. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. .
- Ryan, Mark. Unlocking Constitutional and Administrative Law. London: Hodder Arnold, 2007.
- Staddon, Anthony. Holding the Executive to Account? The Accountability Function of the UK Parliament. Rep.
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
- Law Essay Writing Service
- Law Dissertation Writing Service
- Law Assignment Writing Service
Content relating to: "UK Law"
UK law covers the laws and legislation of England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. Essays, case summaries, problem questions and dissertations here are relevant to law students from the United Kingdom and Great Britain, as well as students wishing to learn more about the UK legal system from overseas.
Certainty of Objects for Discretionary Trusts
A fixed trust is one in which the interest and thus the share to be taken by the beneficiaries is specified in the trust instrument....
Different Contexts of the Act
The first of the doctrines is the doctrine of “the legislative supremacy of Parliament “, it means that under constitutional arrangements Parliament is legislatively supreme....
Witnesses Evidence the Preliminary Issues | LPC Help
Witnesses Evidence the Preliminary Issues - It is your responsibility to keep in touch with witnesses and ensure that they are at court on time....
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on LawTeacher.net then please:
Jurisdictions / Tags
Our academic writing and marking services can help you!
- Marking Service
- Samples of our Service
- Full Service Portfolio
Freelance Writing Jobs
Looking for a flexible role? Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher?
Free resources to assist you with your legal studies!
- OSCOLA Referencing
- SQE Study Guide
- Legal Case Summaries
- Act Summaries
- Lecture Notes
- Problem Question Examples
- Law Study guides
- UK Law Blog
Crazy Law Facts
Take a look at some weird laws from around the world!
Search Support Articles
*You can also browse our support articles here >
How Much Power Does the British Parliament Have?
11 pages, grade: 66, tim pfefferle (author), introduction.
Earlier this year, David Cameron shocked analysts, journalists and President Obama by giving parliament the ultimate decision-making power over the deployment of the British military forces in the Syrian conflict (BBC, August 30 2013). As the leader of the executive branch, he could have made this decision without feeling the need to necessarily include parliament in the decision-making process. Yet, the shockwaves produced by this development indicate the power the House of Commons has at its disposal; in fact, Cameron ended up ultimately losing the vote, as a majority in the House voted against military action in Syria. It is regarded as highly unusual that the House would be given the right to make a decision of this scale independent of the executive. Even though parliament is sovereign, it is usually seen as subservient to the will of the executive. All of this begs the question: How much power does parliament have, really?
This essay will tackle this question from a three-dimensional perspective of power. In line with the notions of power as developed by Dahl (1961), Bachrach and Baratz (1962), and Lukes (2004) and applied to parliament by Norton (2013). This multi-dimensional framework will facilitate a differentiated discussion of parliamentary power, rather than merely stating the obvious point that parliament possesses little legislative freedom. In order to illustrate an answer to this question, comparisons to other legislatures will be employed to better understand where the UK parliament is situated vis-à-vis its counterparts. Thus, the combination of the theoretical framework and empirical findings should suggest a clear indication as to how parliamentary power in the UK may be understood. The essay will conclude that parliament’s powers remain weak in the face of executive dominance, and that, when compared to other legislatures, the House of Commons rates as one the most feeble parliaments.
Concepts of Power
In his textbook, Norton employs a multidimensional framework of power in order to differentiate how power may be understood in the context of assessing parliamentary power in Britain (2013: 5-7). Roughly speaking, Norton’s framework corresponds to the three dimensions of power; coercive and persuasive power, agenda-setting, and institutional power. These views are derived from the works of Dahl (1961), Bachrach and Baratz (1962) as well as Lukes (1974).
Conventional wisdom would indicate that power as understood within the concepts of the first dimension materializes within the actual legislative process. The government can assert its power over parliament and vice-versa. Whichever gets their way could be said to have exercised power over the other. Norton also points out a second manifestation, persuasive power (2013: 5). Thus, parliament may exercise power by persuading the executive of the merits of a certain bill, which may then be adopted. Even though the government is not coerced, parliament has exercised a degree of power.
Agenda-setting refers to a facet of power which is not initially accessible by merely looking at the outcome of a given process. Rather than looking at who gets their way, agenda-setting power is important in the context of what actually makes it onto the floor of the House, and what is being left out. As will be explained subsequently, the UK executive has significant agenda-setting powers.
Thirdly, institutional power looks at the constraints imposed not only by concrete agency, but also at those generated by legal frameworks, historical developments and implicit understandings, all of which have a bearing on what is and is not a legitimate course of action within parliament. Thus, institutional power is about the structure which parliament is subject to, and which binds both private members and the government.
- No comments yet.
The British Parliament - How the Powe...
Fall Of The British Empire. Eine Verk...
Where does the most significant power...
What is the role the of Parliament in...
The Various Threats Facing British Ba...
How the Doctrine of Separation of Pow...
The European Parliament - its changin...
Gunst- und Ungunstfaktoren für die ag...
Britain on the edge of Europe - Briti...
Should the High Court or the Parliame...
The contrast plot in Shakespeare'...
Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: Geoffrey...
Bibliotheken im Wandel - Die British ...
Der britische Faschismus und die Brit...
Male and female Ways of engaging in d...
European Decision Making and Legislat...
Can a directly elected European Parli...
Komische und tragische Elemente in &q...
Stereotypes in British Comedy
Your term paper / thesis:
- Publication as eBook and book - High royalties for the sales - Completely free - with ISBN - It only takes five minutes - Every paper finds readers
Publish now - it's free
British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages Essay
Introduction, advantages of the british parliamentary system, disadvantages of the british parliamentary system, works cited.
We will write a custom Essay on British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages specifically for you for only $11.00 $9.35/page
807 certified writers online
A parliamentary system is a form of governance in a nation from where the executive branch obtains its power (Rodner 54). The executive is accountable to the House of Commons in Britain. Hence, the two are interrelated. It is important to note that the head of state is different from the head of government. Thus, it is different from the presidential form of democracy. It is usually practised in monarchies and parliamentary republics. A parliamentary system could be a bicameral system that consists of two chambers, or a unicameral house (Rodner 58). This essay focuses on discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the British Parliamentary system.
In order to understand the advantages of the British Parliamentary system, it is important to highlight its components (Rodner 59). First, the executive is linked with the legislature. Second, the executive organ is composed of the prime minister and cabinet ministers. Finally, it has a separate head of state and head of government (Rodner75). The above features give the system many advantages. One of the main advantages of this system is unity (Rodner 79). This is for the reason that the executive and the legislative organs support each other. According to Rodner (83), unity is key because the legislative arm can pass a vote of no confidence if it is not contented with the performance of the executive branch. The process of making and amending laws is easier and faster (Rodner 85). The executive arm has the majority party in the parliament, meaning that it has the majority votes. This implies that it is easier to pass legislations without much resistance from the opposition (Rodner 85). Moreover, the British Parliamentary system draws the attention of ethnic communities, making the leadership very effective in achieving national and regional goals (Gamble 404). Gamble (406) states that power is spread evenly on the platform of the British Parliamentary system. The prime minister is as important as the monarch because voters focus on voting for party ideas, but not for persons. Gamble (409) contends that the system also allows serious debates in parliament that could lead to changes of power without holding elections. Elections in Britain can be held anytime, especially if the assembly passes a vote of no confidence vis-a-vis the executive (Gamble 411). Parliamentary system in Britain is associated with less corruption (Gamble 411). In fact, leaders who do not perform as expected are removed from offices. The system is also advantageous for the reason that the nation functions without a formal constitution (Bevir and Rhodes 216). Through the parliamentary arrangement, relatively small political parties grow and achieve national outlooks with a lot of ease (Bevir and Rhodes 218). For example, some leaders are indirectly elected by different districts that vote for representatives of the legislative body. Bevir and Rhodes (220) argue that in the British Parliamentary system, there is a dual relationship between the Upper House and the Lower House. This is for the reason that both cooperate to promote the developments of the state. It is vital to state that proponents of parliamentary system argue that all political parties are included in the executive, including the minority parties (Bevir and Rhodes 224). This implies that diverse views are incorporated during the law-making process. Notably, the system has made the monarch and members of the House of Lords depend on the parliament (Bevir and Rhodes 226). This has resulted in the promotion of accountability and transparency of the government towards citizens’ representatives. The system has developed a progressive and innovative electoral system that ensures efficiency during elections (Bevir and Rhodes 229; Lijphart 165). It allows the executive to implement its manifestos through the legislature (Bevir and Rhodes 131). This is because the executive and the legislative organs are interrelated. The British Parliamentary system has allowed a relatively peaceful change from monarchical to a liberal democracy (Bevir and Rhodes 232). This has improved efficiency in the running of the country’s affairs. It has also allowed flexibility of legislative structures (Bevir and Rhodes 234). For example, the bicameral house is composed of the Upper House and the Lower House, which consults each other to avoid conflicts during implementation of government policies.
The British Parliamentary system has many advantages compared with other systems of governments. Despite the many advantages, it has been characterised by many disadvantages. First, the executive power is not separated from the legislature (Oliver 154; Lijphart 167). As a result, laws that are not good have been passed. Although the parliament can pass a vote of no confidence, there are limited checks and balances (Oliver 156; Lijphart 168). This has been the case because the majority party forms the government and would always aim at protecting the government. Cabinet members are appointed from the upper house, which interferes with the functions of the upper house with regard to monitoring what the executive does (Oliver 156; Lijphart 169). Nonetheless, the informal constitution that is used in Britain can be changed at anytime by the executive and the legislative arms through a bill or an amendment (Prosse 479). It would be important to note that the powers that are inherited are undemocratic and could cause constitutional crises (Prosse 483). Reserve powers are derived from conventions, and issues could arise when employing them. The absolute powers of the executive and the legislature have contributed to an autocratic form of government that is controlled by the prime minister (Prosse 483). This has interfered with effective functioning of other organs. Prosse (485) supports the fact that the prime minister is not elected directly and has little autonomy, interferes with his or her decision-making process. In addition, voting of the prime minister that is done strategically might not represent the voters’ interests (Prosse 487). It is crucial to note that the British Parliament is as a result of historical processes that derived power from an absolute monarch (Prosse 487).
In conclusion, the British Parliamentary system has advantages and disadvantages. It has been used as an example that has achieved a lot across the world. It is typified by the dependence of the executive on the parliament. Prime minister and the monarch are answerable to the House of Commons, promoting accountability and transparency as aforementioned. The fact that the system lacks a clear distinction between the legislature and the parliament makes the two collaborate. Voting that is done on the basis of party manifestos implies that citizens’ interests would be addressed. However, the system utilises informal constitution that is based on multiple sources of the law. Thus, it can be manipulated by the legislature and the executive.
Bevir, Mark, and Rod Rhodes. “Studying British government: reconstructing the research agenda.” The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 1.2 (1999): 215-239. Print. Gamble, Andrew. “Theories of British politics.” Political Studies 38.3 (1990): 404-420. Print. Lijphart, Arend. “ Patterns of democracy: governance forms and performance in 36 countries .” New Haven, CT: Yale university press. (1999). Print. Oliver, Dawn. “Constitutional reform in the United Kingdom.” Oxford, United Kingdom: OUP Oxford. (2004). Print. Prosser, Tony. “Understanding the British constitution.” Political Studies 44.3 (1996): 473-487. Print. Rodner Brazier. “ Constitutional practice: The foundations of British Government .” Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford university press. 1999. Print.
Need a custom Essay sample written from scratch by professional specifically for you?
- Chicago (N-B)
- Chicago (A-D)
IvyPanda. (2020, June 19). British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages. https://ivypanda.com/essays/british-parliamentary-system-advantages-and-disadvantages/
IvyPanda. (2020, June 19). British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/british-parliamentary-system-advantages-and-disadvantages/
"British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages." IvyPanda , 19 June 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/british-parliamentary-system-advantages-and-disadvantages/.
1. IvyPanda . "British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages." June 19, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/british-parliamentary-system-advantages-and-disadvantages/.
IvyPanda . "British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages." June 19, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/british-parliamentary-system-advantages-and-disadvantages/.
IvyPanda . 2020. "British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages." June 19, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/british-parliamentary-system-advantages-and-disadvantages/.
IvyPanda . (2020) 'British Parliamentary System: Advantages and Disadvantages'. 19 June.
- Presidential Vis-a-vis Parliamentary Systems of Government
- How a Parliamentary System Works
- Parliamentary Democracy: Will of the People Representation
- Parliamentary Sovereignty in the United Kingdom
- Comparative Governments. British Political System
- Is the Canadian Prime Minister Too Powerful? A Critique
- Cyprus: Political Culture Analysis
- The Democratization of Japan
- The United States and Britain Democracies Comparison
- Is Majority Rule Democratic?
- Coase Theorem: An Option of Government Regulation
- The Chinese Government: Exercises of Power
- Is Dubai Police Force a World Class Organization?
- Non-Governmental Organisations and UK Government
- US Congress Powers, Their Sources and History
The British parliament consists of the Queen and two chambers, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The functions of the parliament are to pass laws
Find out what Parliament does, Parliament's role in UK politics, and its relationship with Government, the Crown and Europe.
Related Information. What Parliament does, its role in UK politics, and relationship with Government, the Crown and Europe. Parliament's role
Free Essay: British Parliament Many of the political observers consider functions ... The House of Lords is the second chamber of the UK Parliament and is
Free Essays from 123 Help Me | government governs in and through the assembly of the parliament, thereby fusing the executive and legislative branch of...
Essay On British Parliament ... 1. What is the Parliament? The Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependences and
Role of Parliament what roles does parliament play in the british constitution? which role is most important? parliament plays multiple roles in the
Parliament in the UK is made up of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. ... Info: 1812 words (7 pages) Essay Published: 7th Aug 2019. Reference this.
The essay will conclude that parliament's powers remain weak in the face of executive dominance, and that, when compared to other legislatures, the House of
The British Parliamentary system has allowed a relatively peaceful change from monarchical to a liberal democracy (Bevir and Rhodes 232). This