117 Prison Essay Topics

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222 Prison Topics & Essay Examples

Whether you are writing about criminal justice reform or the sociology of prison population, you’ll find a good topic here. Check out these recommendations of prison essay topics put together by our experts .

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Prison Reform Essays (Examples)

511 results for “Prison Reform” .

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Prison Reform the United States

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin (2000), "incarceration, as it stands, does not prevent recidivism" (p. 4). In addition, even if the released prisoners do not commit another crime, it does not mean that they become self-supporting and contribute to their community as much as possible. .Lin (2000) argues that it is not clear that prisons, as institutions, have the capacity to provide the type of environment required for preparation of returning to the outside world. Prisons are not presently designed to be schools or factories, most…

Alexander, M. (2010) Is Mass Incarceration the New Jim Crow? NY: New Press

Durham, a.M. (1994) Crisis and reform: current issues in American punishment. Canada: Little Brown and Co.

Johnson, R. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison

Katz, L., Levitt, S.D., & Shustorovich, E. (2003) Prison conditions, capital punishment and deterrence. American Law and Economics Review, 5(2):318-343,

Prison Crowding

prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable. Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…

Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site:   http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf  . 1-17.

Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.

Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site:   http://www.nytimes.com  /2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html.

Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+

Overcrowding in Prisons

Prison Overcrowding Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…

Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.

Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,

363(9406), 378-378.

Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),

State Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help With the States Budget Problems

Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help Control the State's Budget Problems This paper argues that inmates at State prisons should be having premature releases from prisons so that the States can manage their budget problems. As the paper illustrates, despite criticisms on parole that it introduces unreformed culprits back in the society and that the program is unorganized, parole is a major contributor in reducing prison populations, which directly translates to reduced State expenditures (Licari, 2009). All the implementation of parole releases has either direct or indirect economic effect to the States as well as the prisoner and society as a whole. eformed individuals are able to earn their income thus independent of the government (Sons, n.d.). In addition, as there is professional structure of parole, they lead to faster reforming and procedures that reduce caseloads enabling parole officers to spend more time with the high-risk individuals (National…

Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F., & Reisig, M. (2008). American Corrections, (8th ed.). Connecticut, U.S.:

Cengage Learning.

Corley, C. (2009, December 13). States release inmates early to cut prison costs. Npr.org.

Retrieved from   http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=121338571

Life in Prison Life in

Williams...consistently denied killing Owens. March 11, 1979 --...three of Williams' friends -- all with criminal histories and motivation to lie, Williams says -- testify that he confessed to the killings. A ballistics expert links a shotgun shell at the motel to Williams' gun. Williams has also steadfastly maintained his innocence in the Yang killings. 1981 -- Williams is tried and convicted in Los Angeles Superior Court of all four murders, plus...sentenced to death. He arrives at San Quentin's death row on April 20. 1987 -- Williams is placed in solitary confinement for 6 1/2 years after committing a string of violent incidents behind bars, including assaults on guards and other inmates. 1988 -- the California Supreme Court affirms Williams' death sentence, and he files his first federal appeal to the U.S. District Court. 1996 -- Williams, with co-author Barbara Cottman Becnel, publishes the first of a series of anti-gang books…

Stovall, Jeffrey, M.D. (2001, March). Prison Madness: The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About it. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved December 8, 2007, at   http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52/3/394-a  

Nieves, Evelyn, (2005, December 14). "Schwarzenegger Clemency Denial Called Politically Safe." Washington Post, p. A18, Retrieved December 8, 2007, at   http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/12/13/AR200512100026  . tml

Tookie's Path to Death Row." (2005, December 13). Retrieved Decembe 9, 2007, at   http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5047269Timeline:Tookie  's Path to Death Row

Williams, Stanley, with Becnel, Barbara Cottman. (2001). Life in Prison. Chronicle Books.

Role and Evolution of the American Prison

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.

Annotated Bibliography for Prisons Conditions

Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795 his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. he author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." his is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location. Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…

This article shares the extent of prison conditions in an American prison named Pelican Bay State Prison in California. July 1, 2011, prisoners there started a sustained hunger strike. The reason being the majority of them were kept in complete solitary confinement, experiencing conditions considered torturous like extreme sensory deprivation for over five years. Some were kept in isolation for two decades. They asked for basic things during their strike like a phone call once a week, warm clothes to go outside in, supply of decent food, and a chance at escaping solitary confinement. {risons like this show how bad the American prison system can be.

Sarang, A., Platt, L., Vyshemirskaya, I., & Rhodes, T. (2016). Prisons as a source of tuberculosis in Russia. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 12(1), 45-56.   http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijph-07-2014-0022  

This study examines the poor conditions of Russian prisons that leads to a prevalence of tuberculosis. They analyze the poor prevention, treatment, and management of tuberculosis through collecting data from qualitative interviews with participants that are former medical specialists and prisoners in the region of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. They also show aside from poor management of tuberculosis infection; HIV infection are poorly managed revealing a poor prison health system in Russia. The study highlights the need for reform of the health system as well as the most common serious infections in Russian prisons. The most common being Tuberculosis and HIV.

Drug Prison Email L Jones Officer

Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will. In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think. Thank you very much for your time. Sincerely: Officer Betty Rumble orks Cited Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August.…

Works Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August. Retrieved from Web site on October 18, 2005, from,   http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1850/is_200208/ai_n7187734  

Flynn, Nick. (2005). Drugs in Prison: Another Quick Fix. Web page. DrugText.org. Retrieved on October 18, 2005, from,   http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/four1.html

Reforms Needed for Three Strikes Law

Define the Problem The defined and existing problem is going to vary in scope and definition depending on who is doing the defining. However, there are some clear and obvious problems with the “three strikes” law. The policy itself was meant to address a problem. However, that policy has created a new set of problems. Indeed, there are situations where three-time violent felons are justifiably put away for twenty-five years to life. However, the major problem with the policy are the human and budgetary costs that are created by people being thrown in jail for life for minor offenses (“Ewing v. California”, 2017). There is also the concern that some people are being thrown in jail even though they will soon “age out” of criminal behavior. Indeed, men in their 60’s are not able to crawl through windows, run and jump fences like someone in their 20’s or 30’s (Besemer,…

Prison Management From the Prison

In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and other regulations that are required in the prison system. Management in the prison is a unique challenge, because of the many responsibilities that come with it. It is clear, just as business management and leadership are evolving, that prison management will continue to evolve, and as it does, it could create model prison systems of the future. Finally, it is important to note that prisons are unique operations, but they still should uphold management principles. Author Daly continues, "Management is responsible for the mission and strategy of the organization. Prisons are unique with special features but they still reflect the philosophy and methodology of management" (Daly, 2002). Prison management should have clearly defined goals and missions regarding their inmate populations, but…

Boin, a. (2001). Crafting public institutions: Leadership in two prison systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Daly, W.C. (2002). Shades of gray in prison administration. Education, 122(3), 488+.

Greene, J. (2003). Chapter Five Lack of correctional services. In Capitalist punishment: Prison privatization & human rights, Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.) (pp. 56-66). Atlanta: Clarity Press.

Jail Time and Death Penalty Finding New

Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent? For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release. Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…

References:

Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.

Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.

Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."

Corrections Today, 67(2):78.

Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia

Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…

Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from   http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-russias-black-dolphin-prison-2013-10?op=1  

Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from   http://www.hhrjournal.org/2016/02/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings/  

Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from   http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=auilr

Reform and Rehabilitation Program to

These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003). The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54). All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003). Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003). Significance of the Study Every year more than 600,000…

Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.

Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.

Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.

Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:

Criminal Justice Prison Architecture

Prison Architecture Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…

Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130

Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from   http://www.nytimes.com  /2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all

Analyzing Prison Life for Inmates

Prison Life for Inmates Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…

Bibliography

Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).

Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.

Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.

Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .

Healthcare in Prisons

Federal Bureau of Prisons While most people seem to agree that prisoners should have access to basic healthcare while incarcerated, there is tremendous variation about what type of healthcare constitutes basic care. The reality is that many prison inmates receive a better quality of healthcare than non-incarcerated working-class individuals, but many inmates also suffer consequences because of significant medical neglect. For the federal prison system, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is the agency given broad oversight over healthcare in prison. In fact, the BOP is in charge of all aspects of inmate care for all inmates in the federal prison system. The BOP is part of the Department of Justice (DOJ). It was established in 1930 to regulate the federal prison system. The BOP's job is not limited to healthcare. Instead, it has responsibility for the entire federal prison system, which "currently includes 114 prisons, 6 regional offices, 2…

U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General Audit Division. (2008). The

Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care. Retrieved April 29,

2013 from the Justice.gov website: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/BOP/a0808/final.pdf

Wallechinsky, D. (2012). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 1, 2013 from Allgov.com website:   http://www.allgov.com/departments/department-of-justice/federal-bureau-of-prisons-bop?agencyid=7204

Holloway Hmp Holloway Road Prison

The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000 Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison. 4. Theoretical aspects There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…

Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By

  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html   [Accessed 2 April, 2010].

Female Prisoners [Online] Available at:   http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners   / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].

Holloway [Online] Available at:   http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0  [Accessed 3 April, 2010].

Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996). The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…

Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.

Overcrowded and Under-Funded Prisons According

In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000). The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…

Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.

American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at   http://www.sentencingproject.org  /issues_01.cfm

Adaptations to Prison Life the

Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison self that conforms to all the expectations and behavioral patterns of inmate culture. This inmate culture is inherently hostile to the aims of corrections staff. Corrections staff must avoid doing anything that would tend to enhance the validity of inmate culture. They must resort to equal measures in reaction to prisoner provocations. Prisoners must not be stripped of their humanity. They must be maintained as independent men and women capable of surviving on their own, in a reasonably normal society. Notions of status, respect, and hope for the future, must be maintained as they would outside the prison walls. Corrections personnel must enable prisoners to continue to follow, and believe in, the rules of normal society, even if, in the beginning,…

Frase, R.S. (2004). 4 Limiting Retributivism. In The Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 83-112). New York: Oxford University Press.

(2003). Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

Richards, S.C., & Ross, J.I. (2001). Introducing the New School of Convict Criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177.

Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in Prison: A History of the Correctional System with an Insider's View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Privatizing Prison Administration

Privatizing Prison Administration Description of the Financing System. Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999). According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…

Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison

Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.

Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.

Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.

Nineteenth Century Reform

Nineteenth Century Reform The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/ Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate. Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842.   http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm  

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.

Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.

U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.

Tort Reform Has Been on the Lips

Tort reform has been on the lips of politicians and attorneys for many years. In the United States, it is a contentious political issue with strong feelings on both sides of the issue. U.S. tort reform advocates propose procedural and time limits on the right to file claims as well as capping the amounts of damage awards. The supporters of the existing tort system argue that the reformers have misrepresented the issues and criticize tort reform as favoring corporations. In this essay, the author will briefly look at both sides of the issue. Then, we will examine possible solutions in the form of a social security type of system that would issue payments to tort recipients from a government run accident insurance fund that corporations and citizens would both contribute to. Such an approach would however constitute a major change in the tort system of the U.S. which is fundamentally…

Dukes, G., Mildred, M., & Swartz, B. (1998). Responsibility for drug-induced inquiry: a reference book for health professionals and manufacturers . Amsterdam, NE: IOS Press.

Examining the work of state courts, 2003. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncsconline.org/D_Research/csp/2003_Files/2003_Main_Page.html.

Facts about tort liability and its impact on consumers. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.atra.org/wrap/files.cgi/7963_howtortreform.html.

Koenig, T.H., & Rustad, M.L. (2001). In defense of tort law. New York, NY: New York Univ. Press.

Domestic Prison Gender Roles and Marriage the

Domestic Prison Gender oles and Marriage The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…

Allen, J.A. (2004) The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexuality, Histories, Progressivism. University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Chopin, K. (1997). "The Story of an Hour" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, pp. 158-159.

Davis, S. (1982). "Katherine Chopin." American Realists and Naturalists. D. Pizer and E.N. Harbert (eds). Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 12.

Gilman, C. (1997)."The Yellow Wallpaper" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997, pp. 230-242.

How the Politics of Reform Impact Prisons

judicial reform is based on the idea that a total or partial political reformation of the judiciary can be performed as a stage in a much grander reform concept that includes both the legal and the executive branches of government. When judicial reform is effected, the aim is to end corruption in the judicial system -- whether the issue is bribery or cronyism or any other form of corruption. Prison control, such as the concept of the Panopticon is about instilling social values in the prisoners by giving them the sense that they are always being observed and therefore should act accordingly. While this concept does not necessarily gel with the concept of reform, as in the idea to reform prison conditions so that prisoners are more comfortable and so that the penal system (like the judicial system) is cleansed of corruption, it does offer a kind of reformation strategy…

Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites. Bortner and Williams (1997) define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009. Goffman (1961) argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…

ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).

Privatization of Prisons

Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration. Conclusion: Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U.S. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies. eferences Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections:…

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision. Federal Probation, Vol. 66, No. 28.

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Gaines, L.K., Kaune, M., Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Women at Five State Prison

5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66) The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003) The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…

Ethics Prison Purpose of a Prison Sentence

Ethics Prison Purpose of a Prison Sentence Crimes are committed daily in our modern day society and can be loosely defined as any action, that by society's standard, equals the breaking or disobeying of some accepted rule, standard, statute or cultural opinion. Crimes can be committed by either or both adults and juveniles. There is no age requirement to committing a crime but age often does affect other aspects of how and when a perpetrator gets caught and/or treated by law information. Many things can get people incarcerated such as selling drugs, jaywalking and premeditated murder to name a few. That brings to light the topic of the system of jurisprudence and the criminal justice system. Even though crime continues to rise, our criminal justice system is underfunded, understaffed and most likely overwhelmed. So, if this is the case, what is the purpose of a prison sentence? There are many…

New World Encyclopedia. (2009). Prison. Ed. All American Patriots. 2005 March 1. Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from New World Encyclopedia at   http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Prison

Performance Management in Prisons

Performance-Based Standards Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions. Goals and functions of functional areas Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards. Security; this functional are…

American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44

David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from   https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE  

Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.

Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from   https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php

African-Americans Receive Longer Jail Sentences

Selling in public obviously can result in an arrest far easier than selling in a dorm, or a bar, or a workplace, as whites tend to do. Police can stop a black man on the street and frisk him without a warrant. And so if African-Americans are far more likely to be selling crack in the open air, and crack sales result in far longer jail sentences than powder cocaine sales, there is at least part of the answer as to why African-Americans serve longer sentences in some cases. A ashington Post analysis of 79,000 federal sentences between the years 1993 and 1995 (referenced in Jet Magazine) reflects that "Blacks received 2% longer jail terms than whites" nationally, and in the District of Columbia Blacks received sentences that were 12% longer than whites (Jet Magazine). Meantime, in the publication Sentencing Law and Policy (a participant in the law Professor Blogs…

Contexts. "Black/White Disparities in Prison Sentences." Sociological Images. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from   http://contexts.org  .

Doege, David. "Drug Sentences Worse For Blacks." Journal Interactive. Wisconsin State

Journal. (2007).

Jet. "Federal Prison Study Reveals That Black Defendants Still Get Longer Sentences.

Health Care Reform Recommendations to

On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average American is that health insurance premiums are cost prohibitive for the middle-class, but being uninsured can bankrupt a family forced to deal with even a minor catastrophic illness. Therefore, a national health insurance program has to be part of the solution. However, one cannot overlook the role that unpaid medical bills and exorbitant malpractice premiums also play in the modern healthcare crises. As a result, the solution must include a way to reduce malpractice premiums through tort reform, and a way to reduce the percentage of medical bills that go unpaid. The proposed three-prong approach would tackle all of those issues, without forcing any unwilling person to participate in a nationalized healthcare program. orks Cited American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability…

American Tort Reform Association. "Medical Liability Reform." ATRA Issues. 2007.

American Tort Reform Association. 6 Nov. 2008 http://www.atra.org/show/7338.

Kershaw-Staley, Tracy. "Miami Valley Hospital Files Lawsuit Over Unpaid Medical Bills."

Dayton Business Journal. 2008. Dayton Business Journal. 6 Nov. 2008   http://dayton.bizjournals.com/dayton/stories/2008/01/07/story5.html  .

argument in favor of the life in prison over execution

The death penalty is a vestige of the past, a time when vengeance and retribution were the standard means of dealing with transgressions or deviance. While there are significant drawbacks with the American penal system and corrections institutions, a life term in prison is a far more reasonable sentence for the most heinous of crimes than capital punishment is. There are several reasons why the death penalty plays no role at all in a civilized democracy, and why it also threatens to undermine the very foundations of Constitutional law. The worst criminals—those who prove themselves incapable of rehabilitation or reform due to their psychological constitutions—can be effectively dealt with in prison, promoting public safety without putting at risk the integrity of the criminal justice system. One of the main reasons to avoid using the death penalty is the possibility of false confessions and wrongful convictions. DNA evidence overturns convictions often…

Social Reform

Economic Changes in the North and Social Reform Movements The years between 1820 and 1860, also known as the pre-Civil War years or the antebellum years, were the most chaotic in American History (Dudley 2003). During this time, significant changes took place in the United States. The nation saw a transformation from a largely undeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen into an urbanized and economic powerhouse. This essay will explore how these economic changes in the North are linked to the social reform movements of the time. The North was completely transformed by the Market Revolution, that is, a shift from an agricultural-based economy to one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services (Dudley 2003). A contributing factor was a manufacturing boom in the North which was created by the invention of the cotton gin. Infrastructure began to improve along with modes of transportation, such as the…

Dudley, William. American History by Era: Antebellum America 1784-1850. New York: Cengage Gale, 2003.

How proper jobs and'skills training can help criminal justice reform

Accordingly, your task will be to identify a topic of interest, and write a paper on your ideas for reforming it for the better. Examples of topics include (but are not limited to): Foster Care, Child abuse prevention, school safety, community safety for juveniles, Programs for Violent juveniles, juvenile detention, State or Federal statutes, etc.Job and skills training are two of the most important elements that require emphasis within the criminal justice reform system. American society is predicated on a system of capitalism whereby individual citizens are rewarded based on the skills they can provide to others. Those with skills that are rare and in high demand can command higher salaries as companies compete to utilize their skills. Math, science, and technology positions typically leverage this concept as their skills are highly specialized and are therefore highly demanded within growing industries. This is in stark contrast to the fast-food industry,…

Ethics of Prison Novel Punishments

Ethics Policy Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment. Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…

Anderson, J.F., & Dyson, L. (2000). Alabama Prison Chain Gangs: Reverting to Archaic Punishment to Reduce Crime and Discipline Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 9.

Haley, S. (2013). "Like I Was a Man": Chain Gangs, Gender, and the Domestic Carceral Sphere in Jim Crow Georgia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 39(1), 53-77.

Guttierrez, A. (2013). Sufferings peculiarly their own: the thirteenth amendment, in defense of incarcerated women's reproductive rights, 15 Berkeley J.Afri.-Am. L. & Pol'y.

Banks, C. (2004) Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. SAGE.

Since the Middle of the 20th Century Prisons and Other Corrections Issues

corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…

Christianson, S. (n.d.). Prisons: history. Retrieved online:   http://law.jrank.org/pages/1786/Prisons-History.html  

"History of American Corrections," (n.d.). In Corrections: A Text/Reader. Retrieved online:   http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26034_1.pdf  

"History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," (n.d). Retrieved online:   http://www.preceden.com/timelines/23091-history-and-development-of-corrections-1700-present  

Mackenzie, D.L. (2001). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century. Retrieved online:   https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf

Affirmative Action Why We Need to Reform

Affimative Action: Why We Need to Refom It It is widely believed that the Ameican society is a "melting pot" whee membes of acial, ethnic, eligious, and sexual minoities eventually mold into the mainsteam, becoming full-fledged citizens of the county. The eality, howeve, is much moe complicated. While it is tue that Ameica offes many oppotunities to all its citizens, thee is a histoy of discimination against minoity goups that affects the Ameican society even today. Afican-Ameicans wee confined to the shackles of slavey fo thee hunded yeas and fo anothe hunded yeas of institutionalized discimination, while othe minoity goups and women had to stuggle had to win civil ights and make the Ameican society moe egalitaian. The Ameican society has pogessed to the point whee most citizens believe that eveyone should be entitled to equal ights egadless of one's ace, colo, gende, ethnicity, o eligion. And it is because…

references in Black and White. New York: Routledge.

films may have in common are performers, directors or subject matter. The films, The Shawshank Redemption, The Green Mile and the Hurricane, have several things in common. All three films follow the results of men wrongly convicted of murder. Two of the films, The Shawshank Redemption and The Green Mile, were adapted from original works of the same author, Stephen King. They also were directed by the same person, Frank Darabont. In addition, all three films share something else. They are all films about individuals who have been judged because of the way they look. In The Green Mile, John Coffey, played by Michael Clarke Duncan, is on death row after being found guilty of murdering two little white girls. The Green Mile is the name given to Coal Mountain Louisiana State Penitentiary's death row. Coffey, a black man, was found with the broken bodies of the two dead girls…

Berardinelli, James. "The Green Mile." 1999. May 2, 2005 .

Berardinelli, James. "The Hurricane." 1999. May 2, 2005 http://movie-reviews.colossus.net/movies/h/hurricane.html>.

Berardinelli, James. "The Shawshank Redemption." 1994. May 2, 2005 .

Ebert, Roger. "The Green Mile." December 10, 1999. May 2, 2005 .

Treatment of Prisoners in the U S Continues to Be Cruel

Evolution of Prison Life hat were prisons like, how were prisoners treated and classified through American history -- including prison environments in the last few years? This paper delves into those topics and provides the available literature that validates the points to be made in this essay. The History of Prisons and Prisoner Life in America According to author and Professor Jack Lynch, prisons were among the very first public buildings when settlers began to populate and develop the New orld. And there were few long-term punishments that were meted out, and among those were individuals convicted of being "debtors" (Lynch, 2008). The problem with putting the poor in prison because they couldn't pay their debts was that "…they could never earn the money they owed"; but it wasn't until the 1830s that the U.S. began to "…abolish debtor's prisons" (Lynch, 3). Instead of being imprisoned, convicted criminals were forced…

American Civil Liberties Union. (2013). Prison Conditions. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from   https://www.aclu.org  .

Austin, J., and Hardyman, P.L. (2004). Objective Prison Classification: A Guide for Correctional Agencies. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.jfa-associates.com.

Lynch, J. (2008). Cruel and Unusual Prisons and Prison Reform. History.org. Colonial Williamsburg. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from   http://www.history.org  .

Schwirtz, M. (2014). Mental Illness and Violence Rise at a Vast Jail. The New York Times.

Santos Reyes Is Sentenced to

The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law has led to various unusual circumstances that have attracted national attention, especially those cases that send third-time offenders to prison for 25 years or more for simple, non-violent, victimless crimes, such as in the case of Santos Reyes in 1998. Despite the controversy and negative consequences, the Supreme Court upheld the Three Strikes Law, saying that it stopped short of constituting "cruel and unusual punishment." The Three Strikes Law had the intention of limiting recidivism. However, numerous studies suggest that declines in recidivism have been negligible. This is another unintended consequence of the Three Strikes Law; the general failure to curb third offenses. Violent crimes have dropped in urban areas in California, but those declines are in line with declines in…

PA: Mason Crest Publishers.

Tyler, T. (1997). Three Strikes and You're Out, but Why? The Psychology of Public Support

for Rule Breakers. Law & Society Review, vol. 31, 2, pp. 23-246.

Fiscal Impact of the Maryland Budgetary Crisis

Maryland Prison System Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners. The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…

Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8

  http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/prisons/Estelle_v_Gamble.htm  

  http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/inmaterev.html

Business Social Responsibilities in a

Likewise, public policies ranging from immigration to the war on drugs and the de-institutionalization of persons with mental illness also have a substantial impact on local corrections (Stinchcomb and McCampbell, 2008). The key to running a successful correctional institution is building an organization that is capable of good strategy execution. These types of facilities have a social responsibility not only to the prisoners that they house but also to the community in which they are located. They way in which they can do this is to make sure that the employees within the facility are prepared to deal with they things that are going to go on within the facility walls. The overall goal of a correctional facility is to rehabilitate inmates into socially responsible citizens that can be returned to society in order to be productive members. The occurrence of doing jail time can be life changing for those…

Corporate Social Responsibility. (2010). Retrieved July 28, 2010, from As you Sow Web site;

http://www.asyousow.org/csr/

Wang, Zhixin. (n.d.). Prison Enterprise Financial Management Innovation in the Context

of China's Prison System Reform. Retrieved July 28, 2010, from Web site:

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…

Works cited:

Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)

Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)

Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)

Better ways to house long term prisoners

Confinement There is little argument, at least in general, that people that commit wrongful acts and crimes should be punished for what they have done. One of the common methods used to punish people for committed crimes is confinement in jail and/or prison. However, there are many people that suggest or assert that confinement has wide-ranging and long-lasting effects on the people that are subjected to it. They assert that this happens to the point that the method is counterproductive and just makes a bad situation worse in terms of whether the person will recidivate, how/when they will transition back to life outside of prison and mental health concerns in general. hile people that do wrong should obviously be punished to some degree, the possible and perceived effects on confinement should give people pause before they act like they know what the best answer and methods happen to be. Analysis…

Gawande, Atul. "Is Long-Term Solitary Confinement Torture?."The New Yorker, 2009,   http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/03/30/hellhole  .

Kerman, Piper. Orange Is The New Black. New York, Spiegel & Grau, 2010,.

Travis, Jeremy et al. The Growth Of Incarceration In The United States: Exploring Causes And Consequences. National Academies Press, 2014,.

Social Change Pushed by Transcendentalists

Transcendentalists Transcendentalism emerged in early 19th century. It is believed that Ralph Waldo Emerson who denied that he was a transcendentalist started transcendentalism. Amongst his peers, he was seen as the pioneer of American transcendentalism. Emerson has criticized various things in his essay especially regarding the Unitarian church. Other key transcendentalists were Henry David Thoreau, Thomas Parker, Amos Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, James Freeman Clark, and Mary Moody Emerson. Ralph Emerson urged Americans to be themselves and searching for inspiration from Europe. He aimed at encouraging people to think openly and search for answers from nature and art. Emerson held on to the belief that people were naturally good, and they all had limitless potential. Emerson was totally against slavery, but was unwilling to speak up about it initially. Eventually in 1844, he began taking an active role in slavery opposition. Thoreau pushed for simple living and encouraged people to…

Pennsylvania Correctional System vs Auburn Correctional System

Corrections Pennsylvania Correctional System VS Auburn Correctional System Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania Correctional System and the Auburn Correctional System. What correctional system most closely explains our modern day prisons? Why? The Pennsylvania Correctional System was one of the first correctional systems created in the new nation of America. It was instituted during the 18th century. At the time, it was felt that "the solution to the disorder and corruption in most prisons ...lay in complete separation of each inmate for his or her entire sentence, a system which had been tried occasionally in England but was always abandoned because of costs and inadequate prison structures" (Johnston 2012). The philosophy of the Pennsylvania System was heavily influenced by the Quakerism of the state, which stressed the need for penitential reflection as a way of repenting and establishing a closer relationship between the inmate and God. "The system of 24-hour separation…

Both sides of the wall. (2012). Correction History. Retrieved:

http://www.correctionhistory.org/auburn&osborne/brochure2.htm

Johnston, Norman. (2012). Prison reform in Pennsylvania. The Prison Society. Retrieved:

  http://www.prisonsociety.org/about/history.shtml

Quality TV Some Critics Might

Quality TV generates interest about social problems Quite often, fictional TV programs can raise national consciousness and awareness about social problems. Through fiction, viewers care about people far away because problems and issues are personalized and humanized. For example, the HBO program Oz about life in prison has generated compassion about the fate of incarcerated individuals and motivated calls for prison reform in a way that seeing someone in handcuffs on the nightly news cannot. The Sopranos was not simply a high-quality TV drama, its location in a suburban community also forced viewers to think more critically about their daily lives, like the lies, pain, and murder that lay behind the closed doors of affluent suburban New Jersey. The use of violence in these shows is designed to accurately depict life Quality TV is cinematic Violence has become part of the cinematic vocabulary, and modern television dramas with legitimate aspirations…

Preventing Crime Will Be More Effective Than

Preventing Crime Will Be More Effective Than ehabilitation Pennsylvania Preventing Crime May Be More Effective Than ehabilitation This paper reviews Pennsylvania policymakers approach to crime. In particular the researcher explores the idea that it is better to prevent crime than merely rehabilitate criminals. Once released, most criminals return to a life of crime. ecent research in Pennsylvania State however, reveals that crime may be prevented if rehabilitative measures begin at the juvenile level. If at-risk youths are identified at an early age, there is a greater chance that they can be rehabilitated to become contributing members of society rather than criminals engaged in an endless cycle of violent criminal activity. Introduction There are few things that make a difference in one's life than the values and morals one learns as a child. Self-sufficiency is something that is taught, not necessarily something a child instinctually learns when they are born. Criminal…

House Hearing. (March 2002). "Innovative Approaches to Preventing Crime and Rehabilitating

Youth and Adult Offenders." House Hearing, 107 Congress, From the U.S. Government

Printing Office, Serial No. 107-165. August 3, 2011:   http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-107hhrg85124/html/CHRG-107hhrg85124.htm  

Pennsylvania Public Safety Policy Solutions, Pew Center on the States Public Safety

Prisoner Re-Entry Into Society

Prisoner Reentry Recommendations to Hillary Clinton Regarding Prisoner Re-Entry into Society Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the minds and lives of voters. However, with every passing year the importance of this topic becomes more evident. Since the eighties, every passing year has brought more pressure for harsher and longer imprisonment and more streamlined mandatory sentencing rules. This has not only resulted in an exploding prison population, but also in a drastic increase in the number of prisoners re-released into communities. Additionally, the push towards more punitive measures has decreased educational opportunities in prisons and the availability of rehabilitation programs. This means that released prisoners are increasingly unable to reintegrate into their communities, increasingly prone to recidivism, and increasingly violent in each release and re-capture cycle. Even the conservative ush administration has recognized the threat posed by unprepared prisoner…

Banks, Gabrielle. "Learning Under Lockdown." Colorlines, NCM 2004 Award Winner, Nov 28, 2004.

Center on Crime, Communities and Culture. Research Brief: Education as Crime Prevention, Sept, 1997.

Human Rights Watch. "No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons." Archived at:   http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/prison/  

Petersilia, Joan. "CHALLENGES OF PRISONER REENTRY AND PAROLE IN CALIFORNIA" California Policy Research Center Brief Series, June 2000. Archived at:   http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/parole.html

Punishment it Is Interesting to

Part Two Question It is possible that the debate about the justifications for punishment has been seriously confused about the tacit assumption that the justifications for punishment that makes sense in small-scale family environments also make sense in the larger-scale of the impersonal criminal justice system. In the family-setting, a vast majority of the power of punishment comes from the fact that the person being punished feels that they have disappointed people that they love. In fact, children frequently apologize to their parents for wrongdoing, even if the behavior being punished was something that did not directly harm their parents; for example, the hitting of a peer. Furthermore, when children hide their wrongdoing, they oftentimes do so to avoid parental disappointment, rather than to avoid a specific punishment. How many people, as adults, remember specific non-abusive punishments? On the other hand, how many adults recall specific moments when their parents…

Feinberg, Joel. The Expressive Function of Punishment.

Martinson, Robert. The Paradox of Prison Reform.

Women in Policing

Women in Policing women's initial police work followed work in prisons Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison eform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging as police officers, but rather on women in prisons, and women who were employed by prisons to work with female inmates. On page 19, Freedman explains that in the late 19th Century, "sexual ideology began to suggest that purity came naturally to women, in contrast to men, who had to struggle to control their innate lust." It was argued by "influential Victorian authorities" that women did not have an appetite for sex, but rather they just went through the motions to have children. This attitude laid the groundwork for the vicious hatred society had for "impure women" who had the capacity "to unleash not just male sperm, but more importantly, the social disintegration that sexuality symbolized" (20). And so, the "fallen…

Freedman, Estelle B. (1981). Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Schulz, Dorothy Moses. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Segrave, Kerry. (1995). Policewomen: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland

Open and Closed System Models in Criminal

open and closed system models in criminal justice. Specifically it will define open and closed system models of organizations and explain why it is important that the criminal justice professional should know the differences between these models. It will also provide a specific organizational example of each type of organization, one for open systems and one for closed systems, and describe how these organizations meet the criteria of either the open or closed system perspective. There are vast differences in management and outcome between open and closed system models in organizations, and these differences are especially important to the criminal justice system. An open system allows for change and growth, while a closed system is less flexible and far more bureaucratic. The open and closed ideas of system models in organizations were originated by organizational experts obert L. Kahn and Daniel Katz in the 1960s. There are three basic system…

Ciarkowski, Arthur A. "8 Influencing Structure: From Hierarchy to Chaos." How Public Organizations Work: Learning from Experience. Ed. Bellavita, Christopher. New York: Praeger, 1990. 111-122.

Hartmann, Francis and Charles Wellford. "Panel III Changing Nature of Criminal Justice System Responses and Its Professions." U.S. Department of Justice. 1998. 10 June 2005.

http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/reports/98Guides/lblf/panel3d.htm  

Roeckelein, Jon E. Dictionary of Theories, Laws, and Concepts in Psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Goals of Corrections the Objective

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment. RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…

MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at   http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm  

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at   http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387  .

Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at   http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm  .

Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.

Correction System in the United States the

Correction System in the United States The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and government-operated institution however, in recent years the prison system in the United States has become privatized and this has created a new paradigm in terms of housing prisoners under the present judicial system's orders. If It Is roken The prison system received a wake-up call in the Spring of 2011 due to a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the California prison system was required to reduce the inmates in its overcrowded prison system by 30,000 individuals. The court ruled that the California state's system was "incompatible with the concept of human dignity." (Thomas and eckel, 2011) The United States is reported to have roughly 2 million individuals incarcerated in local, state, and federal jails or prisons, which equals "the…

Mikkelsen, Randall (2007) U.S. Prison System: Costly and Harmful Failure. Reuters News. 19 Nov 2007. Retrieved from:   http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/19/us-usa-prisons-idUSN1841666120071119  

Private Prisons are Back (2012 ) Corrections. Retrieved from:   http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm  

Thomas, Cal and Beckel, Bob (2011) Jailbroken: 5 Ways to Fix the U.S.A.'s Prisons. 13 Jul 2011. Retrieved from:   http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2011-07-13-prison-jail-system-america_n.htm

How the Criminal Justice System Works

Criminal Justice System After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain. Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…

BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e

CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN:   http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html  

Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments:   http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/  

Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled:   http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html

Illegal Drug Use Implications

Drugs and Behavior What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage? Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus…

OHSINC. (N.d.). How to Beat a Drug Test. Retrieved from OHSINC:   http://www.ohsinc.com/info/how-to-cheat-a-drug-test/  

The Economist. (2015, July 16). President Obama for the prisoners. Retrieved from The Economist:   http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform  

The White House. (N.d.). Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from Office of National Drug Control Policy: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse

Unresolved Stress Corrections Unmitigated and Unresolved

Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be supposed. While the psychological demands of work, along with time pressures and conflicts, are found to be significant sources of risk in many of our studies, work that is demanding (within limits) is not the major source of risk. The primary work-related risk factor appears to be lack of control over how one meets the job's demands and how one uses one's skills. In many cases, elevation of risk with a demanding job appears only when these demands occur in interaction with low control on the job. Other research has shown that regular physical exertion has positive effects on cardiovascular health in many situations (although physical hazards can of course pose major health threats beyond our stress perspective). Thus, in our…

Black, S. (2001, October). CORRECTIONAL EMPLOYEE Stress & Strain. Corrections Today, 63, 83.

Black's work demonstrates a great introduction to stress in general, as it applies to the individual and community as well as specific information about stress in the field of corrections. This article is an excellent introduction to the material of this research as well as to a better understanding of how stress is playing out all over the field of corrections.

Devito, P.L. (1994, July). The Immune System vs. Stress. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 123, 27.

Devito offers a great description of the history of stress, its definitions and the fundamental and seminal research and ideology that applies to stress. The mind/body connection is traced through this work to give the reader and researcher a good idea of the holistic expression of unresolved stress in one's health and well-being.

Enforcement of Psychology Treatment for the Mentally Ill

Psychology Treatment For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…

Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.

Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.

Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.

Legal Definitions Miranda Rule -- Prohibits the

Legal Definitions Miranda Rule -- Prohibits the introduction of any testimonial evidence elicited from criminal suspects while under arrest or in police custody unless police first advise them of their constitutional rights to remain silent, refuse to answer questions, and to be represented by an attorney before beginning any custodial interrogation. I have heard this term used frequently in television crime programs. Prosecutor -- Is an attorney employed by the state whose responsibility it is to file criminal charges against individuals arrested by police and charge with crimes; typically, prosecutors represent the state at the criminal trial. The context in which I am most familiar with prosecutors is in their portrayal in television programs about criminal justice and news reports about criminal trials. Pretrial Release Program -- Is a system of releasing criminal defendants from custody until their trials to reduce jail overcrowding; in principle, bond is one form of…

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Research Paper

Criminal Justice

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a…

prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems…

Prison Overcrowding Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections…

Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help Control the State's Budget Problems This paper argues that inmates at State prisons should be having premature releases from prisons so…

Williams...consistently denied killing Owens. March 11, 1979 --...three of Williams' friends -- all with criminal histories and motivation to lie, Williams says -- testify that he confessed to the…

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime The United States constitution…

Annotated Bibliography

Aleinikoff, . (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795 his paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of…

Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check…

Define the Problem The defined and existing problem is going to vary in scope and definition depending on who is doing the defining. However, there are some clear and…

Business - Management

In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and…

Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent? For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the…

Article Review

Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically…

These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003). The problems ex-offenders…

Prison Architecture Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for…

Prison Life for Inmates Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a…

Federal Bureau of Prisons While most people seem to agree that prisoners should have access to basic healthcare while incarcerated, there is tremendous variation about what type of healthcare…

The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison…

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In…

In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium,…

Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison…

Privatizing Prison Administration Description of the Financing System. Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay…

Sports - Women

Nineteenth Century Reform The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were…

Business - Law

Tort reform has been on the lips of politicians and attorneys for many years. In the United States, it is a contentious political issue with strong feelings on both…

Domestic Prison Gender oles and Marriage The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" James Thurber's "The Secret Life…

judicial reform is based on the idea that a total or partial political reformation of the judiciary can be performed as a stage in a much grander reform concept…

Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw…

Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals…

5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66) The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of…

Ethics Prison Purpose of a Prison Sentence Crimes are committed daily in our modern day society and can be loosely defined as any action, that by society's standard, equals…

Performance-Based Standards Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at…

Selling in public obviously can result in an arrest far easier than selling in a dorm, or a bar, or a workplace, as whites tend to do. Police can…

Research Proposal

On the contrary, a comprehensive medical care solution that tackles the main issues driving up health care costs in America is possible. The main problem experienced by the average…

The death penalty is a vestige of the past, a time when vengeance and retribution were the standard means of dealing with transgressions or deviance. While there are significant…

American History

Economic Changes in the North and Social Reform Movements The years between 1820 and 1860, also known as the pre-Civil War years or the antebellum years, were the most…

Accordingly, your task will be to identify a topic of interest, and write a paper on your ideas for reforming it for the better. Examples of topics include (but…

Law - Constitutional Law

Ethics Policy Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995…

corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of…

Affimative Action: Why We Need to Refom It It is widely believed that the Ameican society is a "melting pot" whee membes of acial, ethnic, eligious, and sexual minoities…

films may have in common are performers, directors or subject matter. The films, The Shawshank Redemption, The Green Mile and the Hurricane, have several things in common. All three…

Evolution of Prison Life hat were prisons like, how were prisoners treated and classified through American history -- including prison environments in the last few years? This paper delves…

Capstone Project

The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law…

Maryland Prison System Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a…

Likewise, public policies ranging from immigration to the war on drugs and the de-institutionalization of persons with mental illness also have a substantial impact on local corrections (Stinchcomb and…

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many…

Corrections/Police - Prisons

Confinement There is little argument, at least in general, that people that commit wrongful acts and crimes should be punished for what they have done. One of the common…

Transcendentalists Transcendentalism emerged in early 19th century. It is believed that Ralph Waldo Emerson who denied that he was a transcendentalist started transcendentalism. Amongst his peers, he was seen…

Corrections Pennsylvania Correctional System VS Auburn Correctional System Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania Correctional System and the Auburn Correctional System. What correctional system most closely explains our modern day…

Quality TV generates interest about social problems Quite often, fictional TV programs can raise national consciousness and awareness about social problems. Through fiction, viewers care about people far away…

Preventing Crime Will Be More Effective Than ehabilitation Pennsylvania Preventing Crime May Be More Effective Than ehabilitation This paper reviews Pennsylvania policymakers approach to crime. In particular the researcher…

Prisoner Reentry Recommendations to Hillary Clinton Regarding Prisoner Re-Entry into Society Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the…

Part Two Question It is possible that the debate about the justifications for punishment has been seriously confused about the tacit assumption that the justifications for punishment that makes…

Women in Policing women's initial police work followed work in prisons Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison eform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging…

open and closed system models in criminal justice. Specifically it will define open and closed system models of organizations and explain why it is important that the criminal justice…

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or…

Correction System in the United States The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and…

Criminal Justice System After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately…

Drugs and Behavior What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage? Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition…

Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be…

Psychology Treatment For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local…

Legal Definitions Miranda Rule -- Prohibits the introduction of any testimonial evidence elicited from criminal suspects while under arrest or in police custody unless police first advise them of…

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List Of 12 Great Argumentative Essay Topics About Prisons

An argumentative essay requires students to establish a position on a given or selected topic. They should investigate different aspects of the topic, collect evidence and details to support their position, and write a convincing piece of text.

What Topics to Consider for Your Argumentative Essay

You should choose an essay topic that you are familiar with and that appeals to the reader’s emotions. The following 12 great ideas are worth considering:

How to Organize Your Writing Process Easily

Planning is important when you are working on your essay, so take your time to choose the right topic, collect evidence, and outline your thoughts. However, to complete your assignment before the due date, you should finish your first draft quickly, cite sources while you write, and proofread your paper for a particular type of mistakes at a time, e.g. read the work and search for grammar mistakes, then check the spelling, and so on.

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The Importance of Prison Reform Essay

Essay about america’s prisons and their effects on society.

“In 2007, one percent of American adults were in prison, which is by far the highest incarceration rate in the world.”( Trachtenberg, B., 2009). Why? Trachtenberg believes it’s because prisons do not rehabilitate people. A violent criminal is sent to prison because he is a threat to society. He is supposed to serve a lengthy term so that he will learn his lesson and become a productive member of society. During his time there he is supposed to learn to appreciate work by cooking, doing laundry, or some other prison job. While he is there he can receive his GED so that he can get a job when he gets out. This plan has good intentions but it has been proven to be ineffective.

Prison Reform Outline

Those criminals need to be corrected and helped, and then brought back into their societies and Imprisonment is thus not meant to be an avenue for inhumane treatment for members of the community who err in their behavior.

The United States Prison System Essay

The United States prison system struggles eminently with keeping offenders out of prison after being released. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, more than third of all prisoners who were arrested within five years of released were arrested within six months after release, with more than half arrested by the end of the year (Hughes, Wilson, & Beck, 2001). Among prisoners released in 2005 in 23 states with available data on inmates returned to prison, about half (55 percent) had either a parole or probation violation or an arrest for a new offense within three years that led to imprisonment (Durose, Cooper, & Snyder, 2014). Why are there many ex-offenders going back to prison within the first five years of release? Are there not enough resources to help offenders before or/and after being released from prison.

The Problem Of Prison Reform

Prison reform is an issue that has been a concern for a long period of time. The problems that Angela Davis brings up throughout her book are only some of the problems with the prison system. Whether it be the influence of corporations on prisons and legislators, the role that racism plays, or the safety of the prisoners. Her solution to these problems is the abolition of jails and prisons by creating policies that will reduce the number of people sent to prison. This would destroy the prison system as the main concept of punishment. The ways that she aims to do this is by providing physical and mental care to everybody, demilitarize schools, and change the justice system to one based around reconciliation rather than retribution. I find myself to agree with many of the concerns that she lists and believe her argument to be somewhat convincing. However, I do not believe that a complete abolition of prisons is what is necessary to fix the prison system. This paper will explore the concerns that she voices in her argument, how convincing I find them, and what I believe to be the flaws in her conclusion.

Prison Reform in America

It is interesting to see how our prison came about. Through the years and centuries we have been trying to find the right way to deal with criminals. Yes, criminals where dealt with brutally and maybe too brutal for the crimes committed. Today someone can commit murder and get 25 years. I don't feel that during these 25 years the criminal will really get reformed. How many prisoners get out of prison and go back to society as normal people. It seems to me that they usually have been in prison for so many years they have trouble going back to society. The only way they know how to live is how they lived in prison. In prison they get a bed to sleep in, food and clothing and they don't have to work hard for it. So they are quick to commit another crime to go back there. Seeing this happen over and over I feel that you really can't reform our prisoners or the prisons they are locked up in. In Prays essay we

The Purpose of Prisons Essay

Prisons not only rehabilitate, but they also deter people from going to prison. The fear of going to prison is a great deterrence for a perspective criminal. Hard life styles along with loss of freedom tend to push the criminal away from the chance of being incarcerated. Numbers show that there are fewer rapes, and fewer murders, each year, all an obvious product of prison deterrence. After all, if a person has a friend who just got out of jail, and hears all of the war stories, that person would surely not want to go to prison and end up like his friend. By making life in prison hard, the prison is doing a great job in getting the word out. Prison is no joke! They are doing their job in deterring criminals from wanting to enter the gates of hell.

History of Prison Reform in the US Essay

When people think of reform movements, they often look for one key sign, and ask one key question of whether that the reform was a success. Did the reform create a lasting change in the way people view the institution that was reformed? All the great reformation movements, from Horace Mann and his education reforms, to Martin Luther, and the Protestant Reformation, to the civil rights movement, all created lasting change in the minds of the average person. One other reform, often overlooked historically is the Prison Reform movement. As the world shifted from 18th to 19th century ways of life, many key aspects of life underwent tremendous change. As the United States gained their independence from Britain and began to shape their own

Essay about Prison Reform In America

In the essay "Prison "Reform" in America," Roger T. Pray points out the much attention that has been devoted to research to help prevent crimes. Showing criminals the errors of their ways not by brutal punishment, but by locking them up in the attempt to reform them. Robert Pray, who is a prison psychologist, is currently a researcher with the Utah Dept. of Corrections. He has seen what has become of our prison system and easily shows us that there is really no such thing as "Prison Reform"

Plaguing The Prison System

The prisons in America seem to cause more problems than assistance in today's society. The country's penal system is overcrowded, expensive, and some argue that is ineffective as well as inefficient. The costs to staff and support these facilities increase dramatically every year. Prisons, which are supposed to be correctional facilities, are currently filled with violence and hostility. These institutions are created to control crime by deterrence, incapacitating criminals, which protects society from potentially dangerous criminals, but it is hard to tell if this is being accomplished.

Is Prison Overcrowding Fixable? Essay

The idea of prison has been around for thousands of years and seems to be an integrated part of the human concept. We remove the people that disrupt society and we put them away or get rid of them. We, as a modern culture,

US Prison System Essay

There are many people who are critical of the US‘s prison sysetm; the idea of locking up those who commit crimes against a society simply to keep them from doing harm. Many say that more rehabilatation is necessary to improve these individuals and, therefore, society as a whole. What are some ways of doing this? Do you agree/disagree with this view and why? Is the prison system currently in place the best option for society? 2 pages, double spaced, 12pt. font.

Reforming Prisons : Reforming The Prison System Essay

With the population of the United States prisons growing every day we need to evaluate if they are doing any good. Personally, I believe that we need to keep our prison system, but we need to take steps in reforming them rather than abolish them altogether. The United States has the highest number of incarcerated people than any other country in the world. We must sit down and look at other countries and see what they are doing different than the United States. In this paper, we will first look at what the prison system in America is like and what we can do to improve upon our prison system. Then, we will also look at the Finland prison systems and see if we can learn anything from them, since they have one of the lowest incarceration and crime rate in the world. We will then look at reforming our prison system or abolishing it. Finally, we will investigate other punishment alternatives other than the prison system that we could use.

Problems with the American Prison System

Throughout history into today, there have been many problems with our prison system. Prisons are overcrowded, underfunded, rape rates are off the charts, and we as Americans have no idea how to fix it. We need to have shorter sentences and try to rehabilitate prisoners back to where they can function in society. Many prisoners barely have a high school education and do not receive further education in jail. Guards need to pay more attention to the well being of the inmates and start to notice signs of abuse and address them. These are just a few of the many problems in our prison systems that need to be addressed.

Essay about The Farce of Prison Rehabilitation

     The idea of sentencing a criminal for a period of time in a prison isn't working, so prisons should focus more on changing their rehabilitation programs. Life in prison should be like the outside world as much as possible, given the fact of imprisonment. Prisoners would be less prepared if the prison environment is artificial and abnormal compared to the outside world they will have to encounter later on. A prisoner also needs to keep family ties. Research in

Prison And The Prison System Essay

For over centuries, the only form of punishment and discouragement for humans is through the prison system. Because of this, these humans or inmates, are sentenced to spend a significant part of their life in a confined, small room. With that being said, the prison life can leave a remarkable toll on the inmates life in many different categories. The first and arguably most important comes in the form of mental health. Living in prison with have a great impact on the psychological part of your life. For example, The prison life is a very much different way of life than what us “normal” humans are accustomed to living in our society. Once that inmate takes their first step inside their new society, their whole mindset on how to live and communicate changes. The inmate’s psychological beliefs about what is right and wrong are in questioned as well as everything else they learned in the outside world. In a way, prison is a never ending mind game you are playing against yourself with no chance of wining. Other than the mental aspect of prison, family plays a very important role in an inmate’s sentence. Family can be the “make it or break it” deal for a lot of inmates. It is often said that “when a person gets sentenced to prison, the whole family serves the sentence.” Well, for many inmates that is the exact case. While that prisoner serves their time behind bars, their family is on the outside waiting in anticipation for their loved ones to be released. In a way, the families

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prison reform essay topics

Prison Reform

Prison Reform In today's society, we are facing many changes. Our own family, neighbors, and countrymen are afraid of many dangers which influence their lives. Although many people have fear which resonates in their consciousness and unconsciousness, the United States has a comparatively low crime rate. Despite this low crime rate, America incarcerates it's citizens five times the rate of Canada and seven times that of most European democracies.(Slambrouck, Paul. 24) Our society needs to be

Prison Reform In America

Prison "Reform" in America In the essay "Prison "Reform" in America," Roger T. Pray points out the much attention that has been devoted to research to help prevent crimes. Showing criminals the errors of their ways not by brutal punishment, but by locking them up in the attempt to reform them. Robert Pray, who is a prison psychologist, is currently a researcher with the Utah Dept. of Corrections. He has seen what has become of our prison system and easily shows us that there is really no such thing

federal prison system, there seems to be no apparent benefits to any parties involved. What is the purpose of federal prisons? Surely not to drain taxpayers in order to provide for faulty rehabilitation, over-population, and authoritative corruption…right? Unfortunately, this seems to be our present standings. Somehow, our government is able to stand by and justify this inadequate system by claiming that this is the cost of upholding safe and secure communities. It seems as though the prison system

Prison Reform in America's Antebellum Era

In the Antebellum Era, America undergos many reforms including a reform in their prison system. Imprisonment had been use rarely to punish criminals. Prisons were commonly used to incarcerate people being accused and awaiting for trials and debtors that had to pay their creditors. They did not want people to run away. Authorities did not used prison sentences for criminals, they enforced fines or inflict physical pain such as branding iron or pillory. Anyone convicted of a serious crime would receive

Prison And Asylum Reform

The prison and asylum reform was the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, and implement an alternative to incarceration, because the prison system wasn’t working as effectively as it could for example prisoners committing the same offense after released and being incarcerated again, and also the fact that the only prisons considered “good” at this time were in Pennsylvania and Europe. Some of the main reasons for this movement was the diversity of

The Importance of Prison Reform

live in many feel that prisons exist to punish, not counsel, offenders. That may be true that Prisons exist for punishment, but they also have an important contribution to make to reducing re-offending by engaging prisoners in rehabilitation programs and purposeful work. Society is flawed in its thinking that by putting criminals in a place away from society we would be better off. To make it worse I am sure that more that 60 percent of Americans are against social reform because they have made

Prison Reform Essay

windowless, lifeless environment for 23 hours a day. For some criminals, this environment is to be endured for years. The issue of prison reform has been a popular and difficult topic in the news the past few years and continues a year after this article was published. In the New York Times article “New York Rethinks Solitary Confinement” The Editorial Board argues that prison reform in the category of isolation is not only necessary but also beneficial in rehabilitating those who have commit crimes. With

Essay On Prison Reform

Prison reform was set up as a way to help ensure that there is always away to make enhancements to the environments inside of the prison facilities as well as the successfulness of the penal system. This reform was set forth to ensure that the offenders were treated fairly and humane. Prison reform over the decades has played a vital role in finding substitutions to incarceration. These substitutions include strategies and curriculums that help to improve an inmates time and safety in an institution

Prison Reform: An Exceptionalized Prison Analysis

question the effectiveness of prison. As to whether or not it really decreases the repetitive criminal offenders ; or just seen as a way to keep our streets “clean”. The criminal justice system and punishment was created to provide a sense of security for the civilians our world. While we throw our people into cages as if they were animals, allowing the mere idea of them to become a faded memory. Which proposes the concept of the true intentions of institutionalized prison reform. John Diiulio Jr and Marc

Attica Prison Riot and Prison Reform

sleep at night, suddenly disappears? This is exactly what happened during and in the after effects of the Attica prison riot of 1971. The riot created an incredibly immense shift and change not only in the conditions of prisons, but also in the security we feel as American citizens both in our penal system and American government. The Attica prison riot brought about a much-needed prison reform in terms of safety and conditions for inmates, which was necessary regardless of the social backlash it created

Punishment: Dorothea Dix's Contribution To Prison Reforms

Prison Reform “…regarded it among their earliest practical necessities to allot a portion of the virgin soil as a cemetery, and another portion as the site of a prison” (Hawthorne). This quote from The Scarlet Letter is actually true. Prisons were among the first buildings built among colonization. The prisons were not for punishment- that was usually done publicly. Punishments fell into the four categories of fines, public shame, physical chastisement, and death. These prisons were usually

The Need For Prison Reform

people were in prison in the United States. Toward the middle of 2013 that number rose to about 2 million ( Lebrer ) . In the 1960s and 1970s there was a high rate of crime that caused the police force to step up, more arrests were made and lengthening sentences which resulted in more inmates (Lebrer) . In 1980 there was 13,400 women in prison and in 1998 there was 84,400 women. In 2004 there was 104, 848 women in prison (“Recidivism”). The numbers have increased a lot since then. Prisons need to be

Prison Reform And Asylums Essay

Prison Reform and Asylums Throughout the 19th century women and many others were trying to improve the conditions in which the criminals were placed. Many tended to try and improve the problem and try to fix it. This influenced the culture during the time of the prison reform dramatically because of the movements of women and others who wanted a change in the prison and asylums. Many died even before going to trial because of the bad conditions the prisons and asylums offered. Some prisons and Asylums

The Pros And Cons Of Prison Reform

Prisons are institutionalized systems that hold people hostage against their will. Many believe that these institutions are fundamental to keep balance within society. Although prison systems are meant to seclude troubled individuals, it should go beyond just containing criminals. The judicial system is responsible for correcting and eliminating future delinquent behavior before they can be effectively situated back into society. In saying this, the court system does not  implement these actions

Prison Reform Research Paper

conditions that Canada’s prisons force its prisoners into, with many people arguing that Canada has created a prison pipeline in which they do not prepare individuals for life outside of prison. Many other countries have implemented prison systems that can properly rehabilitate inmates, yet Canada continues to use outdated practices such as solitary confinement. It is for these reasons that the Canadian prison system requires reform as the current conditions created in prisons are inhumane, they do

Persuasive Essay On Prison Reform

Over the past several decades, the number of prison inmates has grown exponentially. In 1980, prison population had numbers around half a million inmates. A graph of statistics gathered from the U.S. Bureau of Justice shows that between 1980 and 2010, the prison population grew almost five times, topping out at nearly 2.5 million. According to an article in The New York Times, the average time spent in jail by prisoners released in 2009 increased by 36% compared to prisoners released in 1990. Many

History of Prison Reform in the US

When people think of reform movements, they often look for one key sign, and ask one key question of whether that the reform was a success. Did the reform create a lasting change in the way people view the institution that was reformed? All the great reformation movements, from Horace Mann and his education reforms, to Martin Luther, and the Protestant Reformation, to the civil rights movement, all created lasting change in the minds of the average person. One other reform, often overlooked historically

Prison Reform in the United States of America

Prison Reform in The United States of America “It is said that no one truly knows a nation until one has been inside its jails. A nation should not be judged by how it treats its highest citizens, but its lowest ones” (Nelson Mandela, 1994). The United States of America has more people behind bars than any other country on the planet. The prisons are at over double capacity. It cost a lot of money to house prisoners each year. A large number of the prisoners are there because of drug related offenses

This implies that we need to find a solution to this so we can stop this from happening in prisons, and have women get treated better In an article called health care at women's prison to meet terms of settlement, it stated “Having certified people in the prisons to take care of women in prison is what we need. Many officers don't always meet the standards to know how to treat women in prison, so they take advantage of this and do whatever they want.” What this is saying is that we need to find professional

Why The Police Want Prison Reform Essay

by the New York Times, Editorial Board “Why the Police Want Prison Reform” published October 22, 2015. In this article, more than 130 of the top law enforcement officers have come together to stop the prison crisis. With the reform that just passed in October more than 6,000 prisoners who have been serving time have been released. The controversial topic has been presented by the New York Times article, “Why the Police Want Prison Reform”, the author who is not listed build their credibility with

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Prison Reform Essay: The Reasons And Significance

It is a proven fact that once someone from a family is imprisoned, family connections and relations become weaker. This means that every time someone is imprisoned, their family will not necessarily disperse, but grow apart. Prison systems in the United States should be reformed because medical care is lacking, guards are not getting the proper training, and prison programs (for drug rehabilitation, GED/college, and reintegration) are not available or need funding.

Prison reform was started in the early 1840’s by a woman named Dorothea Dix. Dix started this to improve conditions of the mentally ill. This mostly affected the prisoners with mental illnesses and defects. One of the first prison reform groups actually started inside of a prison. An important court case involving prison reform is Hudson v. Palmer. This case was about being harassed and violated with unnecessary shakedowns. To fix the problems, prison reform has reduced recidivism rates by implementing programs for the inmates and the penal system has slowly become more effective. We are still dealing with this problem today due to guards being corrupt and not going by the book, prisons are not being monitored as well as we’d like.

There are a few programs available to prisons that are very beneficial. “To prepare offenders for return to their communities and reduce recidivism, inmates are provided opportunities while incarcerated to address health needs and develop life and work skills. Correctional facilities may offer inmates substance abuse and mental health treatment, and some institutions offer educational classes such as literacy classes, English as a Second Language, parenting classes, wellness education, adult continuing education, and library services.” Prisoners are being released after long periods of time and are not being correctly reintroduced into society, these programs will successfully help inmates reintegrate into society. “In most cases, inmates who do not have a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate must participate in the literacy program for a minimum of 240 hours or until they obtain the GED. Non-English-speaking inmates must take English as a Second Language.” In some cases, prisoners might not be up to par educationally due to maybe a bad upbringing so programs are provided to help them get their GED’s and maybe study another language. This matters because society would want inmates to change so in order to help them do so, programs would help them be more of an abiding citizen. This might reduce the incarceration rate of many families in the United States.

Medical attention in our prisons today are lacking because inmates are not receiving the treatment necessary to help improve their health. In an article based on medical aid in prisons, it states that “Each day, men, women, and children behind bars suffer needlessly from lack of access to adequate medical and mental health care.” Although medical aid is funded, it is not really provided to the ones who need it the most. People are brought in entitled to it yet are not even thought about when incarcerated. “For inmates with chronic or acute medical conditions, the Bureau operates several medical referral centers providing advanced care.” Only the people in dire need get the medical attention that they need, other people they do not take so seriously. This matters because although other inmates that are not in critical condition might not be in such dire need, they can still be in pain and should be cared for no matter what the circumstances. Neglecting inmates would be considered cruel and unusual punishment.

Recidivism is when an ex criminal is reconvicted of further criminal offense. ”More than 65 percent of those released from California’s prison system return within three years”. It is proven that recidivism rates are lowered when attending programs that reintegrate an inmate into society. “According to a report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) about 68 percent of 405,000 prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 were arrested for a new crime within three years of their release from prison.” Without these programs being implemented, recidivism rates will not decrease and would probably increase. Inmates could potentially be imprisoned for a long period of time and with all that time isolated from others, other than when they’re fed, they could possibly lose their sense of communicating. With programs regarding reintegration, people will eventually not need to be trained outside of the prison system but rather inside the prison system.

prison reform essay topics

Management in prisons is enforced by prison guards and they are not doing such a good job at what they are hired to do. “In North Carolina, newly hired prison officers usually get just one week of orientation before they’re put to work.” A big problem in prisons is poor training. Guards are trained to a minimum before actually working inside of a prison. When working inside those prisons with minimal training, the average person would expect problems. Guards are often persuaded to be on the prisoners side because their low sense of morality. Getting hired to become a prison guard is so easy now that even gang affiliated citizens are getting hired and sometimes even supplying inmates with drugs and weaponry. “Despite millions of taxpayers’ dollars spent in the past year to increase safety in prisons and lessen contraband, bad prison guards — some corrupt, some indifferent, some sympathetic to gangs or in gangs themselves — are working to ensure the efforts fall flat, say more than 60 former and current inmates interviewed by The State Media Co. and their advocates.” The employers of these prison guards are obviously not taking their job seriously because they are not running backgrounds on who they are hiring and that’s causing more and more corrupt prison guards to get hired. This is important to prisons because if inmates are getting their weapons from corrupt guards, that means they are responsible for some of the non-corrupt guards death for actually doing what was right and having morals. In the future, if employers start acting now, there would be way less corruptivity in prison systems and less deaths on the prisons guards because then there would be no way of getting weapons unless they take advantage of the prisons safety hazards.

Another thing in need of reform is the cash bail system. People struggle to make bail because they are not as wealthy as the next person. “In the United States, poor defendants often remain in jail because they cannot afford to pay the cash bail, while wealthier defendants go free because they have cash on hand to pay their bail. Because this system is so unfair, some states have already taken steps to eliminate it.” The cash bail system is so flawed that some states have removed it entirely. A lot of the time, real criminals are the ones with the wealth and often make bail but the ones that are falsely incriminated are poor and can not make bail. It is a very unfair system. “Originally, bail was supposed to make sure people return to court to face charges against them. But instead, the money bail system has morphed into widespread wealth-based incarceration.” This is a prime example of how flawed the bail system is. The poor and people of color are usually the targets for who to frame because those are the people who are usually not able to make bail. This is important because pretty soon, criminals are going to be the ones with money and will never be punished for their crimes unless the courts are willing to reform the bail system.

Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it. “When a man named Almighty Supreme Born Allah was held at a Connecticut prison in advance of his trial on drug charges, officials there locked him in solitary confinement and forced him to wear leg irons even as he showered.” In this situation, he was not supposed to be in solitary confinement due to him being a pretrial detainee. They violated his constitutional rights without hesitation and were not really punished for it for using the excuse called “qualified immunity”. “According to evidence and testimony at a federal civil rights trial, far worse things were happening at the prison than inmates strolling around during a lockdown: A mentally ill man on suicide watch hanged himself, gang members were allowed to beat other prisoners, and those whose cries for medical attention were ignored resorted to setting fires in their cells.” Despite inmates not getting the treatment they are entitled to, they are not getting treated by guards and other inmates correctly either. Guards often let inmates bully other inmates for the fun of it. A usual occurrence that happens between inmates is “gassing”. “Gassing” is when one inmate throws their feces at another inmate. This mostly happens when guards let it happen because it usually is not possible without the help of a guard. This is important because making this an often occurrence can maybe lead to the death of an inmate if taken too far. In the long run, prisoner abuse, if reformed, will help taxpayers save money because cases regarding prison abuse are usually won by the inmate and they win compensation or a good settlement.

Although a lot of people might believe drugs are the big issue in the crime region, they are getting the wrong idea. People need to focus on the violent crimes because that is what makes up over half of the prison population. Criminals convicted of a non-drug related crime are getting less harsh punishments because that is not their priority. Most people that are being arrested are being arrested for drug related crimes that are not serious. They are sentenced and placed in prisons and prisons get too crowded due to unnecessary convictions. Instead of letting the real criminals go because of overcrowding, release the ones that are there for a crime that should not be worried about such as possession of a drug.

In conclusion, prison is in need of serious reform because the way the system works is outdated and lacking in morality and prisoners do not deserve the way inmates, guards, and doctors treat them.

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prison reform essay topics

Argumentative Essay: Prison Doesn T Reform People

Dorothea dix: the role of prison reform in america.

Prison reform has been an ongoing topic in the history of America, and has gone through many changes in America's past. Mixed feelings have been persevered on the status of implementing these prison reform programs, with little getting done, and whether it is the right thing to do to help those who have committed a crime. Many criminal justice experts have viewed imprisonment as a way to improve oneself and maintain that people in prison come out changed for the better (encyclopedia.com, 2007). In the colonial days, American prisons were utilized to brutally punish individuals, creating a gruesome experience for the prisoners in an attempt to make them rectify their behavior and fear a return to prison (encyclopedia.com, 2007). This practice may have worked 200 years ago, but as the world has grown more complex, time has proven that fear alone does not prevent recidivism. In the 19th century, Dorothea Dix, a women reformer and American activist, began lobbying for some of the first prison reform movements.

Texas Prison Research Paper

The best way to reintegrate offenders into society is to ensure that each offender has at minimum a high school GED, and a trade that he or she can use to become a functional member of society. At Coffield we offer a number of programs that will help offenders become better members of society after they are released from prison. The biggest program we have is the education department which contains class and testing for the GED program, trade schooling such as welding, horticulture, auto mechanics and college courses provided by Trinity Valley Community College. I have met several inmates that have decided to leave the gang life behind them and better themselves in order to make something out of their lives other than being a criminal the rest of their live and these men have earned a college degree. As a correctional officer, it is a good feeling to look back on an inmate’s life and for him to tell you where he went wrong and for him to take steps in his life to change his future so he isn’t just another

Rehabilitation In The American Prison System

When the American prison system began, it was believed that rehabilitation, the act of restoring one’s character, could be beneficial for criminals to start over. According to Tom Wicker, “The system…began as a reform impulse, the idea that if offenders were isolated, shielded from the public mockery that had accompanied hangings and the stocks, given time to repent, and worked hard, they could be turned away from crime and transformed into useful citizens” (xii). Criminals could become better citizens and have a positive outlook for a future if they worked hard and were secluded from the outside world. Although this idea seems more humane, it did not last long in the prison system because many people believed that any crime committed deserved

The Pros And Cons Of The United States Prison System

The United States Government spends a lot of money($75 billion) on locking people up and helping big businesses than helping prisoners. Many prisoners probably spend hours, days, or probably months in solitary confinement. Once they get out of solitary confinement the prisoners behavior changes like they won’t talk to no one and they just rather be by themselves cause they can’t be around big groups of people cause that 's what solitary confinement does to the mind of people.Haney’s research has shown “that many prisoners in supermax units experience extremely high levels of anxiety and other negative emotions. When released--often without any "decompression" period in lower-security facilities--they have few of the social or occupational skills necessary to succeed in the outside world”. Rehabilitation programs can help prisoners with this disorder and help them out by them getting back their socializing skills back so they can succeed in the outside world. Also programs are a way better way to help prisoners that wanna change their lives for good, so they don 't keep coming back to

Mass Incarceration

In America, the private prison industry was made for necessary profit based off of the management of prisons by large, private companies. In David Shapiro’s insightful report “Banking on Bondage”, he discusses the logistics of the United States prison system, saying “In America, our criminal justice system should keep us safe, operate fairly, and be cost-effective”. Today, the United States imprisons more people than any other nation in the world, including Russia, China, and Iran. Alongside the issues of private prisons, the increasingly apparent problem of mass incarceration has stripped record numbers of American citizens of their freedom, has a minimal effect on public

Rehabilitation In Shawshank's Redemption

Inmates are constantly violated by cellmates and prison guards, both physically and sexually. Violence is often associated with prison gangs and interpersonal conflict. Prison guards are bribable and all kinds of contrabands including weapon, drug, liquor, tobacco and cell phone can be found in inmates’ hands. Crime within the fence is rampant, only counting those with violent act, 5.8 million reports were made in 2014. If the prison is really what it claims to be, shouldn’t prisoners be serving their time with regret and learning to be obedient? On the contrary, they continue to misbehave as the way that had them chained up. Rehabilitating from crime is similar to recovering from drug abuse, the most effective way to cut off from further engagement is to keep anything related out of reach. Yet, the prison has done the opposite, no prisoner can reform under such circumstance. Prison is supposed to put an end to criminal activities but it turns out to be the extension; crime keeps happening in and out of the prison and criminals stay as

Prison System Flawed

The prison system is able to change it just takes the government not being as stubborn. They outlaw the death penalty. If the death penalty was still used the prisons would have about ⅔ of the inmates left then what is has now. As seen here ”people talk about how the death penalty is not a deterrent. Well, we do it so infrequently. Even if you're sentenced to death, you're probably not going to get executed. That's why it's not a deterrent,”(Horn). People don't even see the death penalty as a punishment so people aren't afraid of commiting crimes. With how dangerous prisons are with overcrowding they are just costing more money for providing the medical attention the inmates need. ”There have been any number of reports about overcrowded and dangerous prisons, and while the Commission presented its conclusions and recommendations to the Senate Judiciary Committee last week, it's not clear what - if anything - will come of that,”(Horn). When people get out of prison they are afraid of going back. They don't have a reason to change. Most people don't have a way of even getting a job once there out as stated here, ”I work in a medium security prison in North Carolina that serves young men ages 18 to 25. There is one segment of our population that no program addresses. This is the group that will probably never be able to get a GED, and therefore they do not qualify for many of the programs designed to help with job

Prison Reform Research Paper

In order to do this they need to make new centers to help prisoners inside better themselves. In Alabama prisons may soon shut down 14 of its prisons for overcrowding, neglect, and violence in the state’s correction systems. In the prison St. Clair Holman in Alabama the prison system makes prisoners act different. There is no safety, security or supervision. “We have people being killed, sexually assaulted, raped, stabbed on daily basis at St. Clair, Holman, and multiple facilities; it’s a systemwide problem,” said Charlotte Morrison, a senior attorney at the Equal Justice Initiative (EJI), which represents Alabama prisoner.” Within this quote we see that in St. Clair prison, inmates get raped and stabbed. These are reasons why prisons should be reformed. Prisoners shouldn’t be hurt for whatsoever problems. Conversely, Penal Reform International article suggested different reasons to reform prisons one that stood out to reform the particular prison in Alabama was this, Provide a healthy, safe environment. “Spaces that are filled with sunlight, outside views, therapeutic color schemes and normalized materials, encourage inmates’ participation, reduce stress, incidents and assaults and decrease staff absenteeism.” Considering the fact that prisoners in Alabama are brutally hurting each other in their cells, we can conclude that if prisons provided a safe environment bad

Essay On Incarceration Rate

Incarceration rates have skyrocketed over the last forty years-- which could be interpreted as good or bad. There have been many questions surrounding incarceration directly being linked to a drop in crime rate: both positive and negative. One pair of economical authors, Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner, approached this concept from a mostly-positive outlook: the high incarceration rate was responsible for one-third of the crime drop in the 1990’s (123-124). The authors use high incarceration rate along with innovative police strategies, plummet of the crack market, and aging in the population to make a base argument of reasons for crime drop; however, the main argument they utilize is the legalization of abortions (Levitt and Dubner 120-121,

Summary Of The Documentary The New Asylums

Most mentally ill people live by themselves with no family or friends to take care of them and they are off their medications. The mentally ill come in to prison on non violent offenses such as disturbing the peace, trespassing, etc. After leaving mental hospitals they usually end up on the streets and become homeless. Many psychiatric hospitals have closed down, which the only option left for the mentally ill was to be taken in jails and prisons.

Summary Of A Death In Texas

Society most of time tends to be keen on helping each other. One way we help each other is by allowing inmates, no matter the crime, to join rehab. Steve Earle the author of ‘A Death in Texas’ was in drug rehab at one-point, finished rehab, and got clean of drugs. Earle then wrote about Jonathan Wayne Nobles a man on death row for killing two people. While Nobles was on death row he took drug rehab and got clean of his drug addiction. Allowing Nobles to clear his mind and get better. Earle thought Nobles was rehabilitated and so did a lot of prison workers who knew Nobles his whole prison life. Nobles had a positive impact on a lot of inmates and workers. He also found religion and did some amazing deeds. I think rehab and having positive actions can really change

Benefits Of Incarceration

Incarceration refers to the constitutional deprivation of an offender the capacity to commit crimes by detaining them in prisons. The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any free nation. The U.S incarcerates five times more people than the United Kingdom, nine times more than Germany and twelve times more than Japan (Collier, 2014, p.56). Incarceration has several objectives. One of these is to keep persons suspected of committing a crime under secure control before a court of competent jurisdiction determines whether they are guilty or innocent. Incarceration also punishes offenders by depriving them of their liberty once the court of law has convicted. Moreover, incarceration deters criminals from committing further crimes

Prison Incarceration In America

prisoners seem to not be highly encouraged to change who they are and be better members of society

Private Prison Unemployment

In abuse cases the child or adult needs to be rehabilitated to help them develop. There mental state could become worse in the stressful environment of prison. I feel that if they are not in the proper mind set due to abuse or another tramatic event, prison will make it worse and not better.

Essay On The Difference Between Prison And Jail

This is another reason I believe violence would a occur. Inmates are not treated with respect and like how normal individuals are. They makes them act differently towards others during their incarceration. They have a fraud up because they are well aware of the lack of respect. There is human instinct to protect thyself and that comes out in this situation. For second imagine being in location where you feel uncomfortable because of others. You feel less of. In this case normally you would be tense and ready to jump in case of a sign of aggression.

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