Top 30 essays for css pdf by zahid ashraf free download

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Technique of Writing Essays Good Governance (CSS-2016) Reforming the UNO Media The King Maker Democracy in Pakistan Provincial Autonomy (CSS-2016) Water Crisis and Remedies (CSS-2016) Population Climate Change Privatizing HEC Education War on Terrorism (CSS-2015) Opulent (CSS-2014) The religion of Islam China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Corruption in Pakistan Energy Crisis in Pakistan Palestine Revolutions of the World The Russian Revolut100 (1917) Iranian Revolution (1978-1979) Cuban Revolution (1953-1959) Enlightened Moderation Chinese Revolution (1949) American Revolution (l 764-1789) The French Revolu~on (17139,1799) CSS Past Papers PMS Past Papers

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Top 30 Essays by Zahid Ashraf.pdf

Top 30 Essays by Zahid Ashraf.pdf

for CSS, PMS a all other relevant exams WhY This Book? .; Essay Writing Techniques .; In-depth Ana\ysis .; Extreme\y

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for CSS, PMS a all other relevant exams WhY This Book? .; Essay Writing Techniques .; In-depth Ana\ysis .; Extreme\y He\pfu\ for the students of competitive Exams Zahid Ashraf CONTENTS D Long Essay ...................................................................................................................................... 9 D Technique of Writing Essays ..................................................................................................... :... 16 D China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) ................................................................................. 19 D Corruption .................................................................................................................................... 26 D Good Governance (CSS-2016) ...................................................................................................... 35 D Provincial Autonomy or creating more provinces (CSS-2016) ................................................... ..44 D War on Terrorism is Contributing towards growing abuse of Human Rights (CSS-2015) .......... .49 D Energy Crisis in Pakistan .............................................................................................................. 5 7 D Water Crisis in Pakistan and Its Remedies (CSS-2016) ................................................................ 64 D Population Explosion in Pakistan .................................................................................................. 73 D Global Warming/Climate Change ................................................................................................. 79 D Privatizing Higher Education-Generating Knowledge or Making More Money for the Opulent (CSS-2014) ...................................................................................................................... 89 D Education ....................................................................................................................................... 96 D Poverty, causes, effects and suggestions ..................................................................................... 106 D Media in Pakistan/Media, The King Maker ................................................................................ 112 D Democracy in Pakistan ................................................................................................................ 119 D War on Terror/ Terrorism ............................................................................................................ 129 D Socio Economic Problems of Pakistan ........................................................................................ 139 D Pakistan Rich in Natural Resources, but Poor in their Management or Pakistan is a Rich Country where Poor People Live ................................................................... 145 D Islam, the religion of peace ......................................................................................................... 150 D Reforming the UNO .................................................................................................................... 156 8 Cl Balochistan, Problems & Suggestions ............................... ,......................................................... 166 Cl Foreign Policy of Pakistan .............................................. :........................................................... 180 Cl Challenges Faced by Pakistan in 21 Century............................................................................. 201 Cl Problems of the Muslim ]Jmmah ................................................................................................ 207 Cl The Land of Pure ............................................................... :........................................................ 212 Cl The New Great Game .................................................................................................................. 223 Cl Palestine ...................................................................................................................................... 228 Cl Revolutions of the World ......................................................................... ;................................. 239 11 • • American Revolution (l 764-1789) ...................................................................................... 240 • The French Revolu~on (17139,1799) ................................................................................... 242 • The Russian Revolut100 (1917) ........................................................................... :............... 244 • Iranian Revolution (1978-1979) .......................................................................................... 24S • Chinese Revolution (1949) .................................................................................................. 248 • Young Turk Revolution (1908-1909) .................................................................................. 249 • Cuban Revolution (1953-1959) ........................................................................................... 2Sl Cl Enlightened Moderation .............................................................................................................. 2SS · Cl Organisations at Olance ........................................................... ~~ .................................................. 264 • SAARC .....................................................................,......................................................... 264, • ASE.AN (Association of Southeut Aliaa NatiOlll), ......................... .'.......................... J,,, ... 2~7 • SCO (Sllangllai cooperation Qrsa!lizatiom),,, .......................~............................................ 271 • ECO (Economic Cooperation Orpnization) ....................................."""'"" ...................... 276 • OIC (The Organization of the Islamic Conference) ........................................................... 279 • EU (.Europeau Union) ......................................................................................................... 284 Cl Budgets (2016-17) ....................................................................................................................... 291 Cl PMS Past Papers .......................................................................................................................... 299 Cl CSS Past Papers .......................................................................................................................... 301 Cl References ....... :........................................................................................................................... 30S LONG ESSAY · TWO TYPES 1. Argumentative 2. Explanatory 3. Quoatational • ARGUMENTATIVE OR EXPLANATORY Now it is a question which should be done. • Argumentative essay requires a complete evidence and supports your answer with logical reasons and claims in the end • Explanatory essay does nor require evidence or supporta, students just need to give general exampl~ and write in detail. ARGUMENTATIVE. • • • These e11ays seek evidence in the ahape of facts or figures, examples or explanation of the argument. Mostly, in CSS, argumentative esaays are asked. (CSS, 2012) For example: Enerar Cri1i1, cauae1 and ef1'ect1 QUOTATIONAL ESSAY • Such essays are difficult to attempt u the material of the proverb dries after writing 3 or 4 pages. Usually, que1tions are asked from literature and students do not have enough material to write on proverb. TIPS • • Understanding the topic is very important In case if student knows the answen of two essays then write down the outlines of two essays and finalise which one is the beat to be attempted. Usually attempt d1ose essays which are simple and not in the shape of quotation. Sometimes, there are asked essay like CSS (2008), Global wanning, a fact or fiction. • In this case, students need to support one logic either fact or fiction. Do not try to proof both when *!:.J'C is 'or' in the statement of the essay. • In this essay, student has to support his logic by presenting reports or facts to show that his answer is based on logic. 10 • In this case, you can quote the IPCC-2007, 2014 Reports, etc regarding Global Wanning which is the best argument for your essay as Global wanning is fact. • Sometimes, there are essays like Democracy is culture rather than process (CSS, 2012). • Such type of essays should be avoided as students are unable to understand the topic. • Such essays demand a lot of attention as candidates have to prove democracy is a culture in developing countries whereas in developed countries it is process. Some times, essay like 'Meaning and purpose of education (CSS-2013)' was asked. • In this context, students need not to give causes, effects and suggestions. Students just need to define the meaning and its purpose only. • I observed many times if a student prepares an essay education, causes, effects and suggestions and when the essay like 'Meaning and purpose of education (CSS-2013)' was asked then student writes that causes and effects. In this case, students fail because examiner did not ask to give causes or effects as examiners is asking about meaning and purpose. So student must think what the examiner is asking before attempting paper. Some times, essay like Democracy of the people, for the people and by the people (PMS 2012) was asked. • In this case, students' outline must be revolved around the meaning like democracy for people (welfare state, speedy justice, access to fundamental human rights, etc) and democracy by the people (representative elected by people, significance of vote, etc) • I saw students write causes and take pakistan examples while the examiner is asking something different and general about democracy as its function, prerequisite, etc. • So student should be careful while answering such questions. LATEST TREND IN • • css ESSAy AND How TO COPE WITH IT During CSS-2013, 14, 15 & 16, those essays are asked which depend on the critical thinking of the students. Now cramming and memorising essays are discouraged by the examiners. In these essay, students need to build their critical analysis skills as these essays purely depend on students' critical ability. Hence, students had better practise and get such types of essays checked by a CSS English teacher and making outline of these essays are appreciating. A GOOD ESSAY • • • • • One must be clear about the topic There should not be grammatical mistakes Proper paragraphs ought to be followed. Issues of coherence and cohesion need to be tackled to present your answer in a well organised and united way. Prove your logic or argument at the end of the essay STRUCTURE OF AN ESSAY How to Make Outline Firstly, students should read the following topics in detail like • Poverty, causes, effects, suggestions 11 ·• • • • • • • • • • • • Flaws in Educational system of Pakistan and its remedies Overpopulation, causes, effects and suggestions Media in Pakistan: Media as king maker, positive and negative points of media, media ethics, social media, freedom of media has certain limitations. Problems of democracy in Pakistan Causes of bad governance in Pakistan Energy crisis, causes, effects, suggestions Global warming, causes, effects, suggestion; a fuct or fiction; global warming and its effects on Pakistan; future of global warming. Women empowerment: causes or factors, women's rights and western women's rights Socio-economic problems of Pakistan Corruption in Pakistan, causes, effects and suggestions Pakistan is rich but poorly managed. Other topics which are very common in newspapers especially 5 months before the start of the final exams. How to Make Outline • • • • While students are preparing these essays, he/she must have the hard copy of the last I 0 to 12 years past papers having an overview of these papers. For example if a student is preparing problems of education in Pakistan then one must have the ideas of Education and its meaning and purpose, causes, effects, and suggestion, reforming examination system, role of higher education commission, private institutes: Promoting higher education or a business to make money (CSS-2014). These different angles of an essay will be beneficial to student when he appears in exams because he has almost covered last IO years past papers. Essay like Media which has been asked many times during the last many years like: Freedom of expression has certain limitations Social media, etc While preparing it, one needs to go through the past papers and gets idea what are the different titles of an essay which can be asked like negative and positive effects of media and suggestions. Once student goes through the material, he needs to address the topic of an essay if there is a simple problem like Poor persecuted women (CSS-2005) or Energy Crisis, causes and effect (CSS-2012) or Global Warming then student is supposed to make outline having major headings Introduction, causes, effects, suggestions and conclusion. • Then there should be detailed points in the shape of phrase writing as sub heading of the above headings. For example ENERGY CRISIS, CAUSES AND EFFECTS Introduction (i) Energy, a life line (ii) Demand and supply gap 12 Causes (I) (II) (Ill) . No major projects undertaken· by previous government Failure to increase the generating capacity Problem of circular debt Effects Closure of industrial unit Unemployment Effects on industrial sector (I) (II) (Ill) Suggeitlons Resolving the circular debt problem Building small power plants Capital cost of new plants (I) (II) (Ill) Conclusion How TO MAKE AN OUTLINE • • • • Some times essays like 'Country life la better than city life CSS-2013)' was asked. In this case, student has to make an outline having the two major heading: one is country life and other is city life. Student can also compare it after writing in detail the advantages of rural and urban life. Such type of essays do not ask for any argument. These essays by nature are explanatory. In some cues, where students do not have direct material of the essay like 'Not economy but polltle1 11 a key to 1uccea1 (CSS-2013) OR 'What are the hurdles In eur way to becomln1 a truly Independent 1tate? (CSS-2011)', In these cases, students can make a mental chart by writing the key word in a circle and making pointa whatseever comes in your mind. Once you note down your pointa you can arrange it significantly and can remove or miss any irrelevant point. How TO WRITE THE INTRODUCTION OF AN ESSAY • Preferably, if student has quotation relating to this topic, he/she must write in the beainning with proper referei.ce as Accordin1 to Quaid Azam, "This is challenp to our very existence and if we are to survive as a nation and are to translate our dreams about Pakistan into reality we shall have to grapple with the problem facing us with redoubled zeal and energy. Our masses are today disorganized and disheartened by the cataclysm that Pakistan, Karachi has befallen them. (Address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of on October II, I !M7) · • For example if you are writing an essay on poverty you can start with starter as: There are many problems in Pakistan. One of them is poverty. Or Poverty is a major issue which Pakistan has been confronting since her inception. 13 1he above two patterns tell how to start the vecy fust sentence of an essay. • • • • • • The argumentative essay starts with starter and thesis ststements in the start of an essay. Thesis ststement, short and precise, is the idea of justification what the student is going to prove in his/her essays. Most of the time in argumentstive essay, where there are causes, effects, and suggestion, students can write these causes, effects and suggestion in their thesis ststement. For example the thesis statement of poverty essay can be: Poverty in Pakistan is a multifaceted problem deeply rooted in its socio-political and economic stn1cture of governance. The lack of effective political and economic · governance is adversely hampering efforts to cut rising poverty. In other words, students must take into their mind that thesis statement is what the student has to proof in his/her essay. It is a ,main theme and argument which students gradually prove in their essays paragraph wise. Another example of starter of Corruption essay can be: Corruption exists in one form or another in all societies. The major difference in the case of Pakistan (or perhaps South Asia) is the extent of its pervasiveness and its implications for governance and the value system in general and the political culture in particular. While the thesis statement can be: Corruption has become systemic. It has become instil utionalised at all levels in a way that it has become an integral component of the administrative, social and political culture. After writing quotation, starter and thesis ststement, students should explain it or if he/she has report of Economic Survey of Pakistsn, budget, UNESCO, etc then it is preferable to quote such figure to validate your justification of your thesis statement. After that, explain it and the length of an essay should be one page of A4 size. How TO WRITE THE BODY OF AN ESSAy • • • • • • After writing introduction, students need to write the causes in each paragraph. If the essay is Poverty, causes, effects and' suggestions then student write down the cause of poverty first. For example, the first cause of poverty is feudalism. In this paragraph, write such type of start up of a paragraph which student can easily justify in his paragraph. For feudalism, student can write the opening sentence of a paragraph as o Since the. independence of Pakistan, feudal lords hijack this country by exerting their influence in all fields of life as they are MPAs, MNAs, Ministers, P.Ms and Presidents. After writing the opening paragraph, student has the option to give figure or fact or example or explain this ideas. For example, a student can justify by saying that: o More than 60-70% of our land is occupied by feudal lords (22 families) while the rest population (190m) has 20-30% land resulting in the shape of equal distribution of income. That is why, poverty is increasing day by day as our major income is in the hands of 22 families who hold 60-70 % of our land. This 1s a argument of the opening line of this paragraph. 14 • • • Similarly, student is supposed to write other causes in different paragraphs. After writing causes in 7 or 8 paragraphs then student need to write effects in 4 to 5 paragraph as effects paragraphs do not have argument and its justification. After that, give suggestion in 3 to 4 paragraph by using different words like should, must, ought to, it is the need of the hour, it is high time, etc. How TO WRITE THE CONCLUSION OF AN ESSAY • • • • Then write the conclusion. In the conclusion, write with the words such as Finally, Lastly, In conclusion, To conclude this, To summarise, In summary, In sum, etc. In the conclusion, paraphrase your thesis statement and justify your argument which you have developed in the introduction. End of the paragraph should be very positive as one hopes, one wishes, one prays that Pakistan will be able to overcome this problem if practical policies are implemented. DIFFERENT ESSAYS • If the essay is about Poverty Alleviation: o Do not write causes in 7 to 8 paragraphs then need to write in just I or 2 paragraph because your main focus is alleviation and alleviation means to give suggestions o In such type of essay, main focus and outline will be on alleviation and causes and effects have little value or portion. o If you are writing 15 pages then you have to write 10 to 11 pages on eradication and the rest consists of introduction, little causes and effects and conclusion. o Paragraph length should be between 6 to 10 lines of each. EXPLANATORY ESSAYS • • • These are those essays which do not need argument and its justification. Such essays consist of prerequisite, general examples and more focus on explanation. Essays such type can be: o Country life is better than city life. o Meaning and purpose of education. o The pleasures of reading. o All humans are born equal in dignity and rights but htey are m shackles everywhere. o Dialogue is the best course to combat terrorism. Such essays should be solved according to their key terms. For example if there is an essay of Pleasure of reading then those students can write who have the habit of book reading and they know what are its benefits, how it contributes towards knowledge increasing, etc. TECHNIQUES HOW TO DEAL DIFFERENT TOPICS • Essay like Dialogue is the best course to combat terrorism or great nations win without fighting (CSS-2014) need to elaborate the importance of dialogue as it is necessary because it avoids bloodshed, wastage of resources, weakening economy, loss of human being, damage of infrastructure as nations have to conclude dialogue even at the end of the war. !fit is necessary at the end why there is a need vfwar'? 15 • • • • • • In this way, students after writing and developing the significance of dialogue can write the examples of the world like Soviet Union, like US withdrawal from Afghanistan. In such essays, student has to convince the examiners the role of dialogue rather than launching war. Essay like Can the Third World War be prevented? (CSS-2008) or Can women be equal to men in Pakistan? (CSS-2010) o Student has the option to prove it that is it possible or not. If yes, then give your argument in a logic way. o only take one side of the picture and do not try to proof both sides. In 20 l 4, Essay on dialogue was asked. The context of the was the withdrawal of the US from Afghanistan and there were a number of articles in Dawn about Dialogue and Peace. Such questions appear in Newspaper like Dawn where students can prepare easily. In 2015, Human rights violation and war on terror was asked. Students of International Law can attempt it because they have read it in their syllabus. In short, Top 30 Essay book and Newspaper before 4 to 5 months of the exams can be beneficial to get higher marks. How TO COLLECT THE MATERIAL OF AN ESSAy • Before 4 to 5 months commencing of the exams, students need to read The Dawn daily • • • as most of the time, the topic and heading of an article in Dawn is directly taken for CSS essay, current affairs, Pakistan affairs, etc. So reading newspaper will develop your critical analysis skills. Secondly, read the magazines related with CSS and read the topic Thirdly, my Top 30 Essay book will provide many things at a single platform. Fourthly, write and get these essays checked by a CSS teacher. (going to a CSS teacher in the last month of the exams result in utter failure of the candidates. Consult teacher at least 4 to 5 months before the CSS exams start.) TECHNIQUE OF WRITING ESSAYS The Technique and SklU (a) Introduction (b) Main body Part-I (subheading) Part-II (subheading) Part-III (subheading) (c) Conclusion The Introduction: Under introduction you define the topic for which a thesis statement is to be made. The start should be gripping and well worded. Your reader or the examiner should have no doubt in his mind what you are going to write about. The Introduction normally consists of only one paragraph whatever the length of the essay. For example let us suppose the topic under consideration is "Why Democracy- fails to come to Pakistan." Its introductory paragraph could be constructed as under: Introduction (Specimen) "Every time there is a change ofgovemment in Pakistan, a dictator is fou.nd sitting on top as the head of the state. In whatever form the change may come, it matters little. It may be an elected government thrown up by proper democratic process or a govemment installed in place of a dismissed regime. It could be a coup staged by the military in the middle of the night with a solemn promise to hold elections within 90 days to pave way for the advent of genuine democracy or it could be an outright take over of the govemment in broad daylight with the declared objective of giving the nation true democracy within a few months. But in each case democracy fails to knock at the door of this unfortunate nation. The Main Body: For a multi-purpose exhaustive essay or three hours long examination essay the 'main body' is divided into three, four or more parts depending on the number of essential aspepts it ha11, Each part is given a subtitle. A lengthy ess'!y without sµbheadings becomes dull, drab ·and. featureless. By just looking at the important highlighted, aspects, the reader can -~o.n.venie~ly conclude that justice appears t~ have been done to. the topic. Fol"'tl]i_s purpose \jt1hze the jirst twenty mmutes or so m plannmg the essay and wntmg the, lntrod11ft10n. Make an outline to draw up a list of relevant points intended to be discussed. Arrange them in a logical order. This enables you to conceive the essay from start to finish in its entirety. The Outline of the Main Body (Specimen) (a) Working of Democracy under civil and military rules Ayub's Martial Law- Basic Democracies-71 Elections break up of Pakistan-No democracy - Bhutto's autocratic rule- Zia's Islamic Democracy, Nawaz Sharif, Benazir's democracy- a failure Mushrraf's democracy no democracy at all. (b) How feudalism transforms democracy into dictatorship? Feudal's Political and economic control - People powerless - Illiteracy, Poverty, Corruption among leaders 17 (c) Devolution Plan for true democracy Formation of District Govts - Nazims - Financial & Political powers given - A good system (d) Why Devolution couldn't usher in democracy? No real devolution - Financial and political power not fully given -Lack of authorityInterference of Ministers - No education. (e) How poverty blocked the coming of Democracy Concentration of wealth in fewer hands Majority poor - No vote power lack of education (I) Abolition of feudalism to pave way for advent of democracy Feudalism is undemocratic and un-Islamic - Pakistan in grip of feudalism - Democracy can never come until feudalism is abolished. The Text of the Essay: Once you have gained full grasp of the whole essay it becomes easier to produce its narrative without much mental strain. Parts of the essay that have been broken into inter-connected points ensure logical continuity, With only one point to discuss at a time your mind remains clear, doesn't get mixed up, remains clear and gives its best. You take up one point at a time and produce a paragraph on it. Such progressive treatment of your writing helps to avoid repetition of ideas, sentences and paragraphs which improves the readability of the text. It also enables you to line up only the essential matter dropping out what is irrelevant. Building up your Vocabulary Stock Repetition: You are required to remain acutely conscious that repetition has to be avoided even in the use of 'words.' You tend to use a word over and over again when you are short of vocabulary. Such writing becomes disgusting for the reader and the examiner. How to make up the vocabulary deficit? Enrich your vocabulary stock by reading the editorial of a daily newspaper. Make a list of unfamiliar words putting dictionary meanings against them. Within twenty days or so you discover that you have grabbed Editor's entire vocabulary of three to four hundred words with the help of which he produces an editorial of quality daily. A day comes when you hardly find any new word in his writings. In this exercise, you have gained quite a few other advantages as well. One: The editorials have kept you updated on important daily events. Two: They have taught you how to appreciate, criticize, analyze, assess, evaluate the problem at hand and also how to form your own opinion on the topic of discussion. These two are most essential qualities that enable you to become an essayist of worth. Chisel your Essay to Perfection However, the real worth of an essay is determined by its exposition i.e. how the subject matter is treated, presented and expressed. This command is gained through reading, observation, discussion and thinking over the subject matter of the topic under consideration. The entire spadework that you have done so far has now enabled you to produce the first draft of your essay. But remember this is only the first draft, not the final one. Leave it as it is for a day or two. Take it up again and start evaluating it critically with a strong µncharitable temper as if it has been written by some one else. Try to improve it as much as possible. Clear up ideas that are vague. Fill up the gaps if there are any. Cut out the sentences, the portions and parts of the essay that appear to be irrelevant, superfluous and contradictory to the main argument of the essay. Add new thoughts to enrich its worth. Look for faulty sentences and remodel them to promotl,. economy of words, ensure appropriate use of vocabulary and remove grammatical 18 faults. Make use of idioms and phrases. Idiomatic expression make your writing lively, delightful and gives it depth, force, mobility and improves its readability. Having done all that now is the time to rewrite it to make affair copy of your essay. In the Examination Hall: With the command over the expertise of the art of essay writing that you have acquired and the mental powers that you have developed, you are now well set to make a successful attempt in producing an essay of high quality in the examination hall where the first draft is your final draft and you don't have time to recast or improve it. The first requirement of course is the framework of the essay in the form of an outline plan for which about twenty minutes should be spared. Think hard and jot down relevant points in a logical sequence to make your narrative coherent and progressive. The second is to make use of your latent mental powers. Give your brain a determined command that it should come to your aid to make your discussion analytical and critical. The narrative should be idiomatic and full of creative ideas. The expression should be forceful and convincing. Have faith in your brain and the powers it generates. It obliges like a faithful servant and never lets you down. The draft that you have produced is the first and the last. In view of the spadework that you have been doing months earlier, a well finished and properly polished essay emerges as a matter of course to your entire satisfaction and the standards set by your examiner. Length of the Essay: It is what you can write continuously, at normal speed, during hundred and fifty minutes i.e. two and a half hours out ofa total period of three hours. The Conclusion: The concluding paragraph of your essay summarizes what all you have discussed at length. It has three outstanding features. One: It reiterates only important points of the essay. No new matter is introduced or fresh discussion launched. Two: Repetition of sentences and vocabulary is avoided. While ideas remain the same the vocabulary changes. Three: Just as the Introduction is supposed to give an attractive and powerful start to the essay, the Conclusion winds up the discussion in a manner that gives feelings of absolute satisfaction to the reader since full justice has been done to the topic. CHINA PAKISTAN ENERGY CORRIDOR (CPEC) OUTLINE D D Introduction D Previous project: Silk Road D Projects D Fruits for Pakistan D The Concept of One Belt and One Road D Different routes D Agreement of bilateral trade and economic ties D Geostrategic location of Gwadar D Challenges for Pakistan Development of Gwadar • Internal • External D Counter Indian influnce D D Economic gains from this project D Balance of power in South Asia D Effects of the projects D Conclusion Removal of social problems due to CPEC 20 ESSAY The CPEC is a 3,000-kilometre network of roads, railways and pipelines to transport oil and gas from Gwadar Port to Kashgar city, northwestern China's Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China Daily reports. China and Pakistan have agreed to build One Belt One Road project more commonly known as China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is expected to bring about both peace and prosperity in South Asia. This corridor will link between Kashgar in north-western China to Pakistan's Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea near the border with Iran via roads, railways and pipelines. There are many internal and external challenges for Pakistan government to implement this multi-dollars project. However, it is a game changer project which will transforn1 the fate of Pakistan and will help Pakistan modernize. It will improve the economy and trade, enhance regional connectivity, overcome energy crises, develop infrastructure and establish people to people contacts in both the countries. Proposed by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang during his visit to Pakistan in May 2013, the CPEC will act as a bridge for the new Maritime Silk Route that envisages linking three billion people in Asia, Africa and Europe. The project links China's strategy to develop its western region with Pakistan's focus on boosting its economy, including the infrastructure construction of Gwadar Port, together with some energy cooperation and investment programmes. It also involves road and railway construction including an upgrade of the 1,300-km Karakoram Highway, the highest paved international road in the world which connects China and Pakistan across the Karakoram mountains. The CPEC will reduce China's routes of oil and gas imports from Africa and the Middle East by thousands of kilometres, making Gwadar a potentially vital link in China's supply chain. With the support of China, Pakistan has gained significant importance not only in the region but the entire world. In recent years, both China and Pakistan have been making concerted efforts to revive the historic Silk Road which is one of the oldest known trade route in the world and will provide a route for trade from Kashgar (China) to Gwadar (Pakistan). China-Pakistan Economic Corridor plan will help Pakistan to become one of the most strategically important countries in the region. It will also provide an opportunity to China to build a naval base on Gwadar port that will increase influence of China in the region and also counter US influence in the Asia-Pacific region. The CBS News quoted some Western diplomats on Pakistan-China partnership. According to them, China's increasing economic engagement with Pakistan should be seen in the context of Beijing's "efforts to counter the US efforts to deepen alliances around the Asia-Pacific region." The "One Belt One Road" concept has international strategic importance. The One Belt One Road initiative covers countries and regions with a total population of 4.4 billion and a total economic volume of US$ 21 trillion, 63 % and 29 %, respectively of the World. According to the assessment of the Corridor, the plan is involved in laying the foundation for regional cooperation, improving economic growth, offering trade diversifications, investing in transportation, mining and energy sectors and creating political flexibility. It is a vision with world-. changing implications, an unfolding plan that would weave much of Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania and the Middle East much more closely together through a patchwork of diplomacy, new infi\structure and free trade zones. The "One Belt one Road" Project consists of three routes, southern, central and northern route. The southern corridor bogins from Guangzhou, which is the third largest city of China in South Central 21 China. This route moves towards western parts of China and connects Kashgar with Pakistan at Kunjarab - a point from where China wants to link to Gwadar port in the Arabian Sea. It is the shortest and the most feasible option for China. The second Chinese option is the Central Corridor that starts from Shanghai and links the country to Tashkent, Tehran and onwards to Bandar Imam Khomeini Port oflran on the Persian Gulf. One of its branches goes up towards Europe. This is the longer route but could be an option, if Pakistan does not deliver on the timelines of completing its road network to become a beneficiary of the New Silk Road Economic Belt. The third Chinese option is the Northern Corridor that starts from Beijing, passes through Russia, and links it to European cities. Recognizing the fact that regional integration is an inevitable measure to meet the demands of economically globalized world, the notion of Silk Road was reformulated and rephrased by China in 2013 under 'one road, one belt' initiative, i.e., economic belt along the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road. Pakistan is a significant partner for China as it links China to the Central Asia, Southern Asian region and Middle East and its major deep-sea port Gwadar offers direct access to the Indian Ocean and beyond. Both countries have been working on enhancing their coordination and strategic communication to safeguard common interests. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) represents a new model of Pakistan and China cooperation which will serve against the backdrop of complex and changing regional and international situations. China and Pakistan have developed strong bilateral trade and economic ties and cooperation over the years. China has gradually emerged as Pakistan's major trading partner both in terms of exports and imports. Bilateral trade and commercial links between the two countries were established in January 1963 when both signed the first bilateral long-term trade agreement. Both countries signed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on November 24, 2006 and implemented from July I, 2007. Later on, both signed the FTA on Trade in Services on February 21, 2009 that became active from October 10 that year. CPEC is an under-construction mega-project which will achieve the political and economic objectives through trade and development and will also strengthen the economic and trade cooperation between the two countries. This corridor will also be helpful in creating regional stability in South Asia. After completion of the corridor, it will function as a primary gateway for trade between China and Africa and the Middle East. It is expected that this corridor will help cut the 12,000-kilometre route which Middle East oil supplies must now take to reach the Chinese ports. This project will run through most of Pakistan starting from Gwadar in Balochistan and ending in Kashgar in western China, while passing through parts of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces and Gilgit-Baltistan in northern Pakistan to reach the Khunjrab Pass and beyond to China. Pakistan has prepared a plan to construct three corridors after active consultation with the Chinese authorities; these are the eastern alignment, the central alignn1ent and the western alignment. The eastern alignment of the corridor originates from Gwadar, travels parallel to the Makran Coastal Highway eastwards (towards Karachi), and then after passing through parts of interior Sindh, and southern, central and northern regions of Punjab, it reaches Islamabad. From Islamabad, it extends to Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra districts of the relatively peaceful Hazara Division in KP - this 22 part of the corridor will also run through Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu and Kashmir - and reaches Khunjrab after passing through Diamer and Gilgit areas in northern Pakistan. The corridor will also run through the Pamir Plateau and Karakoram mountains. A link from Taxila through Peshawar and Torkhum will connect the eastern alignment of the corridor to Jalalabad in Afghanistan. Regional connectivity with India through the eastern alignment is designed to be provided through the Hyderabad-Mirpurkhas-Khokhrapar-Zero Point link and the Wagha border, Lahore. Western alignment was the original alignment which the government says has been deferred until the eastern alignment of the corridor is completed. According to the western alignment plan, the economic corridor (highway and railway) starts from Gwadar and runs through some southern and eastern districts of Balochistan (Khuzdar and Dera Bugti, respectively), and some districts in south Punjab to reach D. I. Khan in KP. From D. I. Khan, it further extends to Islamabad and Abbottabad and from there onwards, the route is the same as in the eastern alignment. The western alignment will have an additional regional connectivity link to Afghanistan through Chaman and will connect with Iran through Quetta-Kho-e-Taftan link. Following are the challenges for Pakistan. Pakistan faces several challenges in the implementation of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project. These challenges can be identified as external and internal. The Vice Director General of Policy Research Office at the International Department of the Central Committee Communist Party of China, Dr. Luan Jianzhang is of the view that political unrest, security situation and administrative issues are some of the greatest challenges in the way of successful completion of the corridor. The construction of the corridor has been defined by many as a strategic moment such that Pakistan has assumed the position of economic pivot for the whole region. This paradigm shift in circumstances is a cause of great worry for the enemies of Pakistan both within and outside. India, Israel and the US are unhappy. For India, CPEC is a thorn in its paw. They have put their heads together to work out new strategies to block the project forward march. RAW has opened a special office in Delhi and has been allotted $300 million to disrupt CPEC. Already one can notice sudden upsurge in the acts of terror in the three restive regions and activation of certain NGOs and think tanks all trying to air misgivings and create fear psychosis. In Pakistan, some political parties like ANP, Ba loch nationalists, PkMAP raised serious objections to the CPEC project. Even PT! and JUI (F) showed inclinations to climb the bandwagon of anti-CPEC forces. Objections were being raised despite assurances by the government that this project will provide equal opportunities to all the provinces. Security concerns have been the most critical challenge to the CPEC and both Pakistan and China have been trying to meet these. An arc of militancy stretches from Xinjiang to Gwadar consisting of groups like the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM), Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ), Daesh (ISIS), Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA), Balochistan Liberation Front (BLF) and the militant wings of some political parties. Most of these groups may not have an enn1ity with China itself but rather intend to attacks the Chinese interests like the CPEC as a means to deal with the Pakistani state. Gwadar is the tail of the Silk belt, which will connect at Kashgar through different communication networks. The security of the whole corridor and Gwadar is a real concern for China. After the military operation in different parts of Pakistan, the terrorist infrastructure still exists inside and outside of the borders which will continue to pose a threat. The support of American CIA, Israeli 23 Mossad and Indian RAW has continuously been assisting the militant groups and sub-nationalists in all the provinces to conduct subversive acts - and using terrorist elements in the whole country to threaten the Pak-Chinese plans of developing the CPEC. In the past few years, they kidnapped and killed many Chinese nationals in Pakistan despite Pakistan's efforts to provide best possible security. The army has announced the creation of I 0,000 man special force for protecting the development projects. The new force, named the Special Security Division, will comprise nine army battalion and six wings of paramilitary forces, the Rangers and the Frontier Corps. As an economic enterprise, for the CPEC, the greatest challenge comes from competitors. The most significant is the Iranian port of Chabahar. India intends to invest significantly ($85 million) in the development of Chabahar, which lies a few miles away from Gwadar and is part of its efforts for access to land-locked Afghanistan and Central Asia while bypassing rival Pakistan. Chabahar will effectively be a way station for energy imports coming from the Gulf region and destined for Afghanistan and Central Asia. It will also be a gateway to the Middle East, and possibly Europe, for exports originating from Afghanistan and Central Asia. While the Chabahar project has not yet been started due to the ongoing talks on the Iranian nuclear issue, the Gwadar port has already become functiollal. However, there is no need for contention between these two ports. Iran has a stake in the CPEC \hrough the proposal to link the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline with China, which has been described as a "common interest" between the three countries. Indian involvement in Chabahar is linked to Pakistan's refusal to allow India access of transit to and from Afghanistan, so India sees Iran as the next-best option. If Pakistan extends transit facilities to India, and then India may not be interested in building up Chabahar. In recent years, India has been particularly active in engaging Central Asian states for the sake of pursuing energy deals. India can be easily accommodated via the CPEC itself through eastern interface in Punjab and Sindh and transformed into a stakeholder in the success of both Gwadar and the CPEC. The dice of connectivity loaded by China has left India confused and bewildered. India is also concerned about China's huge investment in Pakistan, particularly its recent decision to fund for China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. China is also helping Pakistan in producing plutonium at the Chinese built Kyushu reactor and will also sell eight submarines worth $5 billion, which will give a quantum jump to Pak Navy's sea capability. After the completion of CPEC, Pakistan may become a trade hub in the region after Gwadar Port starts functioning fully and duty-free economic zones are set up. Many Central Asian states have also expressed interest in becoming part of the corridor. This strategic partnership between Pakistan and China has upset India that openly voiced its opposition and even premier Narendra Modi pressed the president of China during his visit to Beijing to drop the plan of developing the corridor. However, China did not cave in to the pressure and vowed to push ahead with work on the project. India is also not happy with the handing over of Gwadar Port development and its operations to China. There have long been reports that Delhi is fuelling insurgency in Balochistan, which is rich in oil and gas resources, but poor law and order conditions have halted work on exploration activities there. Experts believe the India-UAE nexus will try to fail the Gwadar Port development project and create hurdles in the way of exploration activities in Balochistan. With Chinese clout growing and Russia flexing muscles to regain control over Central Asia, India is struggling to make some headway and spread its sphere of influence in the region. Delhi has bet on Iran and Afghanistan to reach the Central Asian states via land route as Pakistan and China have control over many land links that provide access to the resource-rich region. India hopes it will 24 be able to reach Central Asia through the Iranian port of Chabahar and build a north-south corridor that will run to Afghanistan and eventually stretch to Central Asia. Pakistan has been playing a significant role in South Asia. After the completion of ChinaPakistan Economic Corridor economic, conunercial as well as geostrategic environment will improve in Pakistan. It will help Pakistan in dealing with the problems of poverty, unemployment and inequities of undeveloped provinces. During his meeting with President Xi Jinping, President Mamnoon Hussain said the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor would prove to be a game-changer in the whole region by generating massive trade and economic activity and opening new vistas of progress and prosperity for the people of the two countries and about three billion people of the region. CPEC from all counts will prove a game changer and will make China a real stakeholder in Pakistan's stability and security. It is a win-win situation for both. It will greatly expand the scope for the sustainable and stable development of China's economic development. Investments by China will boost Pakistan's $274 billion GDP by over 15 %. Corresponding progress and prosperity in Pakistan and China's patronage will help Pakistan in getting rid of the decade old labels of 'epicentre of terrorism', 'most dangerous country' and a 'failing state'. Pakistan enjoys a more favourable fiscal situation compared to India by reducing its budget deficit to 4.7% of GDP in 2014 (as against India's 7%) and Pakistan is both competitive and cheaper as an emerging market. China's economic and military assistance will help Pakistan a great deal in narrowing its ever widening gap in economicmilitary-nuclear fields with India and in bettering its defence potential. Ambassador of China to Pakistan Sun Weidong while talking about the corridor said that the setting up of energy, transport, infrastructure and industrial projects under China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) would benefit all the provinces of Pakistan. He said that the CPEC was not limited to just a road but it will connect the country with a number of motorways and infrastructure projects. He explained that infrastructure projects included Gwadar port, the second phase of the upgrading project of Karakoram Highway, motorway project between Karachi and Lahore, Thakot-Have!ian motorway, Gwadar port expressway, Gwadar international airport and Karachi-Sukkur motorway, adding further that the project will increase collaboration in areas of energy, finance, commerce, banking, industry and education. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor will help build a robust and stable economy in Pakistan and will create a significant opportunity for Pakistan to revive its industry and advance its economic interests. It will also help in overcoming the psychological barriers to flows of foreign investment from other sources. Despite its restrictive economic regime, over 150 private equity funds, foreign and domestic, are active in India. Only three or four such funds are dedicated to investing government, with the participation of the private sector, to encourage foreign direct investment in Pakistan is indispensable. Finance Minister Ishaq Dar said war phobia can also be defeated through economic development. Peace and prosperity can be achieved with economic advancement. This project will go beyond regional ambits to bring about enormous changes not only to the national economies of the benefiting states but also to the economics of the people at the grass roots level. CPEC is the crown jewel in the new Pakistan economic paradigm because Pakistan has the opportunity to act independently of the western influence especially the US influence as it has proved of late, an irritant factor. CPEC project will also bring an opportunity to Pakistan for normalization of ties with India, Iran and Afghanistan which will keep balance, strengthen prospects of peace and improve socio-economic status of the people of the region. 25 CPEC is a game changer project which will lift millions of Pakistanis out of poverty and misery. The project embraces the construction of textile garment, industrial park projects, construction of dams, the installation of nuclear reactors and creating networks of road, railway line which will generate employment and people will also take ownership of these projects. Fully equipped hospitals, technical and vocational training institutes, water supply and distribution in undeveloped areas will also improve the quality of life of people. CPEC is not only the name of road, port and railway system but a multi-dollars mega project which will bring peace and prosperity in all the provinces of Pakistan. The chairman of the Gwadar port, Dostain Khan Jamaldini said that the CPEC would not only benefit Balochistan but also prove beneficial for the country's three other provinces. CORRUPTION OUTLINE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DefinitiClll of corruption Essential components of corruption Causes • Lack of accountability • Absence of rule of law • Low salaries • Lack of independence of judiciary • Weak political institutions • Political collusion with top management of a department • Denial of basic facility of life • Bad governance due to corruption Findings of National Anti-Corruption Strategy Examples of corruption Effects of corruption Steps to curb corruption • Increase salaries of the government employees • Speedy judicial justice • Role of NAB • Police reforms • Judiciary and legal profession • Access to justice programme • Accountability courts • Public sector financial management • Financial oversight bodies • Independent Anti-Corruption Agencies • Local government • Freedom of Information and Media Conclusion 27 ESSAY At length corruptio11, like a ge11eral flood (So long by watchful ministers withstood), Shall deluge all; and avarice, creeping on, Spread like a /ow-born mist, and blot the sun. " --Alexander Pope "ft is said that power corrupts. but actually it's more true that power attracts the corruptible. 11,e sa11e are usually attracted by other things tha11 power. " -David Brin Corruption in Pakistan is on the decline, as Transparency International Berlin released its annual global report 2015 showing Pakistan further improving its ranking from the 50th most corrupt country in 2014 to 53rd in 2015. The political will of the government to fight corruption is lacking which has resulted in the Supreme Court of Pakistan to take suo moto action against mega corruption in NICL, Pakistan Steel, Rental Power Plants. The CPI 2010 reveals that corruption in Pakistan is increasing, while in Bangladesh it is decreasing. Bangladesh was perceived to be the most corrupt country in 2001, 2002 and 2003 and its ranking in 2010 is the 39 th most corrupt country. Reduced corruption has paid dividends to Bangladesh whose annual GDP growth last year was over 5%, while Pakistan's GDP growth last year was near 2.4 %. Delay in formation of an Independent Accountability Commission by the parliament may further aggravate the situation. The word "Corruption" has its origin in a Latin verb "corruptus" meaning "to break". Literally, it means "a broken object". In simple words, corruption means "the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit." Conceptually, corruption is a form of behaviour which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. The term corruption has various definitions. The United Nations Manual on Anti-Corruption, the Transparency International, and the multilateral financial institutions like the World Bank and Asian Development Bank define corruption as, "abuse of public office for private gains" The National Anti Corruption Strategy (NACS) has defined corruption as "a behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or private sector whereby they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or induce others to do so, by misusing the position in which they are placed." Section 9 of the National Accountability Ordinance 1999 has defined corruption and corrupt practices in a comprehensive manner. It has enlisted about twelve different shades of corruption. lllegal gratifications, bribery, extortion, abuse of office, fraud, cheating and criminal breach of trust are some of the corrupt practices mentioned in the NAO 1999 (Annex A). Starting with the Prevention of Corruption Act 1947, there are about sixty pieces of enactments and rules that deal with offences of corruption and corrupt practices in Pakistan (Annex B). The most comprehensive definition of "corruption" can be found at the web site of the Global Infrastructure Anti Corruption Center (GIACC) It says "In its wider sense, corruption includes one or more of bribery, extortion, fraud, deception, collusion, cartels, abuse of power, embezzlement, trading in influence and money laundering." The primary responsibility of ensuring the culture of sound management or what we generally call good governance lies directly on shoulders of the civil administration. In a democratic dispensation, the process of accountability starts at the first stage of the "conversion process" - the 28 elections, which is the connecting link between the rulers and the ruled. It is at this stage that the foundation of sound and transparent political culture could be laid. The electorate ought to carefully demonstrate their first choice (right to vote) of the process and to exercise their right only under the dictates of their conscience. In return, the rulers who are the custodians of the political environs ought to honour the trust reposed in them and to judiciously exercise the powers they derfve from that trust. In order to ensure consistency and sustainability of an accountable, transparent and open political process, it is imperative to keep the connecting link intact. Corruption is more prevalent because lack of accountability and regulation. If money that the government receives is going in their pockets rather than being spent on the people who need it, on their education, health and so on, then the consequences are obvious that many people do not pay taxes because they do not trust the government to spend it on the people, they think they are corrupt and the money would just disappear. And so this creates a vicious circle. People do not see the government doing anything to help them, so they think it's a waste of time to pay taxes. The government doesn't get any money from taxes and so can't do anything to help people. Across the board application of rule of law, merit based appointments and easy access to justice is the only solution to save Pakistan from corruption, which is responsible for poverty, inflation, terrorism, illiteracy, lack of electricity and hording of essential food commodities. The major reason of fast creeping corruption are political instability, poverty, unequal structure of society, unemployment, lack of accountability, weak political institutions and absence of rule of law. Resultant they are affecting political stability, equal distribution of resources and power, confidence of local and foreign investors and political institutions. The basic reason for corruption is low salaries as everyone is finding a way to better their living standard as much as they can; it's also a human nature that he has everything more and more. So mostly corruption is to be seen where there are people having fewer salaries they use corrupt ways to achieve the goal. It is true that they do not have any other way to fulfill their wants. Incompetent judiciary in terms of not bringing the culprits in to the gallows of law and absence of bringing the corrupt politicians and policy makers to the books is another decisive factor in today's sorry state of affairs. In the same manner the unnecessary delay in deciding the cases of corruption is a clear explanation of the adage: the justice delayed is justice denied. On independence, Pakistan inherited weak political institutions. Performance of these institutions in the country over the years further damaged the culture of transparency and accountability. Admittedly, efforts at establishing a strong political dispensation have been facing frustrations head on but these institutions have also failed to capitalize upon the available opportunities. Their internal democratic traditions are still weak and non transparent. Due to lack of respect for participative values, the mainstream political parties are generally dominated by a single person. The menace of corruption has links to a multitude of vices. Its roots are linked to injustice, mistrust, suspicion, extremism and terrorist activities. It creates a sense of insecurity, exacerbates poverty and adds to the misfortune of the vulnerable segments of the society. It also instills a sense of hopelessness and despondency and threatens the strength of good values which have been established over centuries of civilized struggle. 29 The corporate sector is also littered with failures due to corrupt practices. Scandals in the corporate sector are subjects of headlines in the media. Wrong practices seem too common, and unacceptable behaviour has become a normal practice. Corporate governance has been practiced only in form and not substance. Chairmen, chief executive officers and directors are appointed on the basis of political and personal clout. Merit is a less visible commodity. Thus politicization and inefficiency at the top management levels has resulted in steep decl:ne in the quality of output. Illegal convergence of interest has encouraged insider trading which causes frustration and setback to the genuine investor. Real demand and supply factors have negligible role in shaping the market behaviour which is predominantly controlled by the middleman. Prices are determined by unscrupulous profiteers through the middleman mafia. Counterfeit products have flooded the markets. Consumers are left with no option but to live with inferior quality stuff. There is no effective consumer's rights protection regime. The monopoly control mechanism has turned out to be of least effect. The Monopoly Control Authority has to be improved to play an effective role in curbing the menace that has infected the corporate sector. Need and greed are cited as the reasons of corruption and corrupt practices. Need as a reason is applied to low paid employees specially those entrusted with service delivery powers and public contact. Corruption occurs out of compulsion, as those indulging in corruption are in need of the basic necessities and lack access to social entitlement. However, need very easily merges with greed once need is taken as a justification by those indulging in corruption and corrupt practices. It is because of this fact that corruption is linked to poverty which is tem1ed as corruption of need. Absence of an ethical base in societal attitudes is also cited as one of the root causes of corruption. Corruption and corrupt practices are indicative of breaches in the governance edifice. They pose serious threats to the sanctity of ethical and democratic values and weaken administrative, political and social insiitutions. The issues of corruption, poverty and governance are cross cutting. These issues put together and form an integral part of the development literature. Recently, the terms governance and good governance are being profusely used in such literature. Good governance remains at the forefront of every aspect of our life, be that political, social or economic. Governance has to be good in its manifestation, and if it is not so, it is certainly no governance at all. The mere suffix or prefix of the term 'good' does not serve the purpose. The essential components of good governance are the rule of law, accountability, transparency and predictability. The rule of law means equal application of law, equal protection by law and equality before law. In the absence of the rule of law, institutions get weak and become hatcheries for corrupt practices. The realization of the goals of good governance and prosperity becomes a myth. According to the findings of National Anti-Corruption Strategy and the National Corruption Perception Survey 2006 carried out by Transparency International, major causes of corruption in Pakistan are as follows: (a) Lack of effective Internal accountability mechanism (b) Discretionary powers and their flagrant abuse by the public office holders (c) Absence of and weakness of the watch-dog agencies (d) Elected government's perpetual failure to develop proper ethical and business standards for the public and private sector (e) Political leaders' incompetence and betrayal of public trust with pench"Wit for self-enrichment 30 (I) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) Lack of transparency in the government's decision-making process Lengthy and cumbersome procedures in the executive system Weaknesses in the judicial system Illiterate, apathetic or ignorant populace with inadequate discernment of political choices Power of influential people Inadequate wage envelope Many people in Pakistan believe that much of the development and a significant portion of the operations allocations are lost due to bribery and other related illegal and unethical activities. The extreme poverty and lack of infrastructure and basic services in the rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan is in part fueled by bribery, influence peddling, extortion, and abuse of power. The people of Pakistan and the international donors must rise to the occasion and start pressuring the Pakistan government to curtail corruption and to improve governance. Failure to do so in a timely manner will continue to frustrate poor people and make them weary of the current democratic system and drive them to extremism. There are many example of corruption. A government official or government Minister or his/her business partner receiving money in exchange for awarding a contract, job, promotion or approving invoices for payment (an example that involves Bribery and Abuse of Power and may involve Collusion). A policeman receiving money to drop charges against some one or receiving bribe from some one to arrest another person is an example of bribery and misuse of power. A contractor who uses sub-standard material in the construction of a large public project such a university building, a road by-pass, or a village road. An inspecting engineer who receives bribe to ignore the use defective material and/or workmanship and approves the project for payment. A senior manager in a public or private organization giving a job to a friend or relative bypassing a proper selection process is an example that involves Abuse of Power and Trading-in-influence). A teacher who rarely goes to school to teach but collects his/her salary regularly. A bad village leader (wadero)illegally occupies a school and uses it as guest house is an example that involves Bribery, Abuse of Power, Fraud, Deception, and Collusion. General perceptions and actual public surveys about corruption show that Police, Power Sector, Judiciary, various Taxation departments (Custom duties, Income Tax), and irrigation departments are considered the most corruption prone departments in Pakistan. According to a report, appointments in the police force are often based on political considerations. The instances where conflicts of interest due to personal loyalties and family connections exist are numerous. Many complain that local landlords or urban groups with police support exploit poor people through extortion (bogus fines, etc.). 1. Some important areas affected by it are discussed as under: The world economic forum's Global Competitiveness Report (2007-08) identifies corruption as the 3rd greatest problem for companies doing business in Pakistan after government bureaucracy and poor infrastructure (Sala-i-Martin and Porter, 2008) It is therefore a direct impediment in the way of the Direct Foreign Investment (OF!) which is so badly needed to generate economic activity, create employment, and support the dwindling foreign exchange reserves. 31 2. 3. With an effective check on corruption national exchequer can easily gain nearly double of the annual allocations earmarked under Kerry Lugar Bill carrying strikingly harsh conditions for national sovereignty and autonomy. The cycle is really vicious rampant corruption in tax and custom and excise collection and WAPDA dues and costly public sector purchases, and inefficient major public sector entities like PIA, Railway, Steel Mill etc. cause a major deficit for the government every year in term of resource generation and expenditure that makes the government borrow from IMF and other foreign and domestic resources which through increased debt repayments broadens the gap and compels the government to increase the price of the utilities like electricity, gas, CNG and petroleum. That takes a heavy toll from the people of Pakistan. Resultantly corruption which is done at far away and much higher places from the common citizens has a direct and deep impact on their lives. Thus act of corruption, whether direct or indirect, close or remote is not innocuous for conunon man. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I 0. The country has lost many years of development effort because of eating up of development funds at a very large scale and because of over charging for almost every item of work. Other than the government offices and public sector, corruption has thoroughly permeated the political arenas. Party tickets are openly bought and sold and so does the transaction flourish for hunting or hounding the voters. This has resulted in the dominance of political scene by the drug barons, black marketers, hoarders and speculators who not only have in many cases snatched away the true representative character from the democratic process in the country but who make good their investment in the election process through massive corruption while in power and add to the miseries and the cost of living of the common man. Still worse is its impact on religious circles who sell fake degrees to the needy politicians with impunity, show fake entries of students to get more Zakat money and sell religion edicts on need basis. At times it appears that the whole structure has been soiled and has replaced scholarship as it is becoming increasingly difficult to find a genuine religious scholar from any quarters. Rampant trends of corruption have also badly affected the business ethics in the country which is devoid of any egalitarianism. Hood winking the regulators, stock piling, hoarding, and black marketing are the order of the day and individual business man, business firms, business groups and sometimes a whole industry is found pegged in these malpractices. And when corruption affects the institution of the last resort that is the judiciary the country loses its track and direction. Absence of a fair judicial system does not affect the individual litigant alone it affects the whole economy where domestic and foreign investments shy away for fear of usurpation and misappropriation. The worst of all is a break down of law and order because of pervasive corruption in police and lower judiciary. The influential, the wealthy and the mighty have a fair chance of getting away with what ever they do if they pay the right price at the right stage. This had lead to increased incidence of crimes of all nature and at all levels. In short the unbridled corruption has negatively impacted all spheres of activity in the country and the whole society has suffered serious blows to its social fabric and working environment. J. Most experts think that corruption is one of the most difficult problems Pakistan's society. Its impact on country's towns and villages is extremely profound and poses lo~ term threat to its culture, economics, and general well-being of provinces such as Sindh. The .liall!'>~mg are some of steps and 32 methods at grass roots and government levels that have helped to curb cormption in some countries, particularly in South East Asia, where once com,ption was as rampant as it is now in Pakistan: Increase salaries of government officials and workers in line with the remuneration prevalent in private sector of Pakistan. Persons who can clearly see the damage that is being caused by corruption in Pakistan must speak up. They should discuss, debate, and voice their concerns openly with friends and family. They should help create a culture where corruption is looked down. The virtue of being honest and simple living should be lauded and only the persons who possess such qualities be accepted as the role models. The media should take a lead in launching anti-com,ption campaigns. They should conduct investigations and report cases of cormption supported by facts report on estimated damage done and identify people who are involved in such cases. Authorities that provide funding for projects should encourage whistle blowing and provide monetary and other awards to those whose reports on com,ption proven to be correct. Authorities should maintain black-lists of those officials and agencies that are known to engage cormpt practices and should keep them away assignments that involve public projects and services. Authorities should not shy away from prosecuting senior civilian and military officials and political leaders who engage in com,ption to set examples. The political parties of Pakistan should have policies that shun any leaders and workers who engage in com,pt practices . • All institutions including political parties should have policies that force those officials to temporarily resign when credible allegations of com,ption surface until those allegations are proven to be false in a court of law. At the heart of Pakistan's recent anti-cormption drive are country's National Anti-Cormption Strategy (NACS) launched in 2002, the National Accountability Ordinance of 1999 (amended 2002) and the National Accountability Bureau - the agency charged with the implementation and overall coordination of the NACS and the Ordinance. A general discussion on these is out of the scope of this U4 answer (there is a bulk of information on these general reform efforts widely available and some good resources are listed in Part III of this answer). In this section, reform initiatives in some of the specific sectors jperceived to be most affected by com,ption) are listed. Namely, efforts in areas of police and law enl~ment, judiciary and legal profession and public procurement are discussed. The second section of Part II lists some reform initiatives in other areas. It is hoped that the reorganization outlined by the new Police Order of 2002 and the Police Complaints department will improve the functions of the police and provide relief to the citizens. Reportedly, one of the first steps taken in the reorganization has been the separation of the police force into various branches, divisions, bureaus and sections. It is intended to help improve the efficiency but in fact may lead to more cormption and less efficiency due to non-cooperation or lack of coordinati6n. The Police Order of 2002 has also outlined a forn1at for setting up district Public Safety Comft!issions 33 (PSC). The functions of such commissions will inter alia include investigations of complaints on excesses and neglect against police officers and encourage greater police-public participation. The PSCs are to be set up within the Federal and Provincial Government and the District and Town Local Governments. There shall also be a National Public Safety Commission. Further, the Order makes provisions for setting up of federal and provincial police complaints authorities for enquiring into serious complaints against the members of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies. Other measures provided for by the Order include the establishment of the Criminal Justice Coordination committee, to work on the improvement of the system as a whole and promote good practices, and of the National Police Management Board, to work on overall technical and human resource capacity building within the Police. In 2002, the National Accountability Bureau as a part of its study in preparing the NACS organized an international workshop, resulting in the stakeholders adopting a resolution related to ensuring transparency in Public Procurement in Pakistan. This resolution was incorporated in the NACS report and was approved by the Ministerial Cabinet and the President of Pakistan in October 2002. Amongst others, the recommendations provide that: • the Standard Procedures for Procurement of Works, Goods and Consultants should be revised by the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority. Either the World Bank or PEC by-laws should be uniformly implemented in all government and semi government departments till such time the PPRA prepares its own Guidelines; • to ensure transparency and public participation, the Transparency International-Pakistan tool 'Integrity Pact" should be made an integral part of all tenders; • for every new project, public hearings should be made mandatory for scrutiny of necessity of the project and for the environmental assessment, prior to concept clearance approval; • evaluation Committees for Pre-qualification and Award of Contracts must include at least two departmental members, and a minimum of three independent experts, (One each from the Pakistan Engineering Council, Institute of Chartered Accountants and FPCCI), and others. An important part of the recommendations of the NACS is the incorporation of the TI Integrity Pacts in all contracts for goods and services where the estimated cost of the project is over Rupees 5 million for consultancy and over Rupees 50 million for Construction Contracts. This has been a major breakthrough in the efforts of Tl-Pakistan whereby all major contracts will not only provide for the "Integrity Pact" but also include all other recommendations, which have been put out in the NACS Document (outlined above). An example of the Integrity Pact in use is to be found in the Greater Karachi Water Supply Scheme (KIII Project) project. An integrity pact, with a fornial no-bribery commitment, was signed by KWSB, consultant bidders and TI Pakistan. It resulted in a successful bid of Rs 62 million($ 1.04111) against the reserved fees of Rs 249m ($4.2m). The project adopted the least costly selection method. The bidding process was monitored by Transparency International- Pakistan to ensure it is clean and transparent. In the event of a breach of the Integrity Pact, sanctions come into force against the bidders and officials, including liability for damages, and blacklisting from future tenders. The procurement process is to be followed by monitoring of the contract by civil society, specifically TI Pakistan. The Karachi government had expressed plans to apply the same transparent process to other projects. It is suggested that some of the weaknesses may be addressed by the government's Project to Improve Financial Reporting and Auditing (PIFRA). The World Bank has carried out a country Financial Accountabihty Assessment in December 2003. Further, the ADB has approved a US$ 204 34 million loan (part of a wider sequence) to support the Government of Punjab. Among other objectives, the programme aims to improve the effectiveness and accountability of financial management by bringing in transparent and user-friendly budgets and accounts, and financial and procurement systems The Supreme Audit Institution of the country (the Auditor General's office) is trying to reform itself by following international best practices, such as those of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI), as part of its reform agenda. It has been noted that there seems to be some progress in reorganizing the department with a view to adopting modern techniques of audit and reporting formats. It has initiated a capacity building progran1 under the project to improve Financial Reporting and Auditing (PIFRA). Some of the other reform efforts include the design of diagnostic tools, such as a "Financial Government Rating Index (FGRI)" and an "Internal Quality Roting (!QR) for il5 depanments, etc. The Government of Pakistan has undertaken a number of steps to strengthen the AntiCorruption Agencies, and has especially concentrated on the National Accountability Bureau for its refonns. The reforms include the creation of NAB as the sole Anti Corruption Agency at the Federal level; adding the functions of prevention through research and monitoring and public awareness and coalition building with civil society to NAB's mandate; provisions on appointments of ACAs (from the elected opposition members) and security of tenure of key office bearers of the ACA and others. Further reforms and restructuring are in the process. The future of Pakistan and alleviation of poverty in rural areas of Pakistan is highly dependent on successful and completion of all development projects. This success is threatened by the evil of corruption that must be stopped on urgently before it is too late. The religious extremism, deteriorating economic conditions, and worsening living conditions are unnerving the people of rural Sindh and Balochistan, who until now have refused to fall in the trap of extremism. It is imperative that all stakeholders including political parties, government officials, civil society organizations, private companies, donor agencies and common people recognize the carnage that current levels of corruption can do to the heartlands of Pakistan. They must form a grand coalition to stop the menace before it is too late. Expected Question: • Corruption and accountability • Give measures to overcome tbe problem of corruption GOOD GOVERNANCE (CSS-2016) OUTLINE D D D D D D D Introduction Key attributes of good governance • Transparency • Responsibility • Accountability • Participation& • Responsiveness How are good governance and human rights linked? • Democratic institutions • Service delivery • Rule of law • Anti-corruption Good Governance in Pakistan Brief History of governance in Pakistan Causes of Bad Governance • Lack of accountability • Absence of rule of law • Incompetent politicians and martial laws • Relentless corruption • Corrupt politicians • • • • No system of check & balance in the constitution Limited power of judiciary Negative role of bureaucracy Many social, political and economic problems due to bad governance Suggestions • Check & balance on politicians • Democratic process should be fair • Effective accountability • Independence of judiciary • CJ Promote education to create awareness • Strenghten democracy • Amendement in the constitution to ensure good governance Conclusion 36 ESSAY "Gender equality is more than a goal in itself It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance. -Kofi Annan Good governance has been said at various times to encompass: full respect of human rights, the rule of law, effective participation, multi-actor partnerships, political pluralism, transparent and accountable processes and institutions, an efficient and effective public sector, legitimacy, access to knowledge, information and education, political empowerment of people, equity, sustainability, and attitudes and values that foster responsibility, solidarity and tolerance. Good governance relates to political and institutional processes and outcomes that are deemed necessary to achieve the goals of development. It has been said that good governance is the process whereby public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law. The true test of "good" governance is the degree to which it delivers on the promise of human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. The key question is: are the mstitutions of governance effectively guaranteeing the right to health, adequate housing, sufficient food, quality education, fair justice and personal security? The concept of good governance has been clarified by the work of the former Commission on Human Rights. In its resolution 2000/64, the Commission identified the key attributes of good governance: Transparency, responsibility, accountability,participation&responsiveness (to the needs of the people) By linking good governance to sustainable human development, emphasizing principles such as accountability, participation and the enjoyment of human rights, and rejecting prescriptive approaches to development assistance, the resolution stands as an implicit endorsement of the rights-based approach to development. Resolution 2000/64 expressly linked good governance to an enabling environment conducive to the enjoyment of human rights and "prompting growth and sustainable human development." In underscoring the importance of development cooperation for securing good governance in countries in need of external support, the resolution recognized the value of partnership approaches to development cooperation and the inappropriateness of prescriptive approaches. Good governance and human rights are mutually reinforcing. Human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of governments and other political and social actors. They also provide a set of performance standards against which these actors can be held accountable. Moreover, human rights principles inform the content of good governance efforts: they may inform the development of legislative frameworks, policies, programmes, budgetary allocations and other measures. On the other hand, without good governance, human rights cannot be respected and protected in a sustainable manner. The implementation of human rights relies on a conducive and enabling environment. The links between good governance and human rights can be organized around four areas: When led by human rights values, good governance reforms of democratic institutions create avenues for the public to participate in policymaking either through formal institutions or informal consultations. They also establish mechanisms forthe _inclusion of multiple social groups in decision- It 37 making processes, especially locally. Finally, they may encouragecivil society and local communities to formulateand express their positions on issues of importance to them. In the realm of delivering state services to the public, good governance reforms advance human rights when they improve the state's capacity to fulfil its responsibility to provide public goods which are essential for the protection of a number of human rights, such as the right to education, health and food. Reform initiatives may include mechanisms of accountability and transparency, culturally sensitive policy tools to ensure that services are accessible and acceptable to all, and paths for public participation in decision-making. When it comes to the rule of law, human rights-sensitive good governance initiatives reform legislation and assist institutions ranging from penal systems to courts and parliaments to better implement that legislation. Good governance initiatives may include advocacy for legal reforn1, public awareness-raising on the national and international legal framework, and capacity-building or refonn of institutions. In fighting corruption, good governance efforts rely on principles such as accountability, transparency and participation to shape anti-corruption measures. Initiatives may include establishing institutions such as anti-corruption commissions, creating mechanisms of information sharing, and monitoring governments' use of public funds and implementation of policies. The interconnection between good governance, human rights and sustainable development has been made directly or indirectly by the international community in a number of declarations and other global conference documents. For example, the Declaration on the Right to Development proclaims that every human person and all peoples "are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development" (article I). In the Millennium Declaration, world leaders affirmed their commitment to promote democracy and strengthen the rule of law as well as to respect internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development. According to the United Nations strategy document on the millennium development goals (MDGs), entitled "The United Nations and the MDGs: a Core Strategy", "the MDGs have to be situated within the broader nom1S and standards of the Millennium Declaration," including those on "human rights, democracy and good governance." Since the draw of civilization man has been striving hard to manage his affairs systematically. The desire to become systematic to the point and precise has led human being to develop variety of disciplines. These disciplines with the march of civilization failed to keep pace with the human driving force. Resultantly new avenues are sought for governance. In the case of Pakistan mismanagement has become a hallmark of ourmanagement. It is casting dark shadow on our institutional setup, our cultural norms and above all our credibility in the comity of nations. Forced by the mismanagement, wide spread corruption and non-functioning of the national institution different governments introduced a number of reforn1S to stem the decline. For this purpose, the Nawaz Shari( government initiated serious efforts. But with the unseating of this, government and military taking over, this pace appeals to have gathered pace. For better governance institutions were setup by the military, which are making plausible efforts to achieve their objectives. Good governance may be defined as that kind of government that is citizen - friendly. It has three major dimensions: Political, Economic and Civic. 38 In the political sense, governance may be defined as the will and the ability of the government to protect and promote the fundamental rights and liberties of the people. In economic sphere, it is the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country's economic and social resources for development. In its civic sense, the good civic government is that which allows the society to flourish. In a civil society the rights of an individual liberty, free speech, equal opportunities, education etc. are guaranteed by the law .In a civil society collective sense ofresponsibility prevails. As the crisis of governance deepens and public confidence in government institutions erodes, there is an urgent need for reform to reinforce the linkages between the state and society. The reasons for this sense of urgency and sense of depression are not far to seek. These may be enumerated as following: Good governance is needed for sustaining and maintaining a sound political system in a country. In Pakistan, we can see that the failure of democracy is due to bad governance. Every government failure of democracy is due to bad governance. Every governn1ent comes with great slogans to serve the nation but once it gets charge, it forgets its promises of serving the people. Every P.M. includes in his cabinet the ministers of his own choice and grabs all the powers while managing the national affairs. The P .M. and his ministers become to self serving. In this way, they provide handle to the opposition to stir up the angered public opinion. The aim of the opposition is always to bring down the government. When the situation gets totally out of control, it forces the Army to intervene often cutting the lifetime of the government and democracy. All such actions lead to political instability. It seeks to underline the need of good governance which in tum would yield political stability in the country. Good governance is needed to make both the public and private sectors effective. A well governed country has also both these sectors well administered and in harmony with each other. When a country is not politically sound its institutions will also be in poor condition. Cohesion between these sectors is impossible in the absence of good governance. In our country, we can see due to the bad governance our public and private sectors are in a great mess. Every institution of public sector is suffering from mal-administration and worst king of corruption. The people reluctantly visit these institutions because they know the truants and dishonest elements would not lend half an ear shoes palm is always itching. Even for public utilities task, people have to offer bribe. Without any favour or bribe it s very difficult to get any work done from the public offices. Moreover, due to the malpractices of the public officials and misappropriation of public funds the infrastructure of public institutions has become cracked and a situation like chaos is prevailing all over the country, So, good governance is strictly needed in order to make governmental machinery effective. Whereas good governance is needed for the smooth running of public institutions, it is also essential for maintaining the sovereignty of the country. If a country is poorly governed and there is a political instability, its enemies find opportunities in this situation and try to undermine it. While a badly governed country has many other problems to solve, it can not ensure its security. A good governed country is economically strong and all the departments of the country function smoothly. It enables the rulers to strengthen the country's security. In Pakistan, there have been repeated military interventions into political governance from time to time. Although country has witnessed democratic regimes as well, but there has been constant experimentation with democracy in the last 50 years. That is shy no comprehensive system of governance could evolve. This poetical chaos started with the dissolution of first constituent assembly in the most undemocratic and arbitrary manner by Governor General Ghulam Mohan,mad in 1954. Since then Pakistan's internal strife has been plaguing including constitutional crises. He replaced Kbawaja Nazim-ud-Din by Mohammad Ali Bogra, then foreign Ambassador of Pakistan in the United 39 States. In the second cabinet of Mohammad Ali Bogra, Mohammad Ayub Khan, then C-in-C, was included. It paved the way for military martial law in 1958. The first Martial Law was imposed by Ayub Khan in 1958 and lasted till 1969. He abrogated the constitution of 1965. He introduced Presidential system with indirect elections. His era was known as "Decade of Development" which later on proved to be "Decade of Exploitation" as his policy of privatization widened the gap between "haves" and "have nots". The national wealth was concentrated into the Ayub also created resentment among the students. In April 1969, General Yahya assumed lasted control of the country and again Martial Law lasted till 1971. He abrogated the constitution of 1962, banned all political activates and dissolved National and Provincial Assemblies. Yahya's Military regime in the history of Pakistan was void of developmentbecause there was no improvement or progress in any sphere of life. Rather there was a visible decline in political, social and economic spheres. Above all, the country was dismembered and the eastern wing broke away to emerge as an independent sovereign state of Bangladesh. His only aim was to transfer power to an elected body by holding free and fair elections. Yahya lived up to his promise of holding fair election which were held in 1970 but instead of paving the way of smooth transfer of power, the results of the election sowed the seeds of disintegration which eventually led to the formation of Bangladesh in 1971. The loss of East Pakistan in 1971 war and the dismemberment of the country ill-reputed the Pakistan Army. The army rule could not continue and Yahya had no alternative but to quit by handing over power to Z.A Bhutto. Z.A Bhutto was the chairman of PPP, who secured majority in West Pakistan in election of 1970. Bhutto possessed a charismatic personality. He introduced the concept of "Islamic Socialism". According to him "Islam is our faith. Democracy our policy, Socialism our economy and all power to the people". He raised the slogan of providing basic necessities to the people like Roti, Kapra and Makan. His economic policy was totally different. In 1972, he undertook a massive "nationalization" programme in which he nationalized all those industries set up in the private sector. In first phase, 31 units were nationalized which fell under 10 categories. They were iron and steel Industries, basic metals, heavy engineering etc. In second phase, he undertook second phase of nationalization which people were not expecting. It created great panic among the industrialist, as they were not expecting the nationalization was not an extensive exercise and could not arrest inflation effectively as it was planned to do so. The PPP government public enterprises were controlled by BIM. The land reforms introduced by Bhutto also could not yield the desired results as landlords anticipated such reforms in advance and transferred surplus land in names of their other family member, relatives or even made lease-back arrangement with tenants. However, his labour reforms in 1972-73 enhanced the prestige and status of labour class and safeguarded their rights effectively. He was the only head who was allowed to enjoy his tenure properly from 1970-1977. Again Martial Law intervened in 1977 and the so-called popular leader elected by common people through dubious elections was hanged. Whatever the circumstances were, the step was unconstitutional. Zia's Martial Regime was supposed to be the shortest one but it turned out to be the longest in the history of Pakistan. Zia did not abrogate the constitution of I 973 but suspended. At that point of time, a strong Pakistan from military point of view was needed because of Afghan problem and the revolution of Iran. Both of then could have their repercussions beyond their boundaries. Zia's regime opened the gates of foreign aid in Pakistan as country was going through adverse economic crises. 40 Besides, Zia undertook massive Islamic programme in order to .seek legitimacy of his prolonged rule. He issued various ordinances to bring existing laws in line with principles of Quran and Sunnah. He decided to promulgate 1973 Constitution with necessary amendments. He passed his famous 8 amendment curtailing the power of head of government through article 58 2(b) and provided significant power to the president who could dissolve National Assembly whenever he thinks that need has arisen. He held local elections m 1983 on non-party basis. Then he held referendum in l 984 and main aim was to seek public mandate for Zia's various steps, which he had already taken since 1977. In January 1985, he held general elections which were also on non-party basis. It became difficult to choose P.M and C.M from elected assemblies. Handpicked civilian Govt. of Mohammad Ali Khan Juneja was placed in but it found it very difficult to work while country was still under Martial Law Regime. The Government of Juneja was fired in 1988 through the special power enjoyed by Zia because of 8th Amendment. The government was dismissed on the plea of Ojhri Camp disaster. Corruption charges were leveled against it and also due to the early signing of the Geneva Accord by Juneja without the consent of President Zia. Holding of Round Table Conference by Junejo also annoyed Zia in which various political parties were invited. On 18 August 1988, President Zia's airplane C-130 crashed near Bahawalpur. He died along with top brass military generals on the spot. Thus another military civilian regime ended in a tragic manner. The General elections were held in 1988 on party basis by the president Ghulamishaq Khan. Many ethnic, political and regional parties participated in these general elections. The PPP bagged 93 seats followed by IslamiJamhoorilttehad claiming over 60 seats in National Assembly. As a result, Benazir became PM of Pakistan on I December 1988. The government was dissolved in 1990 due to the corruption charges leveled against her by president of that time. Then next elections were held in October 1990 and this time IslamiJamhoorilttehad got majority and hence Nawaz Sharif became PM. This government was also dismissed in 1993 by Ghulamishaq Khan on plea of corruption, nepotism and ethnic strife. Again elections were held in 1993 and Benazir became PM but this government was also dissolved on corruption charges in 1996. Election were again held on 2 February I 997, and Nawaz Sharif came into power. The results were amazing for everyone. The PML (N) made clean sweep in the elections and got a wide majority. But in 1999, a military coup took place led by General Musharraf. The Army was yet again in power promising again of smooth transfer of power to grass root level within 3 years. Following are the causes of poor governance. Although accountability is the keynote of Islamic character yet it is not only emitted in the constitution of Pakistan but also not found even in the character of the rulers, this is a word unknown to the n1Iers of Pakistan, unless accountability is introduced with all the seriousness. The process of accountability not only be swift and sure but also transparent. that it demands, the ills and curses inflicting the country will continue to inflict. Accountability should be irrespective of personalities. Secondly, absence of rule of law leads to bad governance. In Pakistan, no law is applicable to the feudal lords. While the definition of rule of law means that every one is equal in front of the law. There are many cases of corruption against the politicians but no case has been pursued against the politcians due to not independence of judiciary. The cases of Hajj Scam, Steel Mill, Mehran Bank 41 case and others are still pending or their punishment is not given as per the law. Since independence of Pakistan, no general, bureaucrat, politican, minister was held accountable or any case was filed against them. Incompetent politicians have also adversely affected the governance system in Pakistan. The basic problem is with politics. This is both systemic and generic. Systemic in the sense that our political system is not designed to perform the type of functions it is entrusted with. Generic in the sense that the political apparatus (Parliament, the government or the cabinet) designed for performing certain functions, essentially the sovereign functions does not have the capacity to discharge the duties assigned to them. There is a sharp difference between our political culture and governance. In some cases it does but in many it does not. Merit, social justice, transparency, good governance, effective economics and enterprise management do not find a place anywhere in our politics. Politicians have a one-point agenda to attain power and that too, not for the purpose for which they are elected, but for their narrower and even personal agenda. Undoubtedly, in Pakistan, corruption is a significant obstacle for good governance, supremacy of law, and rational use of authority to run the affairs of state and to maintain public cohesion and national harmony. Unfortunately, corrupt practices and misuse of public office lead to general frustration, opening windows of protest with sense of dissent, disapproval and conflict against the governing authority. The environment of agitation and demonstrations carry seeds of large scale disturbances, creating law and order situation, social disorder and political chaos, culminating in poor governance. In a real democratic system, hence, wise rulers undertake tangible measures to fight corruption with a view to improve governance and maintain order. It is our misfortune that rampant corruption in the country has infected the entire edifice of national institutions, while the rule of law appears to have been totally disregarded. Consequently few parasites devouringly consume best of resources, while the poor majority remains repressed and victimized under hard economic conditions. Since the establishment of Pakistan Army has always had a strong desire to have a permanent place in the political setup of country. The 4 military regimes are the proof of this. Pakistan's history is studded with coups and coup like actions that have affected the character of the civilian governments and their working. It's quite clear that four governments before the Ayub Regime and all the governments after Zia were dismissed because they were guilty of corruption, mal administration, nepotism, and ethnic strife. All the Governments after Junejo were characterized by the royal style of the Prime Minister that was true in case of Benazir and Nawaz Sharif because of their extravagant style of living i.e. Raiwind Palaces and Surrey Palace respectively. All the previous heads of governments both civilian and military and also the politicians they exercised absolutism in style and mentality. They did not realize that their foremost duty was to serve the people not just to misrule them. Politicians during the last 64 years have not exhibited responsible attitude. Our constitution does not provide an effective system of check and balance. That is why, when a civilian government is elected, it becomes omnipotent i.e. all powerful which gives rise to corruption and mal-administration. There is no effective system of governance which can keep check on the decisions and the steps taken by PM and his cabinet. Judiciary must be made strong enough to keep a check over the legislation by the government. 42 In Pakistan except Bhotto's government, no government has completed its expected life span. After Junejo, many governments were disbanded in the period of 9 years. This game of power, musical chair has seriously affected the economic and social progress of our country. The political chaos prevailing in the country has led to grave economic condition. Now our country is on the verge of bankruptcy for some years. A feeling of hopelessness is going on. Increasing unemployment has led to "brain drain" which is alanning for the very survival of our dear homeland. This continuously deteriorating economic situation is detrimental to effective results oriented governance. People are also responsible for their misfortunes because they have not exerted themselves. They have failed to participate in the affairs of the state. They have allowed governments to misgovern and mismanage the economy. In Pakistan, bureaucrats have also tried to gain political power. The examples of bureaucrats turned politicians are present here. These bureaucrats exercise undue influence and make politicians dance on their tunes. They have done enormous changes to the previous government setups by giving rise to red tapes. Political parties have not done their job properly of inculcating political awareness among the masses. Most of the times they have failed to mobilize public opinion. Instead of securing confidence of the people, they introduced horse trading which has shattered the confidence of people in politicians and political parties. Moreover, political parties led to extreme political polarization in the society which affected the law and order situation in the country. Karachi provides the best example. With the poor governance in three sectors, economic, political and institutional, the country, despite having huge natural resources, has now entered into stagflation, which is the worst-ever scenario. Thrust, intolerance and corruption have plagued the politics of Pakistan. Having failed to address any of these issues the government has lost its credibility and trust at home. The government is also using institutions for its personal benefits, which is causing a clash among the institutions. Investment is rapidly flying from Pakistan due to unfavorable economic environment in the country. Energy crisis is negatively affecting the industry and a number of industries have been closed down due to unavailability of gas and electricity. These examples show bad governance in Pakistan as our planning machinary and policy makers are totally failed to overcome these crisis. Good governance is the significant issue of sustainable economic development amongst other factors. It is the instrument of political, economic and administrative authorities to manage nation's affairs. However, governance in Pakistan is almost in a state of collapse. The effects of poor governance have compounded the economic causes of rising poverty such as decline in GDP growth rate, increasing indebtedness, inflation, falling public investment and poor state of physical infrastructure. Pakistan is today faced with a multitude of crises ranging from energy shortages to breakdown of law and order to violence and terror, creating a sense of insecurity and frustration that is eating into the vitals of the nation's identity and dignity, the root cause being the lack of good governance. It is only good governance which creates a good environment for investment, including investment in people, and leads to higher income, reduces poverty, and provides better social indicators. The performance of bureaucracy at various tiers of the government is ineffective and inefficient mainly on account of inappropriate and whimsical appointments, postings and promotions. This state of affairs needs to take immediate corrective measures to restore the confidence of civil servants to ensure that they work with complete commitment and to the best of their abilities. This will require 43 elimination of the dead wood, de-politicization of services and encouraging the qualified and the competent. At the same time, social factors such as the highly unequal distribution of land, low level of human development, and persistent ethnic and sectarian conflicts are also obstacles to the achievement of long tenn sustained development. There is no effective system of drafting legislation, making budget appropriations, holding hearings with experts, and subsequent oversight by specialized parliamentary committees. People who chair such committees don't have much of a clue as to where to begin, what questions to ask, and how to hold the executive and the bureaucracy accountable. As a result, once the laws and policies are approved, and budgets passed, there is not much oversight or accountability. The people should be represented from the grass root to the highest level throng their representatives. This democratic process should be fair to accommodate the aspirations of the man in the street throng effective governance. In order to attain quality of governance, people instead of the accountability of the previous or failed rulers, must ask for participation in decision making and in the execution of the policies evolved through a democratic consultative process. In order to have an effect system of governance, participation of women should be ensured as according to the latest count men: women ratio is 48:52 respectively. The number of seats that are taken negligible; it's almost non-existent at the moment. Independence of judiciary must be maintained which can exercise an effective system of check and balance and can prevent politicians from abuse of power. Economic and political stability are deeply interlinked. Without one, the other cannot be obtained. So government must evolve strait and requires a major re-structuring. Then continuity of policy is required without which no result would be obtained. People must be educated without which they cannot protect their rights. Press can play a vital role in creating awareness among people regarding their problems and their solutions. In this way, people would be able to demand their rights and will perforn1 their duties in a more organized way. Thus, we can say without proper civic sense good and effective governance cannot be obtained. This is high time that consensus must be developed among the people that what system of government can suit them better. Keeping in view the pluralistic society of Pakistan, federal system of government can serve people better but sufficient powers must be given to the provinces in order to tackle the problems of the people in an appropriate way. Direct system of election must be introduced and governments must be allowed to complete their tenure. The crucial importance of good governance can be witnessed by the experience of East Asian countries. Between 1965 and 1990, the region registered the highest growth rate in the world and combined it with high living standards. The single most important factor in this economic miracle was the fact that these countries were able to put in place sound and sustainable framework. EXPECTED QUESTIONS • • • Define Good Governance. Why did Governace fail in Pakistan? What are the various pre-requisite of Good Governance? Give some practical measures to implement Good Governance in Pakistan? PROVINCIAL AUTONOMY OR CREATION OF MORE PROVINCES (CSS-2016) OUTLINE D Introduction D Global Scenario D • More provinces • Easy to run administration Demand of more provinces by • South Punjab • Sindh • KPk • D D D Balochistan Positive side of more provinces • Equal distribution of budget • Equal share in NFC • To bring underdeveloped province in the mainstream • To run the system of adiminstration effectively • Opportunity for poor people • Grievances of the people will be addressed • Overcome ethnic issues Suggestions to overcome the problem • Provinces should not be created on vested interest of the politicians • Division of budget and NFC not on population but on backwardness, area of the province and problem faced by province • Improve governance to address the problems of people Conclusion 45 ESSAY In Pakistan, the debate over creating more provinces after I 8th Amendment has compelled the policy makers and government to create more provinces to solve the issues of administration, economy, reservation of smaller provinces, ethnic-based region, etc. Pakistan is no exception in this regard. The country has federal structure of government in which there is a central government and several provincial governments depending upon the number of provinces. Pakistan is home of four major provinces, one sub-autonomous state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and an administrative unit of Gilgit Baltistan which is not a full province yet. If one looks around the world, one would find the US with 50 administrative units, India with 28 plus seven Union territories, Turkey with 81, and China with 34. These countries have been doing well economically and politically with more units. Probably this was one of the main reasons that the proponents of creating more federating units in Pakistan predicted that by doing so Pakistan would substantially improve economically and politically. But creating more provinces seems an uphill task in Pakistan unlike India as it started this process right from the beginning. Even if new provinces are carved out in Pakistan, it has to be seen that whether those would be on administrative basis or on ethno-linguistic lines. Amid the said scenario, there are demands for the creation of new provinces in Pakistan. These demands are based more of ethnic outlooks rather than political and administrative grounds. The demand of new provinces in Pakistan become apparent in the form of several movements destines to attain provincial autonomy. Creation of new provinces brings several positive as well as negative impacts on the state's health. In Pakistan the creation is however more politicized matter thus blurring the distinct pros and cons of creating new provinces. This further brings questions over the integration of Pakistan with the creation of new provinces as the political parties here lack a unanimous verdict. Before knowing about the implications of creating new provinces on Pakistan's integration, it's wise to learn about the major movements demanding new provinces in the country. First comes the demand for creation of a new province in the southern part of the Punjab. This part of the Punjab is dominated by Seraiki speaking people who recognize themselves as a distinct ethnic group. But the demand of this Seraiki Province is not mere on the ethnic grounds. Backwardness and lowdevelopment levels in the southern Punjab lead to the demand of this province. Further, people of southern Punjab find it difficult to reach the provincial capital Lahore for an administrative task. The proponents of the Seraiki and Bahawalpur provinces expect that their provinces will get a quota in federal services. Presently, Punjab has above 50% quota in the federal services and most of the jobs go to the upper and central Punjab as candidates from southern Punjab are unable to compete for these jobs. The disparity in the quality of education in these regions of Punjab is a major cause for this. Besides, there would be a cadre of provincial services for the new provinces. Second important demand comes from the Muhajir community of Karachi. The community asks for the upgradation of Karachi into a separate province. Karachi is the provincial capital of the Sindh Province. Making it a new province as demanded would be purely ethnic step. I 46 Third is the demand of creating Pashtun Province in Balochistan. Being the largest area of Pakistan, Balochistan is the house ofBa lochs mostly. Some northern part of this province is dominated by the Pashtuns who want a separate province there. Fourth demand of creating a new province sought a vociferous voice recently after the name of NWFP was changed into Khyber Pakhuntankhwa. It is the Hazara community of the KP province that demands for creation of a new Hazara Province in KP. This demand is also on ethnic basis as the Hazara community distinguishes itself from the Pashtuns of the KP. Under the light of the said demands, the implications of creating new provinces on Pakistan's integration can be evaluated in shape of pros and cons of taking such a step. Creating new provinces in Pakistan can integrate the country by infusing a sense of confidence in the minds of Seraiki, Pashtun, Muhajir and Hazarans communities of the country. This can prevent them from taking any drastic steps. Secondly, to demand autonomous administrative provinces is not an unconstitutional thing. They can forward their reservations over the unjust distribution of provincial budgets within various areas of a province. Thus giving them the autonomous provinces can bring them into mainstream national politics. Another important implication of creating new provinces on the national integration will come in shape of self-rule. When the people of these areas will be allowed to exercise provincial autonomy thus ruling themselves, they can better decide their lives keeping in view their resources and needs. This thing will keep them busy in healthy local politics and prevent sedition. Thirdly, creating new provinces can ensure better administration. It is mostly difficult to administer a large province. Thus dividing it into two or more smaller provinces can help in administering it well. This also brings fortune to the people of that area without transmission of resources and revenue to the other autonomous parts of the province. Fourthly, creation of new provinces strengthens national integration by bringing welfare to the state as a whole. When a province of country is welfare, it will surely add to the strength of the state. Contrary to the positive implications of creating new provinces on Pakistan, there are certain abnom1alities that are attributed with taking such a step. In general, creation of new provinces is a constitutional step which in no way can disintegrate a country. A nation's integration begins to deteriorate when the issue about the creation of new provinces is politicized. When the political parties begin to measure the creation of new provinces according to their peculiar interests, several controversies emerge. Take example of the behavior of Pakistan's political parties on the issue of new provinces. Pakistan People's Party supports the voice for Seraiki province to curb the influence of Pakistan Muslim League (N) in Punjab. To counter this move, the latter political party supports the Muhajir community in making Karachi a province to contain the influence of Pakistan People's Party in Sindh. Thus, this sort of politics keeps on rendering the issues controversial. Pakistan's integration will be adversely impacted by the creation of new provinces in case the provinces are created on etlmic lines. A new province is meant to be created on administrative basis. It is when done in order to favour an ethnic group, the national integration faces a blow. New provinces if created in Pakistan can weaken country's integration if provincialism overwhelms the political scene. If the people of a province pledge to vote only the political party of that province, it will annihilate national cohesion. In the past, the people of Bengal voted for Awami Muslim League and the People's Party won in the West Pakistan. This later proved to be of fatal consequence when the politico-lingual gaps between the two became so wide that the East Pakistan 47 seceded from the West Pakistan. This sort of provincialism has caused considerable damage to the national unity in the past. Following are the strong justification of creating more provinces: • Poor governance and lack of economic development. • Distance factor to the provincial capitals as often argued by Hazara province supporters and Seraikis. • Ineffectiveness of the local government system justifies voices for more federating units. It is also argued by many analysts that more provinces would reduce ethnic conflict, prevent Punjab from dominating the smaller federating units, make administration efficient, and give all units a stake in the system. • • • • • Grievances of provincial-level minorities regarding their economic and/or political marginalization by provincial majorities would be addressed. Small provinces provide a more favourable environment to explore the economic potential of the areas under their jurisdiction. People feel isolated in their present provinces on ethnic or geographical lines. Supporters of more provinces get encouraged from the neighbouring countries, especially India, with greater number of provinces. • • • People demanding separate provinces feel themselves a major minority and hence consider themselves distinct from the majority, i.e. Seraiki belt amongst Punjabis and D. I. Khan, Hazara in KP and Urdu-speaking Muhajirs in Sindh. Pakistan has an additional excuse of demographic division that becomes a structural justification for increasing the number of its provinces. It is a well-established fact that the smaller the provinces, the stronger will be the federation. The smaller units would not be in a position to demand separation from Pakistan. Following are suggestions to overcome the problem: • Until and unless it is not demanded by a vast majority of the people, the decision to make more provinces must not be imposed for vested political interests. • More provinces should be formed on the basis of population, and not on linguistic or ethnic basis. • Demands for more provinces largely represent populist slogans targeting Pakistani desires for instant short cuts to good governance. They confuse the functions of provinces and districts. There is, therefore, a need to improve governance instead of adventuring with the idea of more provinces. • • There is also a need to differentiate between provincial autonomy and creating more provinces as 18th Amendment is in place and the outcome of the powers given to the provinces need to be observed. Pakistan could do with a few new provinces, but the most compelling cases are of GilgitBaltistan and perhaps FATA. But AJK Prime Minister Chaudhry Abdul Majeed warned the federal government against any attempt to convert Gilgit-Baltistan into a province of Pakistan. He said, "Gilgit-Baltistan is part and parcel of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Any attempt to merge it into Pakistan will deal a fatal blow to our stand in the light of UN resolutions envisaging right to self-determination for the Kashmiris." (Dawn, July 9, 2015) 48 • • • • Pukhtoonistan issue, the Sindho-desh slogan, and the greater Balochistan are few harsh realities of our history, which could not be ignored. Keeping in view the checkered history of the country, thinking of creating new provinces thus seems playing with fire. Ethnic, religious, regional, and lingual divides have on many instances shaken this land of the pure. Pakistan is currently passing through the most volatile phase of its life. If the issue of creating newer provinces is given more air, it may blow out of proportion. There is a need to strengthen local government and improve governance at gross-root level. In fact, the holding of regular local bodies' elections throughout the country appears to be a better course of action. The local bodies should be granted necessary powers and financial resources to address the problems at grass-root level. Any major over-hauling of the Constitution in the present circumstances is not advisable as it may unleash centrifugal and other undesirable forces. Provinces should address the issues of their backward areas from where calls for new provinces are coming. In a nutshell, it is the need of the hour to create more provinces as developing countries and developed countries have created more provinces to facilitate their people and to run the system of administration more effectively, but in the case of Pakistan, this issue is taken as politication of the parties as no one is willing to create more provinces by labelling the emerging issues of ethnicity, etc. WAR ON TERRORISM IS CONTRIBUTING TOWARDS GROWING ABUSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS (CSS-2015) OUTLINE D D D D Introduction Fundamental human rights War on terrorism War on terrorism and abuses of human rights • • • • • • • D • Torture Loss of life Arbitrary detention Extraordinary rendition Denial of right to petition Repressive laws Suppression of freedom of expression , • • Invasion of privacy • Sexual assauli Discriminations Effects of violation of Human Rights • More cases of terrorism • Emerging terrorists organizations • Lack of establishing global peace • Religious disharmony across the globe D Role of civil society and media D Protecting human riglits D Conclusion 50 >• ESSAY Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ,tale.,: "All human beings ;are born free and equal in dignity and rights. .. Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place· of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated. interdependent and indivisible. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law , general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups. The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions. The 1993 Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, for example, noted that it is the duty of States to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems. All ~tates have ratified at least one, and 80% of States have ratified four or more, of the core human rights treaties, reflecting consent of States which creates legal obligations for them and giving concrete expression to universality. Some fundamental human rights norms enjoy universal protection by customary international law across all boundaries and civilizations. Human rights are inalienable. They should not be taken away, except in specific situations and according to due process. For example, the right to liberty may be restricted if a person is found guilty of a crime by a court of law. All human rights are indivisible, whether they are civil and political rights, such as the right to life, equality before the law and freedom of expression; economic, social and cultural rights, such as the rights to work, social security and education , or collective rights, such as the rights to development and self-determination, are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent. The improvement of one right facilitates advancement of the others. Likewise, the deprivation of one right adversely affects the others. Over the centuries, people have struggled to conceptualize and safeguard universally applicable human rights. The Bill of Rights in England, the establishment of Habeas Corpus, the Constitution of the United States of America, the Declaration of the Rights of Man in France, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1945), and all of the United Nations conventions in the field of human rights are significant benchmarks in that struggle. Millions of people have worked together to develop the best principles of democracy and the rule of law. However, the recent threats posed by terrorism have led many Western countries to change their commitments to the ideals of human rights. "Since September 11, more than a thousand antiterrorism measures have been proposed in state and local jurisdictions across the nation, and already a number of them have become law. These measures threaten to criminalize speech and protest activities, limit the 51 availability of public records, expand government surveillance powers, and promote participation in acts the legislature deems patriotic." These countries have found no other way of dealing with this problem but to limit the rights of their citizens to (among others) freedom, privacy, free speech, and access to lawyers. This, in turn, has given authoritarian governments the opportunity to further suppress and limit human rights in their own countries. Countries with no tradition of rule of law have often looked at more developed states as something of an ideal, but, at the same time, have acted to preserve the power of their own leaders. Thus, the negative example of the more developed countries has allowed states in which democracy is nascent and the government is in most cases authoritarian, to defend their anti-democratic actions and stall any movement toward democratic reform. But, besides the Geneva Convention, the United States and NATO have violated other international treaties and instruments such as the Protection of People against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Geneva Convention Relative to tttt, Treatment of Prisoners of War, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, among others." So, there is no international treaty on the subject that has not been violated by the United States and its allies. There is no single clear and specific definition of terrorism accepted by all nations; even the United Nations cannot settle on one universal definition. The absence of a universal definiti.on leads to abuses and the selective application of the law in authoritarian countries. Yet there is a broad consensus, which dates back to the League ofNations' 1937 definition of terrorism as " ... all criminal acts directed against a State and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons or a group of persons or the general public." The United Nations' "academic consensus definition," written by terrorism expert AP. Schmid and widely..l'!ed by social scientists, defines terrorism as " ... an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, · whereby--in contrast to assassination-the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The United Nations General Assemhly Declaration in 1995 defined terrorism as "criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes". 9/11 was the day that produced fundamental changes in the world. It was the day that United States President George W Bush declared war on terrorism and set in place the pillars of that war. The events of the preceding day, 11 September 2001, were truly appalling in their enormity. They were tragic in the huge loss of life. They were extraordinary in their planning and execution. They were unique in each of these ways but they were not unique in themselves. They were not unique as terrorist acts. There had been terrorist acts before - hijacks, bombings, kidnappings and murders. Certainly no single act had resulted in such a heavy toll in death and injury but there had been single acts, such as the Lockerbie bombing in which many hundreds had died and there had been terrorist campaigns waged over years or decades in which thousands had died. Nor were the events of 11 September unique as terrorist acts on US soil. 52 What was most unique about the terrorist attacks of 11 September were not the acts themselves but the response to them, beginning with the US President· s response on 12 September. No war on terrorism had been declared after the Oklahoma City bombing. There was no suspensi,m nr fundamental constitutional protections and no rush to legislate even greater restrictions. No indefinite detention without charge or trial. No denial of legal advice and representation. No suggestion that torture should be permitted and authorised. The US President's response on 12 September was unique, unleashing a global colT'mitment to fight terrorism without regard for national boundaries or international law. Worldwide sympathy for the United States and worldwide condemnation of terrorism followed the attacks on 11 September. There is no dispute about the nature of terrorism or about its intrinsic evil. But there is grave dispute about the nature of the response to terrorism, most manifest now in relation to the War against Iraq. Around the world the war on terrorism has led to increased security, increased surveillance of the general population and of specific groups and increased powers for police and intelligence agencies. The United States led the way with the mass detentions of hundreds of inunigrants who were West Asian or North African in origin or Islamic in belief. Very few of these people were charged with any criminal offence. Many were held for periods of many months on immigration grounds. They were denied their right to silence, denied access to legal advice and representation, prevented from contacting their families and brought before closed courts to be dealt with in secret. The United States also led the way with new legislation to restrict human rights. The most extreme expression of this new US approach is found in the situation in Camp X-ray at the US base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Captured Taliban and Al Qaida suspects are held there without the protection either of international humanitarian law or international human rights law. The US Administration has said that the provisions in Geneva Conventions on the treatinent of prisoners of war do not apply to these detainees. And so those protections have been violated. Detainees have also been denied the protection of rights guaranteed under the US constitution and the US courts have refused to intervene. They are held in inhumane conditions, subjected to inhuman and degrading treatinent and perhaps torture and denied due process rights, including the right to legal advice and representation and the right to be charged and tried openly before an independent tribunal. International human rights law itself permits restrictions on the enjoyment of human rights in emergency circumstances. Article 4 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides that some human rights may he restricted in "time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation" provided that the emergency is officially proclaimed and is notified to the United Nations Secretary General, that measures taken under the state of eme1gency are no more than what is "strictly required by the exigencies of the situation" and that the measures do not discriminate 011 the basis of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin. Dew;c,oes in U.K. prisons have complained oflong penods of isolation; lack of access to health car~, t:xercise of :eligion, and educational services; lack of exercise; obstacles to visits from friends 53 and family; and psychological trauma associated with the uncertainty of when they will be released. Concerns about the use of torture have also arisen in connection with other aspects of U.K.'s participation in the international campaign against terrorism. In December 2002, the U.S. forces were using "stress and duress" techniques in their interrogations of al-Qaeda suspects detained on the island of Diego Garcia-part of British-held Indian Ocean Territory--resulted in urgent appeals to the U.K. government to ensure that the detainees' human rights were upheld. The detainees were originally held in makeshift open-air facilities with chain-link walls until moved to a newly constructed facility on April 28, 2002. According to press reports, the detainees spend twenty-four hours a day in small single -person cells, except for two fifteen minute periods of solitary exercise a week, as well as interrogation sessions. About eighty of the prisoners were held in special high security cells with steel walls that prevented them fron{ communicating with other prisoners. The United States has refused to recognize the applicability of the Geneva Conventions to any of the Afghan war or al-Qaeda detainees held al Guantanamo or elsewhere, including captured members of the Taliban armed forces, although it has insisted that it treats them .humanely. It refused to permit competent tribunals to determine whether any of the detained combatants were entitled to prisoner of war status. It has also refused to abide by principles of international human rights law with regard to these detainees, asserting, in effect, that no legal regime applies to them and that in the war against terrorism, the United States may hold such combatants for as long as it chooses. The Guantanamo detainees remain without a legal forum in which they can challenge their detention; a federal judge ruled on July 30, 2002 that U.S. federal courts do not have jurisdiction to hear constitutional claims brought by aliens held by the United States outside U.S. sovereign territory. Human Rights Watch has documented the mistreatment of non-citizens detained in the September 11 investigation, including: custodial interrogations without access to counsel, prolonged detention without charge, executive decisions overriding judicial orders to release detainees on bond during immigration proceedings, and unnecessarily restrictive conditions--including solitary confinement--under which some "special interest" detainees were held. Guantanamo Bay Detainees Since September 11, the United States has transferred about 650 men captured in connection with the Afghan war or who are suspected of links to al-Qaeda to the U.S. military base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. U.S. officials apparently chose the site both for security purposes as well as because they believed that U.S. courts would refuse to exercise jurisdiction over it- a belief that has been borne out . in court cases . The laws are also not justified if they are a disproportionate response to the emergency and if they discriminate. Yet these laws are being applied almost exclusively against people of West Asian and North African background and those who are Muslim. The war on terrorism has generated more general concerns beyond concern for the specifics of legislation proposed or enacted in its name. The first is a concern about the new debate on torture. Under international law torture is one of the most serious violations of human rights. I!_is considered unacceptable anywhere in any circumstances. It is one of the rights that can never be restricted, even in "time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation". 54 Usual methods are being used in interrogation under the present circumstances but they deny that these measures constitute torture. Past and present intelligence agents have admitted that torture is used and argued that its use should be extended as a means of obtaining information about terrorists and about potential terrorist attacks. Amnesty International (200 I) also condemns the use of torture and remains concerned over the well being of detainees, especially in light of reports that many of those arrested in the wake of the attacks were denied prompt access to lawyers or relatives. In its comprehensive investigation on the mistreatment of post-September I !th detainees, Human Rights Watch (2002a) chronicles civil liberties and human rights infractions. Among the most serious problems are: denial of access to counsel, custodial interrogations without access to counsel, abusive interrogations, arbitrary detention, detaining non-citizens without charge, detainees denied release on bond or held on extraordinarily high bond, and continued detention despite a release order. Investigations also reveal detainees subjected to harsh conditions of confinement, compounded by verbal and physical abuse, denied adequate medical attention, and housed with suspected or convicted criminals. A leading US academic, an internationally recognised human rights expert, has said that the elimination of torture is impossible and perhaps even undesirable when terrorist attacks are possible and so, he has said, the law should seek not to prohibit torture but to control it by providing for its use to be authorised only at the highest level of govenunent and only subject to measures of public accountability. This proposal is totally unacceptable because torture is totally unacceptable. Some police and military officers have argued against torture on pragmatic grounds, that information obtained under torture is inherently unreliable and so acting on it may lead to grave error. That's true. But far more important is the principle that torture is never acceptable, that it is always a serious violation of a fundamental human right. The War on Terrorism then has resulted in challenges to some of the most deeply held moral and ethical values and the observance of some of the most fundamental human rights. And now we have the War against Iraq. The War on Terrorism is a response to actual events, not only the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States but also terrorist attacks before and after that in many parts of the world, including the Bali bombing. Although there is ·sound debate about the nature of the . response and its proportionality, there is no doubt that a response is legitimate and lawful. Two recent events account for the hypocritical duality with which some states are manipulating the concept of human rights well into the 21st century. In the first place, on February 7, 2007, the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance that criminalises the use of secret prisons was signed in Paris by some sixty countries (most of them from Europe, but not tl1e United States). And a few days later, on February 14, a report accusing those same European govemn,ents of complicity with the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in operations involving clandestine kidnappings, was approved at the European Parliament in Strasbourg. According to this report, between 200 I and 2005, CIA aircrafts made no less than 1,245 stopovers at 55 European airports, often carrying suspects who were victims of "enforced disappearance", being clandestinely sent to Guantanamo or prisons in allied countries (Egypt, Morocco) where torture is a regular practice. Among the most innovative and the most shocking of the many violations to which the war on terror has given rise is the practice of 'extraordinary rendition'. Reliable reports are increasing of the kidnapping and secret transfer of individuals without any process of law to various locations and/or to third states for what has been referred to as detention or torture by proxy. This is straightforwardly a violation of many human rights, on account not only of its eventual purpose - torture, arbitrary detention or other serious violation - but also due to the procedural arbitrariness that attends it. and, most insidiously, the effect of removing the person from the protection of la;,, and \\jthholding mformation from that person and his or her family. The latter characteristic has led to this praciice being described as enforced disappearance. The 'terrorism' label has been applied liberally since 9/11, without clarity as to its s~~e (the term being undefined or ill-defined), often without due process, and" with serious consequences for those thus branded or others associated with them. Perhaps the most obvious manifestation of this phenomenon are the various terrorism 'lists' established at national, regional and (under the Security Council's watchful eye) international level. While systems and safeguards vary, the problem with these lists is often the lack of transparency around the reasons for inclusion in them, and the lack of meaningful opportunity to challenge such inclusion. Little by little, litigation is call governments to account for decisions made in this respect, and to provide a degree of judicial oversight at least to temper an otherwise opaque and arbitrary practice. In many cases the judiciary has shown its reluctance to make determinations that may impact on security, refusing, for example, to question executive assessments of the existence of an emergency. But when particular practices H. Duffy - Human rights litigation and the 'war on terror ' have come under scrutin)', the courts in diverse systems have often and increasingly proved themselves willing in some cases promp'tty, in other cases after painstaking process and only as a matter_of genuine last resort - to criticize the legitimacy, necessity or proportionality of particular measures. The war against Iraq, on the other hand, is presented as a pre-emptive war under a new doctrine enunciated by the present US AcbtJ!nistration. Unfortunately for the United Slates, international law doei. not recognize this new doctrine of pre-emption. International Jaw permits resort to war in two circumstances only, when authorised by the United Nations Security Council in response to a declared threat to international peace and security and when there is an actual attack or an immediate threat of an actual attack but then only until such time as the Security Council takes charge of the situation. Neither of these conditions have been met and so the War against Iraq is unlawful. For instance, the arguments stating that Saddam Hussein's regime was hiding weapons of mass destruction and had been a partner with AlQaeda in the 9/11 attacks were never proved and even so the Bush administration invaded Iraq, overthrew Hussein and set up a "democratic" government serving US interests. 43 international lawyers, almost every significant international lawyer in the country, made a joint statement that "[t]he initiation ofa war against Iraq by the self-styled 'coalition of the willing' would be a 56 fundamental violation of international Jaw". More recently the top international lawyers in the United Kingdom issued a similar joint statement. In the United States individual international lawyers have made their own statements, almost all again expressing the view that this war is unlawful. This is far more than an academic argument when thousands oflives are at stake. The government of the United States does not care whether the war is lawful or not. They are determined to wage war and all this legal debate is merely a distraction to them. Had they been sincere in their protestation that the war is lawful, in the face of firm views to the contrary by the acknowledged experts, these governments would have sought the opinion of the one body established with authority to give a conclusive view, the International Court of Justice. The UN Chartec establishes the Court to decide issues like these. The most urgent issue now is the actual conduct governs how nations and their armed forces should nations in the US coalition are bound by international civilians are not deliberately targeted, that actions that prisoners of war are treated properly and so on. of the war. International hulljanitarian law conduct themselves during war. All the humanitarian law and so must ensure that might endanger civilians are avoided, that The war on terrorism has killed many more people than the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. The war against Iraq will kill many times that number again. The truth· is that, according to various reports including one by National Intelligence Council revealed by The New York Times on 24 September 2006, not only has the invasion and occupation of Iraq (with all its abuses) failed in halting international terrorism but, on the contrary, it has contributed to fuel terrorism worldwid~ and to strengthen Islamic radicalism toward the West. Human sec•.trity is a major pre-occupation in today's world. That is understandable. Ensaung security for every human being around the world is one of the major challenges facing us. In addressing these concerns it is needed to enhance the search for common ground. Human rights provide that common ground. Government needs to build commitment to observing human rights law, not to violating it. EXPECTED QUESTION: • • War on terror has violated human rights War on terror and its repercussion on human rights ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN OUTLINE ,0 D D D D D lntroducticm • Energy, a demand for all fields • Cheap ways of producing Energy ~~auses· • Lack ofdarns • Inability to explore coal: 6th largest coal reserves in the_ world • Lack of renewable energy sources • Problem of circular debt • Losses in. transmission and distribution • Wastage of energy • Domestic and household consumption • Aging of the equipment • Wastage of energy • High cost of fuel Effects • Economic loss • Agricultural loss • Closure of indurtries • Umemployment • Social issues Energy Policy (2013-2018) Suggestions • Alternative sources of energy Wind Solar Biomass Tidal Nuclear power • Building of darns Long term dams Medium term dams Short term dams • Exploit the coal reserves • Regional gas and oil pipelines IPI project TAP! project • Updating the system of transmission and distribution Conclusion 58 ESSAY Energy is the lifeline of a nation. The economic engine and the wheels of industry, agriculture and business need energy to move forward. Pakistan faces a major energy crisis in natural gas, power and oil. Power outages usually last 10 -12 hours a day in the cities and more in the rural areas. This has left the industries of Pakistan (mainly agricultural, secondary and tertiary sectors) stunned and so they are unable to fully operate. This has a very negative impact on the economy of the country. The demand of energy in Pakistan is huge, and cannot be fulfilled by electricity production based on oil. It can only meet 20% of our requirement through native production and the remaining oil is imported from Gulf States and other countries. No major oil, field has been discovered in last three decades. It is clear that other alternative production methods must be considered to meet the demand. Most likely one that is cheap, considering initial setup cost, and costs attached. The second method of production we use is thermal (i-e using coal to produce electricity). Pakistan has been blessed with wealthy mineral resources, but the sad part is that we are too ign0rant to explore them. We are sitting on gold mines and yet we do nothing about it. Balochistan, for mstance, is rich with all sorts of minerals and could be exploited heavily. If we could solve the feudal problems of the provinces, and let the national and international companies explore the area, we might solve our fuel problems too. But this is a precious non-renewable resource, so we need better options. Other major option is hydro-electnc power generation. This is the cheapest and most feasible way of producing electricity for our country. Two major energy dams in Pakistan are Tarbela and Mangla. If only the proposed Kalabagh darn would be constructed, 80% of our energy needs would be fulfilled. Best option is to construct this dam, and take advantage of the natural hydrography of Pakistan in maximum possible extent. Wind power and solar power generatton are good alternatives as well. Their initial costs are low when compared to other methods, and are definitely in the best interests of our country. Following are the causes of energy crisis m Pakistan. In Pakistan, no major dam was constructed after the completion of Mangle and Terbela Darns m early I 980s. Though the demand of electricity was increasing but many governments came and completed their terms but neither government built darns which is the cheapest source of the energy. Pakistan needs to make Kalabagh darn and Basha dams but due to politicisation and lack of dedicated politicians, Pakistan is confrontin the problem of energy crisis. Electricity from hydel cost us Rs. 2-4 rupee per unit. Pakistan is blessed with large amount of the coal. No serious work is done to explore the coal for power generation. This is complained that the coal quality is inferior.However, ·ready-made solutions are available to burn any type of coal. Government is looking for private sector to play its role. In our opinion, the government itself should come forward and install the power plants on the site of coal mines only. The government is not producing electricity from nenewable source of energy such as wind, solar, tidal, biogas, etc.Though Pakistan has maximum summars suiting for solar energy but there are huge taxes which are paid while purchasing this technology. Through solar, Pakistan can produce up to 1,00,000 MW electricity. Besides, wind energy has a potential of producing 50,000 MW electricity but Pakistan is not producing from this cheapest source. If a serious work is done then the total , 59 shortage can be met from Hydro and wind power sector.It ts also suggested that small loans should be provided to consumers to install small hydro and solar cells for one family usage of electricity. One of the main reasons for the serious shortfall in the generation of thermal electricity 1s the problem of the "circular debt" which the present government inherited from the previous regime. In 2007, the government did not compensate the power companies for the subsidy that was being provided to consumers. The power compames in turn could not pay the oil and gas companies, reducing their liquidity to import the furnace oil that was needed to generate electricity. The interim government, before the elections, in fact, forced the commercial banks to lend Rs34bn to the oil companies whose credit limits were already exhausted. This problem of "circular debt" became more serious in the summer of 2008, as petroleum prices jumped from $100 to $147 a barrel. It is really surprising that this problem has become the main cause of increasing load-shedding but has not so far been addressed on a priority basis. In 2015 the circular debt reached Rs.600 billion. Very heavy line losses in transmission and distribution because of old and poorly maintained transmission systems, estimated at over 20 per cent compared to eight to ten per cent in other countries. Large scale theft of electricity as clearly revealed by the growing difference between units generated or purchased and those paid for. Wastage of energy by the industry which consumes 30 per cent of total electricity due to less efficient systems and other practices. For example, the Chinese consume 30 per cent less electricity in textile mills because they use water partially heated by solar panels in their boilers. Overuse of energy by the transport sector (consuming 28 per cent of total energy) due to old and poorly tuned engines. Domestic and household consumption which uses 45 per cent of total electricity also depicts wasteful and unnecessary uses of lights, air-conditioners and large-scale illuminations on different occasions. The problems outlined above reveal many structural flaws in our energy system. These include over-dependence on imported energy, inadequate political will, limited financial support and very weak implementation capacity. One very important reason attributed to this energy shortage is the aging of the generating equipment which could not develop the electricity as per the design requirement. This is the responsibility of continuous updating the equipment and keeping the high standard of maintenance. we sincerely think a serious thought should be given for general overhaul and maintenance of existing equipment to keep them in good working order. So far energy conservation is concerned,newspaperspay lip service in seminars. No serious thought is being given to utilize the energy at the optimum level. A new culture need to develop to conserve energy. Some times on government level illiteracy is blamed for the failure of the energy conservation program. this is not true,. Maximum energy is consumed by elite class which controls all the resources of knowledge and communication. But for their own luxury they themselves ignore the problem. Government should seriously embark on energy conservation program. Following are the effects of energy crisis in Pakistan. Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy. The economic progress is hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply. Pakistan is facing high cost of production due to several factors like energy crisis, the hike in electricity tariff, the increase in interest rate, devaluation of Pakistani rupee, increasing cost of 60 inputs, political instability, removal of subsidy & internal dispute. The above all factors increase the cost of production which decreases the exports. Exports receipts decrease from$ 10.2 B to$ 9.6 B. The global recession also hit badly the textile industry. Double digit inflation also caused decrease in production in texti]e sector. Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision of energy for running tube weils, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity. Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the existing industrial units are gradually closing. By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis contributes towards unemployment. Pakistan's textile industry is going through one of the toughest periods in decades. The global recession which has hit the global textile really hard is not the only cause for concern. Serious internal issues including energy crisis affected Pakistan· s textile industry very badly. The high cost of production resulting from an instant rise in the energy costs has been the primary cause of concern for the industry. Depreciation of Pakistani rupee during last year has significantly raised the cost of imported inputs. Furthermore, double digit inflation and high cost of financing have seriously affected the growtl:> in the textile industry. Pakistan's textile exports in turn have gone down during last three years as exporters cannot effectively market their produce since buyers are not visiting Pakistan due to adverse travel conditions and it is getting more and more difficult for the exporters to travel abroad. Pakistan's textile industry is lackmg in research &development.The production capability is very low due to obsolete machinery and technology. This factor is primarily related to the domes!Ic usage of energy (cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding causes unrest and frustration amongst the people and results in agitation against the government. The government has finally formulated the much-awaited National Energy Policy 2013-18. Under the policy, power sector subsidy will be phased out by 20 I 8 and loadshedding will be ended by 2017. It aims at generating surplus electricity in 2018, privatising govemment-owned power plants and a few power distributing companies (Discos), bringing the double digit cost of power generation to a single digit, restructuring the water and power ministry, National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra), Oil and gas Regulatory Authority (Ogra), adjustment of outstanding dues owed by public and private organisations through federal adjusters and formation of regional transmission and power trading system. The policy comprises seven points envisions a profitable, bankable and investment-friendly power sector which meets the nation· s needs and boosts its economy in a sustainable and affordable manner while adhering to the most efficient generation, transmission and distribution standards. To achieve the long-term vision of the power sector and overcome its challenges, the government has set the following goals: Build a power generation capacity that can meet the country's energy needs in a sustainable manner; create a culture of energy conservation and responsibility; ensure generation of inexpensive and affordable electricity for domestic, commercial and industnal use; minimise pilferage and adulteration in fuel supply; promote world class efficiency in power 61 generation; create a c.utting edge transmission network; mirnmise .financial losses across the systen1; and align the ministries involved in the energy sector and improve governance. There are various methods to solve the energy crisis in Pakistan. , Though wind, Pakistan has potentials of wind energy ranging from 10(1()0 NI W to 50000 MW, yet power generation through wind is in initial stages in Pakistan and currently 06 MW has been installed in first phase in Jhampir through a Turkish company and 50 MW will be installed shortly. More wind power plants will be built in Jhampir, Gharo, Keti Bandar and Bin Qasim Karachi. Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air. Pakistan has potential of more than 100,000 MW from solar energy. Building of solar power plants is underway in Kashmir, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. However, private vendors are importing panels / solar water heaters for consumption in the market. Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) is working for 20,000 solar water heaters in Gilgit Baltistan. Mobile companies have been asked by the government to shift supply of energy to their transmission towers from petroleum to solar energy panels. Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as sugarcane, corn or other vegetation to generate electricity. When garbage decomposes, methane is produced and captured in pipes and later burned to produce electricity. Vegetation and wood can be burned directly to generate energy, like fossil fuels, or processed· to form alcohols. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs from biomass/biodiesel in the world, followed by USA. Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) of Pakistan has planned to generate 10 MW of electricity from municipal waste in Karachi followed by similar projects in twenty cities of country. Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water turbine in a tidal current. The turbine can turn an electrical generator, or a gas compressor, that can then store energy until needed. Coastal tides are a source of clean, free, renewable, and sustainable energy. Plans are underway in Pakistan to harness tidal energy; however, no implementation has been made so far. Nuclear power stations use nuclear fission reaction to generate energy by the reaction of uranium inside a nuclear reactor. Pakistan has a small nuclear power program, with 425 MW capacity, but there are plans to increase this capacity substantially. Since Pakistan is outside the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty, it is excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hinders its development of civil nuclear energy. Remaining issues in development of nuclear energy are enrichment of uranium from U235 to U238, controlling chain reaction and dumping of solid waste. Pakistan has potential of hydro resources to generate 41000 to 45000 MW, however, only 6555 MW is currently being generated by this important renewable resource. Four large hydro power dams namely Kalabagh _3600 MW, Bhasha 4500 MW, Bunji 5400 MW and Dasu 3800 MW can be constructed to generate hydro electricity. Similarly, many small to medium hydro plants can be installed on rivers and cana's etc. The longer term solution of the energy crisis will be to restore the hydro-thermal mix to 60:40 or at least 50:50 in the next five years. The Water Accord of 1991 had o~ened the way for constructing many dams to store water and generate electricity. But the continuing controversy over the KalabaghDam became a major obstacle. Surprisingly, even many smaller and non-controversial hydroelectric projects have been delayed without any justification. The hydel projects in the pipeline include the following: Neelurn Jhelurn (969 MW), Tarbela Fourth Extension (960 MW), SukiKinari 62 (840 MW), Munda Dam (700 MW), Khan Dubar (130 MW), Allai (126 MW) and Jinnah Hydro electric power project (96 MW). Pakistan has the world's sixth largest reserves of coal, after the recent discoveries in Thar. The total coal reserve in Pakistan is about 175 billion tons. The current coal production is only 3.5 million tons per year, which is mostly used for the brick and cement industry. Coal has typical problems, such as a high sulphur content (it produces sulphur dioxide, the source of acid rain), mineral matter content (leading to ash and pollution problems), carbon dioxide emission (contributing to global warming) and high moisture content. However, technologies are available to minimise all of these. Conversion technologies are curren\ly under development to convert coal into environmentally-friendly methanol and hydrogen gas to be used as clean fuel. The US is working on a major initiative called future gen to produce "zero emission" power plants of the future. Thar coal can be cleaned and the sulphur reduced so that it can be burnt in conventional coal power plants and also convened into gas. Coal gasification is a slightly more expensive process, but the gas from coal is a proven and cleaner technology. The Chinese had prepared a feasibility repon in 2005 to produce 3,000 MW at 5.8 cents per unit, but the project could not move forward because they were offered only 5.3 cents. There are also many possibilities of regional cooperation in building gas and oil pipelines. These include the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline; the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline; an oil, gas and electricity corridor from Gwadar to Western China, the import of 1,000 MW electricity from Ragun hydro station in Tajikistan for which an agreement was signed in March 1992 at the rate of 3.3 cents per unit. The worldwide electricity production, as per the World Bank, is as follows: coal: 40 per cent; gas 19 per cent; nuclear 16 per cent; hydro 16 per cent; oil seven per cent. Pakistan's power production is gas 48 per cent; hydro 33 per cent; oil 16 per cent; nuclear two per cent, and coal 0.2 per cent. There has been a global trend to shift away from oil because of its rising price expected to reach $100 a barrel by the end of this year depending on the international geopolitical situation. Despite the lowest cost of hydroelectric power, there have been environmental, ecological and geopolitical concerns over the building of large dams. The supply of natural gas in Pakistan has been depleting over the years, and the country is now looking at the option of imponing gas from Qatar and Central Asia. This leaves the possibility of exploring nuclear, coal and other alternative energy sources. Nuclear energy and coal form the lowest source of power production in Pakistan. On the other hand, the world average for nuclear energy is 16 per cent and for coal 40 per cent. Let us first consider these two potential sources of electric power production for Pakistan. The US obtains 20 per cent of its electric power fron;' with 104 reactors; France 78 per cent with 59 reactors, Japan 24 per cent with 54 re~tors, tjle UK 23 per cent with 31 reactors, and so on. Even India has signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreeinent with the United States to develop its nuclear capability for power generation and economic development. It has currently six reactors in opernhon with a capacity J3750 MW, and another six with a capacity of 3,34() MW are under construction. The new agreement will further boost the nuclear power generating capacity of India. Today, •rnclear power plants have average capacities of 600 - 1,000 MW. Pakistan only produces two per cent of its power through two reactors (Karachi and Chashrna at 13 7 MW and 300 MW respectively). Pakistan is a nuclear technologically advanced country with capabilities to produce fuel, yet falls behind most other countries, including India, in terms of nuclear power production. Regarding cof the water resources and the need to "exchange data and consult on the possible effects of planned measures on the condition" of the water resource. The U.N. Convention provides the ovel'l\U framework for Trans boundary water sharing. ' The partition of the South Asian Subcontinent on 14 August 1947 into the dominions of India and Pakistan gave birth to a host of problems, including that of the sharing of waters of the mighty Indus River System. The tssue was of concern to Pakistan because the head works of the rivers that irrigated Pakistan's Punjab province mostly went to the Indian side. On 30 December 1947, Pakistan and India conclud~ a 'Standstill Agreement' for a three-month period under which Pakistan continued to receive water supply from the head works of Madhopur on River Ravi and Ferozepur on River Sutlej, the two tributaries of River Indus. As the interim arrangement ended on 31 March 1948, the next day the Government of Indian Punjab stopped the supply of water to Pakistan from the Madhopur headwork, affecting, according to one estimate, 5.5% of Pakistan's irrigated area . ., Pakistan raised the issue at the Inter-Dominion Conference held on 3-4 May 1948. India dismissed Pakistan's claim over water, from the head works on its side as a matter of right but agreed to release water as a provisional arrangement. It was thus abundantly clear that slowly and gradually the quantity of water would be reduced. In 1951, David Lilienthal, who had formerly served as Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and as Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission, undertook a research tour of Pakistan and India for writing a series of articles. In one of his articles, he opined that it would be very beneficial for the region if the two countries cooperated to jointly develop attd operate the Indus Basin river system. He further suggested that the World Bank might play its role in bringing India and Pakistan to agree on some plan to develop the Indus river system for mutual benefit. 'President of the World Bank, Eugene Black, picked up the idea and offered his good offices to resolve the issue of water sharing between India and Pakistan. The two neighbors welcomed the initiative and after tough bargaining during the protracted negotiations that spread, over nine years arrived at the contours of the agreement. Broad parameters thus settled the work of drafting began. Finally, m September 1960, President of Pakistan Field Marshall Mohammad Ayub Khan and Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in Karachi. Following are the provisions of the Indus Basin Treaty 1960 1. Pakistan surrendered three eastern rivers, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas to India with some minor rights to Pakistan. 2. Largely three western rivers namely Indus, Jhelum and Chenab remained with Pakistan. 68 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. India was allowed to use water from the western rivers for irrigation of 642,000 acres of land that were already being irrigated from these rivers along with an entitlement to further irrigate 701,000 acres for crops. India was also given specified entitlement for 'other' storages, including, power and flood storages i.e., storages for non-consumptive purposes. Pakistan was to meet the requirements of its eastern river canals from the western rivers by constructing replacement works. Both parties are bound io. regularly exchange flow-data of rivers, canals and streams. A permanent Indus Water Commission, with one Commissioner from each side, was to be set up to resolve issues. The procedures were set out for settlement of 'questions' 'differences' and 'disputes' ,bilaterally and through neutral experts and International Court of Arbitration as the case might be. Since Pakistan required considerable time to build necessary infrastructure to divert water from western rivers to eastern rivers and their canals on its side, India was to allow the 'historic withdrawals' on the part of Pakistan during the transitory period. According to the Treaty, two dams (Mangla on River Jhelum and Tarbela on River Indus) were to be built It also envisaged five barrages Maraia and Qadirabad on River Chenab, Sidhnai on River Ravi, Rasul on River Jhelum, Chashma on River Indus and Mailsi on River Sutlej. Besides, one siphon and seven link canals (Rasul-Qadirabad on Rivers Jhelum-Chenab, Qadirabad-Balloki on Rivers Chenab-Ravi, Balloki-Suleimanki II and Sidhnai-Mailsi on Rivers Ravi-Sutlej, Chashma-Jhelum on Rivers Indus-Jhelum and Trimmu-Sidhnai on Rivers Indus-Ravi), to be ~onstructed in Pakistan. To meet the financial cost, India was to pay a fixed amount of US $ 62.060 million over a period of ten years. An international consortium pledged US $ 900 million. The World Bank was to administer the Indus Basin Development Fund. The Indus Basin Project was completed despite all hurdles those included opposition and reservations from many quarters in Pakistan who felt that Pakistan's rights as a lower riparian state had been compromised This amounted to a successful resolution of a major dispute over the world's largest, contiguous irrigation system with a command area of about 20 million hectares. Although the Indus Water Treaty has been a remarkable success story, lately some projects undertaken by India in Occupied territory of Jammu and Kashmir - from where the western rivers flow into Pakistan - have become major irritants and raised serious concerns ih Pakistan: India has embarked upon the construction of a huge network of water storage facility, the national river linking project at an estimated cost of $120 bn likely to be completed by 2016. It includes construction of Basrur multi-power project, Siwalkot dam and Pakot Dul dam on Chenab, in addition to the already constructed Baglihar dam. In 1985, India started construction of a barrage known as 'Wullar Barrage (The Tulbal Navigation Lock)' some 439 feet long and with a lock at the mouth of Wullar Lake, the largest fresh water Lake in Indian occupied, disputed and held territory. Purportedly but not so jnnocently, the stated purpose of the barrage was to make possible navigation in 22 km stretch between the towns of Sopore and Baramula, during the lean winter season by regulating the flow of River Jhelum. Pakistan raised objection to this project and the construction work halted in 1987. Pakistan contends that India cannot store water in excess of 0.01 MAF as 'incidental storage' on River Jhelum. Pakistan also apprehends that the Wullar Barrage may cause damage to its own project of linking Jhelum and Chenab with the Upper Bari Doab Canal. One important concern of Pakistan, which is extraneous to the Indus Water Treaty but squarely a security 69 issue, is that in case of war between the two countries, India would take advantage from its ability to control the flow of water and make the crossing of the river easy or difficult according to strategic and tactical military requirement. India, as usual, but erroneously contends that the Wullar Barrage would regulate the flow of water into Jhelum and control the floods. It would not reduce the overall quantum of water flow rather increase it during the lean winter season. All fair weather pretension and an obvious ruse, to get away with an extremely hurtful project to Pakistan. The project's impact, India asserts, would be beneficial to Mangla Dam in power generation and to Pakistan's triple canal system due to regulated flow of water. The matter remains unresolved. Outrageously on the Kishanganga Project, the Indians hawk on the premise that it will ostensibly bring water from River Kishanganga to Wullar Lake, where a hydroelectric power station is proposed. The project envisages construction of a channel and a tunnel for lhis purpose. Simultaneously to build a dam, near the place where River Kishanganga crosses the Line of Control to enter Pakistan-administered Kashmir, where it is known as Neelum. Here Pakistan plans to construct 969 MW-capacity Neelum-Jhelum Power Plant with Chinese assistance. The Pakistani project is to going to be completed in 2017, due to delay in construction work. Pakistan is genuinely concerned and fears that the Kishafll!anga Project would lead to a shortfall of water flow into Neelum, reducing its power generation by an estimated 9%. The Indus Water Treaty does not bar any party from storing water for power generation as per entitlement. However, there is the principle of 'prior appropriation' enshrined in the Treaty. India intends to complete the Kishanganga Project by 2016 to avail the opportunity of diverting K.ishanganga'a water to Wullar Lake before Pakistan is able to invoke the provision of prior appropriation. India also claims that Pakistan need not worry because the water diverted by the l

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Top 30 Essays by Zahid Ashraf JWT 2023 Edition

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Top 30 Essays By Zahid Ashraf JWT

Public Administration By Dr Sultan Khan

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Top 30 Essays By Zahid Ashraf JWT

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Top 30 Essays By Zahid Ashraf JWT. CSS candidates are required to produce essays in accordance with certain expectations of the paper setter which are mentioned on top of the essay question paper. Essays contained in this book help you to come up to the expectations of the examiner to get highest possible marks. To start with, one of his requirements is “exposition” which means that you should try to reveal and discuss maximum relevant aspects of the topic. A half-hearted and sketchy dealing of some of its imperatives will not serve the purpose. Then comes his demand concerning “argumentation” i.e. whenever you make a point do not forget to establish its identity by to uphold or discard it by genuine and forceful arguments. Further wherever you raise a question or come across a controversial situation do have a few arguments for and against the proposition. While doing so give your own point of view as well. Discuss alternatives with arguments to sift right from the wrong or accept the right and reject the wrong. Next comes “description” which implies giving a vivid account of the situation under discussion. It demands presentation of all relevant details clearly and convincingly. Description is followed by “Narration” which means moving ahead vigorously. Candidates who are short of ideas often indulge in tail-spinning, beating about the bush, or moving in circles just to fill up as many pages of the answer book as possible. Narrative demands smooth and logical flow of ideas, moving from one thought to the next effortlessly. A stuck up expression results in loss of interest and lands the reader in a state of drudgery.

Buy CSS Books online as Cash on Delivery all Over Pakistan. This is the latest and updated edition. Get Latest Edition on your home address as Cash on Delivery, order now online or Call/WhatsApp us on 03336042057 – 0726540141. Buy Books online as cash on delivery all over Pakistan.

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