Natural Disasters Essay
Pros And Cons Of Social Media Reports Of A Natural Disaster
The use of social media has rapidly increased within the past decade, making it a prime source of communication for people all around the world. An example of how people are implementing social media is by sharing information before, during, and after the occurrence of natural disasters to keep others informed. Sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram have become tremendously popular in aspects like reporting the news. Most news channels now have apps, blogs, and social media accounts. Though, many people may feel as if the information about disasters being reported is inaccurate due to the source of where someone recorded it from. Overall, social media is a benefit in the concept of disaster awareness because it is the fastest method of communication between billions of people,…
Natural Disasters In Mississippi River Summary
This article wakes up the reader’s perspective of how natural disasters can be steepened by the hubris of politicians in control; they’d rather worry about attracting growth to a city without considering the safety repercussions of its citizens. The article gives specific examples of exactly how the politicians failed the citizens. The disaster of Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana, and the flooding along the Mississippi River, was extremely disastrous to humans and the environment. Freudenburg…
Natural Disasters In Haiti
The writer of the essay above talks a lot about all the natural disasters the the Haitian people endure all the time. They have to deal with deaths and rebuilding their homes. The author makes it sound like maybe the earth is doing these things on purpose to Haiti. I don't think this is true, I think this area is just more prone to natural disaster. The reason I think Haiti is not just a victim to earth's cruelness is because the earth doesn't decide where and when these things are going to…
Canada's Natural Disasters
Milton where I learned about many different disasters from floods to wildfires, gave a presentation on blizzards and am getting ready to participate in the debate with disaster experts from all around the world. From this seminar, I have brought back a lot of knowledge and experience to help prepare us for the future of Canada’s natural disasters and what we can do. During this conference I have attended many seminars and the three which stood out to me were floods, fires and volcanoes about…
Rome's Natural Disasters
During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors, many natural disasters occurred. The Tiber River flooded; famine hit, and the army brought back plague from the East. All of these resulted in a major loss of population and a shortage of military power. Many of the Romans believed that these disasters foreshadowed a worrying future for Rome. This belief was proven by the presence of new problems after Marcus Aurelius died. Marcus Aurelius appointed his own son as his…
Natural Disasters In The Bahamas
magine you're one of the about 1,670,217 tourists who cruise to grand cayman each year, you already have a great cruise booked to an amazing island, however there is still one more thing you need. A great hotel to make your vacation memorable, but since Grand Cayman is brushed or hit by a tropical storm or hurricane about once every 1.68 years and on average, a direct hit from a hurricane once every 5.3 years. However since a lot of people are paranoid, they will think that if they come that…
Natural Disaster Epidemiology Essay
Control (CDC) (2012), disaster epidemiology refers to the use of epidemiology for assessing the short and long term health effects of disaster in order to predict consequences for future disasters. However, it is futile to understand the health effects of disasters outside a concise definition of what actually constitutes natural disasters. To this effect, Watson, Gayer, & Connolly (2007) define natural disasters as catastrophic events of geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric origins such as…
Natural Disasters In Popular Music
When natural disasters are referenced in pop culture, they rarely carry a connotation other than chaos and catastrophe. As soon as someone hears the term “natural disaster”, his mind quickly jumps to an impactful event that somehow represents sorrow, loss, and disorder. These connotative words are especially helpful to musicians who are struggling to find a universal, relatable way to communicate the feelings and emotions in their lives. For this reason, despite the fact that there have been…
Exxon Valdes: A Natural Disaster
David Kamien (2012) describes natural disasters as events that are a direct result from the Earth; to include floods, earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes, viruses, and volcanoes. The example of a natural disaster chosen to be reviewed for this essay is earthquakes. The United States Geological Survey (2016), describes earthquakes as a direct result of stress associated with friction which then releases energy causing an earthquake. there have been two major earthquakes in the United States, the…
The Dust Bowl: A Natural Disaster?
unprecedented importance in American history. Everything from the Industrial Revolution’s transformation of the American infrastructure to the World Wars’ strengthening of American political presence throughout the world have helped propel the United States to the great nation it is today. There is one incident that occurred in the 1930’s, though, that is often overshadowed by the occurrence World Wars and Great Depression; the Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was a massive drought centered on the…
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Natural Disasters and Prevention 10 Pages 2439 Words
We are at a time where our society is able to bring the full force of scientific and technological advances to reduce the number of human tragedy and economic losses due to natural disasters. Although, we must take an integrated and diverse approach to disaster reduction, bringing new emphasis to research on disasters, on pre-disaster planning, and on preparedness. It is up to us to include disaster education and preparedness of the public as well as early warning systems, in which people at risk receive, understand, and act upon the warning information conveyed. Natural Disasters are the consequences or effects of natural hazards. They represent human, property and economic losses and they signify a serious breakdown in sustainability and disruption of economic and social progress. The overwhelming number of dead or seriously injured and homeless people after the occurrence of a natural disaster and the massive amount of money to be spent for reconstruction and rehabilitation equates to a natural disaster. They are nothing else but extreme environmental events that impact human activities. Hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are the most frequents threats, as well as flooding, tornadoes, and droughts, which are also prevalent (UNESCO). Because of these natural disasters there are one million people around the world that die each decade and millions more homeless each year (FEMA). Also, economic damages from natural disasters have tripled in the past 30 years, rising from 40 billion in the 1960s to 120 billio! In order to distinguish the amount of help needed after a natural disaster the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization has separated the amount of damages into three categories: direct, indirect, and secondary effects. Direct effects are the immediate but not necessarily the worst effects on a country. These encompass the lose of property of state, business enterprises and population, damag...
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Natural Disasters Essay for Students in English
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Read Natural Disaster Essay on Vedantu
The planet earth has gone through many changes over these centuries. These changes are majorly due to natural disasters happening throughout time. When we talk about natural disasters, pollution, ozone depletion and global warming are the most common scenarios we witnessed.
Growing industrialisation and exploitation of natural resources have changed the echo system bringing on the verge of imbalance. However, over these decades, humans have also introduced many disaster warning systems helping to predict natural occurrence in advance. You can read more about Natural Disasters on Vedantu.
Different Faces of Natural Disasters
Nature possesses the character of a special balance in which all living beings live together in harmony with their environment. But whenever this balance is disturbed, we see the disastrous form of nature which wreaks havoc upon this world. Natural disasters come in various forms like earthquakes, Tsunami, Storms, Cyclones, droughts etc. These disasters have always occurred throughout history but the current threat of climate change has severely increased its risks. Man has to learn that he cannot control nature and his life should revolve around the conditions present in the environment and not the other way around.
We have tried to change the basic character of the Human-Nature relationship with every metric of development being centred on financial interest and the rise of global consumerism. This way of life promotes greed and has fundamentally made human beings disoriented towards nature. Our festivals celebrate the intrinsic relationship between humans and the environment where we celebrate Mountains, Rivers, and Animals etc. Natural disasters are a reminder that humans must never take the gift of nature for granted and always reciprocate for the resources that we have received from the environment. Clean Air, Clean Water and harmony in the ecosystem is a prerequisite for Human well being.
How to Deal with Natural Disasters?
India, due to its unique geographical character, faces natural disasters every year which cause massive harm to lives and property. Whether it be the floods of Uttarakhand in 2013 or the landslides in Western Ghats of Kerala. The cost of our blind exploitation of natural resources without showing reverence for the delicate balance of Nature has severely harmed us and we must learn lessons from these incidents.
One of the greatest stories of the Indian government in dealing with disaster readiness has been the story of the Indian state of Odisha. Odisha is a coastal state in eastern India that regularly faces cyclones that have caused great harm to the state. To deal with the menace of these cyclones the Odisha Government made an elaborate plan by taking the local communities in confidence and have successfully reduced the number of deaths in Odisha to a very small number which used to be in thousands earlier. Other Indian states should also learn from the experience of Odisha on how to improve disaster preparedness.
Keeping our environment safe and following the right process will help in bringing down the natural disasters. It is vital to learn about them.
FAQs on Natural Disasters Essay for Students in English
1. What are natural disasters increasing?
Over the years, natural disasters have increased. Regular earthquakes, massive flooding, cyclones, etc. have increased. According to the office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) which maintains an emergency disaster database, if a natural disaster kills 10 people, then it leaves 100 people injured. Increase in hydro-meteorological disasters, the combination of natural and man-made factors is leading to an increase in natural disasters.
2. What are the natural disasters that happened in 2020?
From wildfires in the US to locusts attack in India and back-to-back cyclones in India, there are many natural disasters in 2020. According to the Global Catastrophe Recap’s First Half of 2020 report, there were more than 207 natural disasters in just the first six months of 2020, causing \[＄\]75 billion loss globally.
3. What natural disaster is the worst?
Every natural disaster causing the loss of both property and human lives is the worst. Be it the earthquake, wildfire or cyclone; each disaster can be the worst in its sense.
4. What are the causes of natural disasters?
Natural disasters are caused by a number of reasons which may or may not be linked to Human interference. Floods, for example, occur generally because of a sudden increase in water level which cannot be supported by the natural geography of the river, however, it has been observed that floods have also occurred due to human interference like encroachment of river banks, illegal sand mining and obstructions in the natural flow of the river.
5. What are the agencies that deal with natural disasters?
On the National level, Natural disasters are dealt with by the National Disaster Relief Force or the NDRF. The NDRF has its own commissioned force which is highly experienced and trained to deal with situations when a disaster has occurred. Apart from the NDRF, there is also the SDRF which is present in every state. The central and state governments work in coordination during Natural disasters and saving lives along with restoration of normalcy is the primary concern of the relief operations.
6. What are the ways to deal with floods and droughts?
It may sound surprising to some people but India is a unique country where due to its vast geography, we have seen conditions where some parts of the country are facing floods while other parts suffer from drought in the same year. These are especially tough to deal with as the volume of water in floods just cannot be stored and once a region is facing drought, access to water becomes a question of survival. Linking rivers is a very grand scheme which can solve some of our problems but this also needs to be dealt with caution.
7. What can I do to contribute to disaster relief programmes?
The central and state governments carry out various programmes which are directly related to disaster relief work, coordinating with the agencies and donating to these relief operations are some things that we can do as citizens. There are various NGOs that provide relief material to people who are suffering from natural disasters. Creating awareness about such an important issue is also an essential activity. You can learn more about it on Vedantu website and download it in PDF format.
8. Which regions are the most affected by natural disasters in India?
Every part of the country has a unique geographical character and in some way or the other, they face the threat of natural disasters. Bihar and Assam are two such states which face floods on an annual basis, The Himalayan states have a very delicate ecology and save the menace of flash floods and landslides. Maharashtra has a problem of flooding in the Western Ghats while Vidarbha faces drought. Innovative ways must be discovered by states to deal with natural disasters.
Natural Disaster Essay
The Effects Of Natural Disasters
Believe it or not, there are certain parts of the country where natural disasters are just apart of the day-to-day activity. In other words, it’s something residents are familiar with. On the contrary, natural disasters are events that can cause other residents to experience traumatic stress according to the Ohio University. Throughout the West Coast, for example, there are earthquakes. The East and Gulf coast, on the other hand, experience hurricanes. Then throughout the heartland of our country
Occurrences Of Natural Disaster Or Man-Made Disaster
literature review Introduction Occurrences of natural disaster or man-made disaster have increased this last decade thus there is a constant need to provide humanitarian support to population affected by such disasters. Means of communications are vital to manage rescues operation during down time. However, in worst case scenario most of the infrastructures are getting damaged. Therefore, it is essential to restore communications within the disaster zone. This literature review is divided in three
The Negative Effects Of Natural Disasters
Distressing natural disasters, such as hurricane Irma have devastated the world and caused loss of homes, as well as greatly affecting humanity. According to French Prime Minister, Edouard Philippe of St. Martin, “95 percent of the island’s houses had been damaged and 60 percent were uninhabitable. Earlier, France's interior minister said at least eight people had died.” This devastating hurricane is one of the many examples of how extreme natural disasters negatively impact the world and how dominant
The Causes And Impacts Of A Natural Disaster
Background A natural disaster is a critical phenomenon of a natural process from the earth such as an earthquake, flood, drought or typhoon which impacts significantly on human life and human social activities (March, 2002; Hutton, 2008). These natural disasters suddenly disturb a population everyday life placing them into a helpless state of emergency and suffering. The greater magnitude of the disaster is, the bigger it exerts pressure on the local resources and infrastructure to a breaking point
Natural Disasters In North America
the various natural disasters present there. The effects of these disasters can be seen through the myriad bridge collapses we have had in the last 100 years. California is rife with earthquakes and they have caused many different bridges, such as the Antelope Valley Freeway Interchange or the Cypress Viaduct to collapse. Landslides and floods have also caused many different bridges to fall including the John Day River Bridge, the Tex Wash Bridge, and the Pfeiffer Bridge. Natural disasters are not the
Hurricane Katrina A Natural Disaster
Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst natural disasters in US history, the ‘perfect storm’ in one of the most impoverished parts of the US. The damage from the storm, flooding and the resulting loss of life and property was astounding. However, I lack the words to describe the economic impacts of such a disaster to the peoples of the Gulf Coast. As with all major catastrophic events, even with all the planning in the world it comes down to people helping people to survive. FEMA, the local and
Personal Aspects Of Natural Disasters
Across the World people know what a natural disaster is, but have never actually experienced one first hand. Natural disasters are events that are unexpected, and can ruin a town in a matter of just a few minutes. Just a few hours away from my home town lies a big city that is nicknamed Jomo. This town sounds small and mysterious, but it is actually very well known. This town is Joplin, Missouri. Growing up in a small Southern Missouri town I have experienced multiple tornadoes, but never knew just
Hurricane Katrina And Natural Disaster Similarities
Natural disasters come in many forms such as earthquakes, tornados, floods, blizzards, fires, and volcanic eruptions, just to name a few. Anyhow, Natural disasters occur everywhere around the world every single day, if they are small or large. Natural disasters events have been a topic that has affected many countries through the years. Even though many disasters aren’t subjected to one area it is common that the worst natural disaster in the United States, occur more often in the coastal areas like
Natural Disasters And Attacks By Individuals Or Groups
worlds history, there have been many natural disasters and attacks by individuals or groups, which have done extensive damage to cities, forests, and families within societies communities. The question that remains is, are there systems in place to effectively handle situations accordingly? In Canada, there is a model in place called the Incident Command System, (ICS). According to I.C., (2012), “An incident is an occurrence, either caused by humans or natural phenomena that requires a response to
The Causes Of Natural Disasters
loss. (bleeding to death)I wanted to research on this natural disasters because I want to help make the world safe and its life in the world. I care about the destruction of these natural disasters. There can be a building that is one billion dollars that is just built, then it was destroyed during a tornado or hurricane.The main point or question i’m overall trying to cover is that why don’t we try to stop or predict and help fight the disasters in the world. We can help in a lot of ways to help stop
Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters
IMPACTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS ABSTRACT: Disasters of both natural and technological origin have a considerable impact on communities. The effects of disasters in India are significantly reduced by well established counter disaster arrangements at all three levels of government. These arrangements comprise comprehensive plans of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery and in more recent times, of mitigation. The economic effects of disasters can be devastating and widespread. When disasters strike
Responding To A Man-Made Or A Natural Disaster Presents
Responding to a man-made or a natural disaster presents dangers and difficulties to first responders, and involved agencies, whether they are local, state or federal agencies. The difficulties in responding to these critical incidents make having a plan essential to successfully respond to, and manage the outcome of a critical incident. The United States government has established a national plan called the National Incident Management System (NIMS). NIMS is comprised of 6 components which help
Post Natural Disaster : Transitional Shelters
Post-Natural Disaster: Transitional Shelters Alyssa Rupp University of Minnesota The obtainment of a safe shelter is placed alongside nourishment in a human’s basic survival requirements. It lands within the second layer of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, following the most essential physiological layer (breathing, food, water, sleep etc.). 17% of the global population is without an acceptable shelter. Millions of people live in homes in desperate need of energy
Disaster : The Causes And Effects Of Natural Disasters
What are natural disasters? Natural disasters are defined as any disastrous event caused by nature or the natural movements of the earth, itself. How severe a disaster is is determined by how bad a loss the economy has suffered, how many lives were lost, and whether or not it will be possible to rebuild the city/town and population effected. If one of these natural disasters were to happen in an area of the world that is not populated, for example, a wildfire on some island that nobody has ever lived
Causes Of Natural Disasters
research on this natural disasters because I want to help make the world safe and its life in the world. I care about the destruction of these natural disasters. There can be a building that is one billion dollars that is just built, then it was destroyed during a tornado or hurricane.The main point or question i’m overall trying to cover is that why don’t we try to stop or predict and help fight the disasters in the world. We
Natural disasters play a huge factor in logistics. Every country has its own natural hazards that they should be aware of, be it floods, tornados, hurricanes or volcanoes, all of these vary in how likely they are to occur depending on the region. When one of these occurs, it can affect the entire supply chain heavily by having to reroute the products you are trying to move because the original route you were going to take is now no longer available. By doing so this results in late deliveries, damaged
Natural Disaster : The Chernobyl Disaster
Herein lies the problem. Natural disasters often lead to thousands -- if not millions -- in donations to those affected in order to rebuild their life. New beds, textbooks, or food can be donated to those affected so that they can replace what they've lost and try to rebuild. But for Chernobyl, the first disaster of its kind at such at scale, they didn’t have that benefit. The obsessive need for secrecy made helping the affected people nearly impossible since news outlets weren’t even technically
The Importance Of Natural Disaster Reduction
Natural Disaster Reduction is a serious topic all countries should be discussing. A study in 2015 recorded around 7,000 natural disasters worldwide, which claimed 1.35 million lives. Natural disasters could be earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, and hurricanes. The policy objective of anticipating and reducing risk is called disaster risk reduction (DRR). Natural disasters can take lives and also take the homes of many people. The loss of property can be very detrimental to some
The Causes And Impacts Of The Natural Disaster In China
The first natural disaster recorded in China was in 1556. It was an earthquake that killed 830,000 people (“Deadliest Earthquake in History Rocks China.”). The most recent natural disaster in China was an earthquake on September 30th, 2017(earthquake.usgs.gov). 451 years later, and China is still getting natural disasters that are killing thousands of people. The buildings are being rebuilt, people are picking up and moving on, but the disasters keep coming back, sometimes causing more damage than
Causes Of Natural Disasters Essay
There has been a large increase in natural disasters in the U.S and in the entire world recently, these natural disasters include Earthquakes, Floods, Hurricanes, Tornadoes, Tsunamis, and Wildfires 4.4 billion people have been affected by natural disasters, and 1.3 million people have been killed from them, according to Childfund.org. The countries that have been most affected by these natural disasters recently have been Zimbabwe, China, Peru, Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sri Lanka
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Essay on Disaster Management
- Updated on
- Jul 27, 2022
Disaster Management has been essentially included in the study curriculums of secondary education. Whether it is natural or man-made, disasters can wreak havoc on our surroundings and cost human lives as well. To familiarise students with efficiently preventing and ensuring the safety of living beings and our environment from unprecedented events, the study of Disaster Management has been included as an important part of the Geography class 10 syllabus. This blog aims to focus on imparting how you can draft a well-written essay on Disaster Management.
Related Article: Geography for UPSC Preparation
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What is disaster management, essay on disaster management: tips & tricks, sample format for essay on disaster management for 150 words, sample essay of disaster management (150 words), sample essay on disaster management (300 words) , sample essay on disaster management (500 words), essay on disaster management for class 9 onwards, essay on disaster management in india.
To begin with your essay on Disaster Management, the most important thing is to comprehend this concept as well as what it aims to facilitate. In simple terms, Disaster Management is termed as the management and utilisation of resources as well as responsibilities to tackle different emergencies, be it man-made disasters or natural ones. It concentrates on preparing human beings for a varied range of calamities and helping them respond in a better way as well as ensure recovery thus lessening their overall impact.
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Before drafting your essay on Disaster Management, another thing you need to ensure is familiarising yourself with the structure of essay writing. To help you understand the do’s and don’ts, we have listed down some of the major things you need to keep in mind.
- Research thoroughly about your topic. For example, while writing an essay on Disaster Management, explore the recent happenings and mention them to provide the reader with a view into your understanding of this concept.
- Create important pointers while researching that you can further incorporate into your essay.
- Don’t mug up the definitions but comprehend them through examples.
- Use transitions between paragraphs to keep a coherent flow for the reader as a long paragraph might seem too lengthy and segregating your introduction and conclusion can provide a better structure.
- Quote important examples not only in your introduction but also in the following paragraphs where you detail the given topic.
- Revise and add finishing touches once you have completed the essay to locate any grammatical errors as well as other mistakes.
Now that you are aware of the key elements of writing an essay on Disaster Management, take a look at the format of essay writing first:
Introduction (30-40 words)
Begin with defining your topic explained in simple terms. For Disaster Management, You can make it more interesting by adding a question or a recent instance. The introduction should be understandable aiming to become more specific in the subsequent paragraphs.
Body of Content (80 words)
Also termed as the thesis statement , the content after the introduction should explain your given topic in detail. It should contain the maximum content out of the whole format because it needs to be detailed. For Disaster Management, you can delve deeper into its process, how it is carried out for different situations as well as prevention and protection.
Conclusion (30-40 words)
This section should mainly wrap up what you have described in the above paragraphs. For an essay on Disaster Management, you can focus on summing it up by writing its aim, types and purposes briefly.
Disaster can be simply termed as a sudden incident or happening which can be either natural or man-made and can potentially cause damage to the surroundings or loss of human life. To facilitate preparedness and better responsiveness to unforeseen events which can harm human beings and the environment, Disaster Management came into the picture.
Disaster Management aims to lessen the impact of natural and man-made calamities by designing and planning efficient ways to tackle them. It centrally comprises ensuring better control of the situation, its immediate evaluation, calling up required medical aids and transports, supplying drinking and food sources, among others and during this whole process, protecting the surroundings from more harm and keeping the lawfulness. The importance of Disaster Management has further increased in the contemporary scenario with the prevalent climate change and some of its latest examples include the unprecedented Australian wildfires.
Thus, the planet is getting bogged down by infinite technological devices, and their possible effects on the climate and the environment are inescapable. This has led to Disaster Management becoming the need of the hour as every country is aiming to become efficient and prepared to face both natural and man-made calamities.
Since the dawn of time, disasters, whether natural or man-made, have been a part of man’s evolution. Tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes, floods, accidents, plane crashes, forest fires, chemical disasters, and other natural disasters frequently strike without notice, leading to massive loss of life and property. Disaster management refers to the strategies and actions put in place to lessen and prevent the effects of a disaster.
The word “disaster management” refers to all aspects of catastrophe mitigation, including preventive and protective measures, preparedness, and relief activities. The disaster management process can be separated into two phases: pre-disaster planning and post-disaster recovery. This encompasses measures such as prevention, mitigation, and preparedness aimed at minimising human and property losses as a result of a possible danger.
The second category is activity post-disaster recovery in which response, rehabilitation, and reconstruction are all included. Search and rescue evacuation, meeting the victims’ basic needs, and rapid medical support from regional, national, and international authorities were all part of the response phase. The immediate purpose of the recovery phase is to restore some degree of normalcy to the afflicted areas. In resource-scarce countries, ex-ante risk mitigation investment in development planning is critical for decreasing disaster damage. It would be prudent to go from a risk-blind to a risk-informed investment decision.
We cannot prevent disasters, but we can reduce their severity and arm ourselves with knowledge so that too many lives are spared.
The globe is plagued with disasters, some of which are terrible and others that are controllable. Natural calamities, for example, are sudden occurrences that wreak significant devastation to lives and property. Disasters can occur either naturally or are man-made. To repair the damage caused by these disasters, emergency management is required. Through a disaster management procedure, the damage is contained and the hazards of the event are controlled. The procedure is aimed at averting disasters and reducing the effects of those that are unavoidable. Floods, droughts, landslides, and earthquakes are all threats to India. The Indian government’s disaster management measures have vastly improved over time.
The Process of Disaster Management:
The disaster management process is split into four stages. The first phase is mitigation, which involves reducing the likelihood of a disaster or its negative consequences. Public education on the nature of the calamity and how people may prepare to protect themselves, as well as structural construction projects, are among the actions. These projects are intended at reducing the number of people killed and property destroyed in the event of a disaster.
Preparedness is the second phase of disaster management, and it aims to improve government-led preparedness to deal with emergencies. The majority of the preparations are aimed toward life-saving activities. Plan writing, communication system development, public education, and drills are all part of the preparation process. The disaster management team implements measures to keep people alive and limit the number of people affected in the third phase, reaction. Transport, shelter, and food are provided to the afflicted population as part of the response. Repairs are being made, and temporary solutions, such as temporary housing for the impacted population, are being sought.
Recovery is the ultimate stage of disaster management. This normally happens after the tragedy has subsided and the harm has been done. During the recovery process, the team works to restore people’s livelihoods and infrastructure. Short-term or long-term recovery is possible. The goal is to return the affected population to a normal or better way of life. During public education, the importance of health safety is highlighted. The recovery phase allows catastrophe management to move forward with long-term solutions.
Disaster Management Challenges:
The management of disasters is a difficult task, and there are certain flaws to be found. Since the individual dangers and disasters in some countries are not well understood, the government is unable to deploy disaster management in the event of an unforeseen disaster. There’s also the issue of a country’s technical and framework capabilities being insufficient. Government support is required for disaster management frameworks. Due to the general large population, the disaster management approach includes public education, but there is no psychological counselling for individuals. People are more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric illnesses.
Disaster management is a very important activity that countries should embrace to prevent disasters and lessen the negative consequences of disasters. However, disaster management has limitations that restrict the techniques’ ability to be implemented successfully.
Disasters can cause chaos, mass death of humans and animals, and a rise in crime rates. Disasters are unfavourable events that cause widespread anxiety and terror. They also make it difficult for society to respond to its causes.
Natural or man-made disasters can emerge. In both circumstances, they have the potential to cause significant loss of life and property. A combination of man-made and natural disasters can occur in severe circumstances. For example, violent conflicts and food scarcity. As a result, disaster management is required to limit or prevent massive loss and damage.
Disaster management includes disaster avoidance, disaster awareness, and disaster planning. These ideas will be discussed further down.
Prevention of Disaster:
Countries all across the world have taken precautions to prevent diseases or viruses from spreading. These initiatives include the funding of research into natural disaster aversion. Other sources of revenue include food distribution, healthcare services, and so on. In Africa and the Middle East, the latter is commonly used in economically challenged areas.
Improved scientific research has also made it feasible to predict potential natural disasters. For example, equipment to detect earthquakes and tsunamis has been developed. As a result, more people are concerned about the environment. In this sense, consciousness translates to a reduction in all forms of pollution in the environment.
Disaster Awareness :
Another strategy to minimise the excesses of widespread epidemics is to raise disaster awareness. Members of the public must be made aware of the importance of maintaining peace, de-escalating dangerous circumstances, and prioritising safety in the face of any possible tragedy.
The goal of disaster management is to reduce human death and suffering. The impact of disasters can be reduced if all of these factors are successfully managed. As a result, the necessity of disaster management cannot be emphasised.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the main agency charged with establishing rules and guidelines for disaster management in order to ensure prompt and effective disaster response. There is also a separate fund for mitigation called the “national disaster management fund” (NDMF). Functions performed by this agency are:
- Formation of policies for disaster management
- Approval of the strategies made up for disaster mitigation
- Formation of revenue or funds for disaster mitigation
- Managing multiple programmes and disseminating instructions.
The disaster has had both direct and indirect repercussions on human life, both of which have been deadly devastating and detrimental. There have been fatalities as well as stock losses. Natural disasters are unavoidable; even if we have mechanisms in place to predict or forecast them, we cannot prevent them from occurring. While preparing plans for our disaster management, the best that can be done is to prevent behaviours that are detrimental to the environment and lead to environmental deterioration. When a disaster strikes, it causes widespread devastation and loss of life. In the event of a disaster such as earthquakes, floods, or other natural disasters, a large number of people are displaced, and a large number of people die as a result of the disaster. This is when the true emergency begins by providing first aid to the injured, as well as rescue and relief efforts for the victims. To limit the risk of human life, everyone must participate actively in disaster management. When a crisis happens, the appropriate disaster management team can seize over as soon as possible.
Also Read: Career in Ecology and Environment
Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery .
naturals, man-mades, and hybrid disasters .
On 23 December 2005 , the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act
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Free Natural Disaster Essays and Papers
Earthquakes As A Natural Disaster
The main definition of natural disaster is “any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth”. Natural disasters happen all around the world, it is a major event resulting from a natural process of the Earth, for example the most common are hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, tornados, and volcanic eruptions. A natural disaster can cause a lot of damage, and also loss of life. These disasters typically cause economic damage, which it´s very difficult to recover
Natural Disaster Paragraph
Essay on natural disasters.
of the impact of natural disasters on the world economy have increased significantly in the first decade of the new century. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, mankind has been exposed to numerous natural disasters and catastrophes, like earthquakes, floods, forest fires and hurricanes. The impact of natural disasters is increasing and its impact on the socio- economic sphere is amplifying, so humanity is becoming more vulnerable to them. In doing so, the disaster become sources of
Natural Disasters This being my senior project I wanted to look at a topic that I found interesting. Even though I find most topics in the fields interesting, none catch my attention better than natural disasters. I have always found disasters intriguing and have wanted to know more about them. The disaster that I found most interesting were Hurricanes. The thought of those storms with their power gives me the chills. Ever since I was in the middle of Hurricane Bob when I was vacationing with my
Natural Disasters: Earthquakes And Natural Contributions
NATURAL DISASTERS: EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Introduction Disaster is a sudden calamitous event that brings huge destruction, damage and loss to property and life. The damage varies depending on geographical location, earth’s surface, and climate. Disasters retard the development of a country, region or area. In this chapter, we shall discuss disasters, their types, impacts, and precautions to reduce the loss. Types of Disasters Disasters can occur because of environmental reasons, or
Disaster Management: Roles Of Disasters In Natural Disaster In India
DISASTER MANAGEMENT : ROLE OF INDIAN ARMED FORCES IN DEALING WITH DISASTERS IN COASTAL REGIONS OF INDIA SYNOPSIS Introduction 1. A natural disaster is an event of nature, which causes sudden disruption to the normal life of a society and causes damage to property and lives to such an extent, that normal social and economic mechanisms, available to the society, are inadequate to restore normalcy. India has faced a number of disasters in recent years in the form of earthquakes, floods, droughts,
The Most Dangerous Natural Disaster
Floods: The Most Dangerous Natural Disaster According to “Floods: Information and Facts,” floods are “among Earth's most common-and most destructive–natural hazards.” Floods are a deadly natural disaster that are most commonly caused by excessive rain, cause destruction to buildings, which can be fatal, and include catastrophic events such as the August 1931 flood of China, which killed nearly 4 million people. Floods are the most common and dangerous kind of natural disaster. They can be caused by
What Is A Natural Disaster Essay
Natural Disasters The main definition of natural disaster is “any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth” (Natural disasters). Natural disasters happen all around the world, it is a major event resulting from a natural process of the Earth, for example the most common are hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, tornados, and volcanic eruptions. A natural disaster can create a lot of damage, and also loss of life. These disasters typically cause economic
Tornado And Natural Disasters
Natural disasters quite are quite common across the globe. There are of different kinds usually Earthquakes , Volcanic Eruptions and Snow storms. Based on the climatic conditions in my area Snow storms are prone to be occurred frequently. The main Natural disaster in the entire Central America is a snow storm. Even there is a chance of occurrence of earthquakes. But by observing the climate from past decades there is a very less chance of occurrence of earthquakes. Even though such earthquakes occur
Minimizing the Effect of Natural Disasters
- 8 Works Cited
brewed from the center of the earth and claimed the lives of millions if not billions of people and such large amounts of damage to everything around us. Between 2000 and 2012, natural disasters caused $1.7 trillion in damage and affected 2.9 billion people.(www.DoSomething.org) Can we minimize the damage caused by natural disasters? The answer is always yes you can always try to stop things like this it just matters about how much will people put into protecting their own lives and the lives of others
Valparaiso Natural Disasters
resources were spent in trying to quell these fires and today even more are being used to rebuild Valparaiso. This once again demonstrated the ability of natural disasters to cause utter chaos, to countries or cities which have done no wrong. It has also brought up the key issue of how to minimize the damages caused by the same. In 2012, 357 natural disasters were registered, 9655 people were killed and 124.5 million people became victims worldwide. Research and statistics have shown that over the last decade
What Is The Worst Natural Disasters Essay
The World’s Worst Natural Disasters in History – Drought, Famine and Disease Natural disaster is defined by Dictionary.com as “any event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences, such as avalanche, earthquake, flood, forest fire, hurricane, lightning, tornado, tsunami, and volcanic eruption.” Collins Dictionary also defines it as “a natural event which causes a lot of damage and kills a lot of people.” As such, the world has never been spared of natural calamities that have not only
Natural Disasters And Children's Effects On Children
Natural disasters are natural events that cause damage or loss of life. These events effect millions of people all around the world each year. The effects that these disasters have on children can be very serious, but often vary based on the severity of the disaster. There are no ways to control these events, making them hard to predict and prepare for. In 1999, there were nearly seventy million children that were impacted by natural disasters, and with climate change continually worsening, this
The Importance Of Natural Disasters
Paper 1.4 Noting the increased rate of natural disasters in the wake of human environmental change. (And/Or suggesting the correlation between the two) Recognizing the need for increased international awareness of natural disasters, especially within under-developed countries lacking adequate preparations, Recognizing that disaster mitigation is of utmost importance, Deeply convinced that precautionary measures are the optimal method of dealing with disasters, Affirming its support for UN action
Facing a Natural Disaster
Will you ever be part of nature’s disasters? Most natural disasters can be foreseen with the aid of advanced technology, but, overall, nature’s wonders occur unexpectedly. The majority of the human population does not know what to do before, during, and after a catastrophic event. The most common questions asked are: what is it, where will it take place, when will it happen, and who will be affected. It is important to have an understanding of what natural disasters may be and what could be experienced
Natural Disasters Are Not Purely Natural
- 7 Works Cited
Introduction The increased media coverage of the impacts of disaster events has caused a renewed interest in natural disasters (Hamilton and Press, 2009). This paper endeavors to show that what masses perceive as natural disasters are because of an array of factors. The focus is on human activities that create a fovourable environment for drought to become a natural disaster in arid areas (Giorgis, 2005). Socio-economic and environmental exposure can lead to disastrous consequences from even unpretentious
Port Orchard: A Natural Disaster
Port Orchard, Washington is a town overflowing with rich forests, fresh air, and spectacular views. As Isaac Suttle walks from his front door, he can see the Two Brothers to the west and Mt. Rainier to the east. His home sits quietly in an area of Port Orchard surrounded by trees, the nearest neighbor hundreds of feet away. Like that of most western Washington, the weather is cool and rainy throughout the year with little relief in the summer. The drizzly rain can last for months; Isaac can remember
Natural Disasters Have Affected American Life And Culture
America has experienced many disasters throughout her vast and interesting history. Even though she has been plagued with several overwhelming tragedies, she is still standing. Many disasters have affected American life and culture; examples such as natural disasters, terrorism, war, and man on man crime are among them. Natural disasters are devastating because people cannot fight against nature. One of the biggest natural disasters in U.S. history was the Galveston hurricane in 1900. This
Natural Disasters and Their Desctructive Nature
environment.A natural physical event that kills people (directly or indirectly) or exceeds local capacity to control damage or initiate recovery efforts The situation or event which overwhelms local capacity, necessitating a request to national levelfor external or international assistance. " This means that the situation or event overflows the capacity locally, showing that not only the In the case of the United States, assistance for extreme events is linked by law to the disaster declaration issued
Natural Disasters are one of the most devastating modern occurrences, and can have debilitating effects on society both socioeconomically and epidemiologically. Our response to hurricanes, earthquakes, tidal waves, or other catastrophic natural events is reactionary due to their unpredictable nature. Unlike many Public Health related epidemics, we hold no vaccine for tidal waves or earthquakes. After the initial devastation and loss of life the aftermath can produce long-term health consequences
- Natural Environment
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- RESEARCH PAPERS AND ESSAYS
- ESSAY TOPICS
- PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES
- Joseph Robinette Biden
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- States Ranked by Size & Population
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Essay On Disaster Preparedness Awareness
Summary: the katrina breakdown.
Which of the three perspectives do you find most persuasive? Lease persuasive? Support your answer
Chernobyl Disaster Analysis
The word disaster is one of the most commonly used words in society and if something is described as a disaster then it is usually because something extremely bad or unacceptable has occurred. It can reflect a variety of individual disasters that can range from geological, such as an earthquake or tsunami, or it can be purely manmade such as a biological or chemical disaster. There is not a single definition of the word Disaster with the United Nations defining it as being a serious disruption to the functioning of a community or society (WCPT, 2016). However, others define it as a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes immense damage or loss of life (Wright, 2013). The purpose of this assignment it to critically analyse a particular
The department of homeland security has been tasked with various responsibilities that all consolidate to the main function of providing internal security to the nation. There is a need to always review whether investment and public faith given to the homeland security has been best utilized to understand whether the homeland security has been effective or whether there is need to improve in some of its core functions.
Social Vulnerability In Emergency Management
What is social vulnerability? The idea of social vulnerability inside the emergency management setting was first presented in the 1970’s when emergency managers first realized that vulnerability also encompasses socioeconomic influences that negatively impact resiliency to disasters or emergencies. Form the perspective of an emergency manager social vulnerability refers to the socioeconomic and demographic factors that impact the resiliency of individuals, groups or communities. It has been well established that not all classes of individuals living within a disaster area are affected by the disaster in the same way. The socially vulnerable are much more likely to be negatively impacted by a disaster. Socially vulnerable individuals are often
Emergency Preparedness Case Study
In your opinion, is federal funding better spent on all-hazards first responder preparedness, or on R&D efforts to find new emergency management solutions for terrorist hazards?
National Preparedness Goals
Though the community only has a small effect on the overall picture, they are the most vulnerable to all disasters and threats. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the community to prepare one another and assess the potential risks and hazards within their community in addition to what steps are needed to address the issues. It is this preemptive response and planning, especially in locations with historically reoccurring hazards that reduce the disaster effects and overall cost. This community-based effort conducted by community groups has the, “potential to make a significant and long-lasting contributions to reducing local vulnerability and strengthening adaptive capacities” (Allen, 2006, p. 97). One example of a community-organized group is Community Emergency Response Teams or CERT. CERTs are composed of individuals who are trained by local response agencies to have the capabilities, resources and knowledge to be first responders in their communities (Flint & Brennan, 2006). While community groups provide the means to prepare and respond to a disaster, nongovernmental and non-profit organizations are also a vital asset to the whole
Rlt2 Task 1
Managing a disaster starts with the first stage which is the prevention phase. The demographics of local area need to be identified by trending the vulnerable groups so that extra attention and care can be provided. The general public, healthcare professions and other volunteers need education on strategies in the case of a catastrophe occurring in the community even before it happens. During this stage, the community nurse can hand out information pamphlets to local
Disaster Recovery Plan Tornado Paper
SLS is critically dependent on uninterrupted services. Any loss of network resources for an extended period of time could have a severe impact on SLS. This plan will specifically address failures that may occur due to a tornado.
Hurricane Imma Research Paper
Irma was a category 5 hurricane. It hit Florida, debris left lying around everywhere. At least 36 people were reported dead, and over six million people were left without power. The flooding has makes walking the streets dangerous as the muddy water can hide sharp objects along with holes. The (FEMA) Federal Emergency Management Agency estimated that 25% of homes within the Florida keys are completely destroyed, and 65% have had major damage. In preparation for the oncoming hurricane, the government created online websites with plans of what preparations should be made by people who were being evacuated or wanted to stay put. These plans include basic things such as a large supply of both food and water and having all important documents and
Hcs/400 Disaster Planning And Management Research Paper
A disaster in health care is an event that produces casualties beyond the number and severity for which a single hospital or prehospital emergency medical system can plan. A disaster would affect communities, surrounding localities, and regions. The World Health (WHO) defines a disaster as an occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of
Reprioritization In Femma
Emergency Management has definitely had many changes and challenges. Hurricane Katrina is a strong example of how some reprioritization when it came to FEMA can have bad outcomes. It 's important to consider all levels of preparation in the event of a disaster. It also important to take into consideration of both successful and failed protocols and tactics to help improve and create an efficient response system.
Essay On Social Vulnerability
There are linkages between social deficits and vulnerabilities in support of strong indications between high social vulnerability traits and low community resiliency traits. This relationship should include consideration of systematic design and management of policies and procedure processes including resiliency planning to decrease disaster vulnerability while increasing resiliency during the process (Bergstrand, Mayer, Brumback, & Zhang, 2015). Consequently, the further established vulnerability planning and risk assessments, the more of a comprehensive span of resiliency preparedness
Essay On Hurricane Irma
Hurricanes appear and throw our world into chaos; over the years, hurricanes have caused extreme destruction all over the globe. In September, Hurricane Irma struck and removed everything in its path. Although the amount of destruction caused was devastating, precautions were taken to help save lives and avoid as much damage as possible. Hurricane Irma escalated quickly, yet humans still remain unsure on how to stop these storms from occurring.
Reflection On School Earthquake
I conclude that a lot of family members or should I say almost every one of us really don 't know what to do when this kind of disaster came to us. Although we really don 't know when would earthquake strikes, we need to at least be prepared for the things that can help us to save more lives. Just like the students in MCL, most of them don 't know anything about the plans for their safety, and according to them there 's no evacuation plan in the campus. Only the officials, committee and some of the students in the campus knows about it. And a lot of students are not aware of their earthquake drills on their campus; they said that only those people who are interested to participate will do. I suggest that the higher position must implement the drills for the safety of the students. Therefore, to be more prepared we must practice the drills we need to know inside and outside the campus and implement the "awareness for earthquakes that 'll keep us/you alive" and they need to think of a better way to catch the students interest. So, to prevent more damages that could possibly happen to anyone; let 's spread and practice the awareness/preparedness for
Preparedness In Nursing
UNIDSR (2009) defined disaster as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected
More about Essay On Disaster Preparedness Awareness
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A Safer Future: Reducing the Impacts of Natural Disasters (1991)
Chapter: 3. awareness and education, awareness and education.
T he key to reducing loss of life, personal injuries, and damage from natural disasters is widespread public awareness and education. People must be made aware of what natural hazards they are likely to face in their own communities. They should know in advance what specific preparations to make before an event, what to do during a hurricane, earthquake, flood, fire, or other likely event, and what actions to take in its aftermath.
Equally important, public officials and the media — television, radio, and newspapers — must be fully prepared to respond effectively, responsibly, and speedily to large-scale natural emergencies. They need to be aware, in advance, of procedures to follow in a crisis that threatens to paralyze the entire community they serve, and they need to know how to communicate accurate information to the public during a natural disaster.
Special efforts must also be made to reach and plan for the care of particularly vulnerable segments of the population — latch-key children, the elderly, individuals in health care and correctional facilities, people with disabilities, and those who do not speak English — with information about possible disasters and what to do in an emergency.
The Committee recommends that community-wide awareness and education programs about natural disasters be made a national priority.
To achieve this goal, the Committee proposes that information campaigns and educational efforts be developed and that their effectiveness be evaluated and, where possible, continually improved:
Home. Household survival plans should provide basic information on what hazardous events are most likely to occur in particular communities, what emergency equipment and supplies should be on hand, what precautions should be taken to limit damage, and what preparations should be made for escape and evacuation. Such information might best be conveyed graphically, both in print and on television. Dramatic, easily recognizable graphic symbols signifying each natural hazard should be created and widely publicized to identify impending emergencies and quickly alert the public to the degree of seriousness and the imminence of danger.
To stimulate public awareness, brochures, posters, games, calendars, museum exhibits, public service announcements (for print, radio, and television), and even entertainment programming should be used. Materials produced by the American Red Cross, FEMA, the National Weather Service (NWS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and other government agencies as well as insurance companies and other private sector entities are already available for such campaigns. (See Figure 2 .) Organizations in the private sector, including the Advertising Council, public utilities, public relations firms, advertising agencies, and voluntary organizations, should be enlisted to create, produce, and disseminate new information materials.
The community. Community-wide planning and education should be encouraged. Schools, government organizations, community and church groups, business and neighborhood organizations, hospital and medical groups, and the news media should all be involved. Checklists, information handouts, and training videos should be created and widely distributed to convey such information as the location of nearby emergency resources and appropriate use of the 911 system both during and after a disaster. Regional and community demonstration programs, disaster day exercises, volunteer courses, and conferences should be undertaken and evaluated for their effectiveness.
Figure 2. WILDLAND HOME FIRE RISK METER Practical, easy-to-use materials can give people the information they need to protect their homes and possibly save their lives. By turning a series of dials, rural residents can determine their homes ' risks from wildfire. The reverse side of the meter provides information on reducing those risks. (Source. U.S. Forest Service.)
School. Educational materials about preparedness, warnings, and self-protection should be distributed to schools for use in kindergarten through the 12th grade. Teachers should be given training on integrating the materials into the regular curricula so that all children receive the information they need to protect themselves from disasters. Similar training initiatives should be directed to teachers at day-care centers and preschools as well as to caretakers of the elderly. These steps will also raise the level of awareness and preparedness at home.
The warkplace. Awareness and education for disaster mitigation and preparedness should be encouraged in the workplace. Labor unions, industry management, government employers, and business groups should work with disaster specialists and community agencies to produce and acquire the necessary training and information materials. Existing work safety and security programs should be expanded to include disaster preparedness measures and emergency response procedures. Workplace safety drills and disaster exercises are essential to ensure that procedures are followed in an emergency. Prime movers of this effort should include insurance companies, labor unions, Chambers of Commerce, public utilities, and Industrial Crisis Conference participants.
Colleges and universities. Community colleges as well as other colleges and universities should be encouraged to include disaster management training in their curricula. Materials on mitigation and preparedness should be made part of geoscience, meteorology, forestry, health, engineering, architecture, education, planning, public administration, and business school programs. Preparation of books, articles, and teaching aids, and research by faculty and students should be encouraged and supported.
Public officials and the press. Special attention should be given to raising the level of knowledge and expertise of public officials and the press, both of whom have central responsibilities for dealing with natural disasters. There is a need to develop procedures, protocols, and priorities for disseminating information to the public. Contingency plans should be put in place so that vital emergency services and key elements of the press are prepared to function even when electricity, transportation, telephone transmission, and other communications and production capabilities are severely disrupted. Community emergency procedures, warning signals, disaster resources, and relief facilities and responsibilities should be spelled out in advance and reviewed and tested periodically by public officials and the press.
Journalism schools and press think tanks such as the Gannett Center for Media Studies and the Annenberg Center for Communications, as well as professional organizations such as Sigma Delta Chi and the Radio-Television News Directors Association, should be encouraged to investigate the specific challenges of providing information and news coverage in time of disaster.
Professionals. Disaster education is essential in the training of the government and private sector professionals, emergency management personnel, and emergency service providers who have the major responsibility for mitigation and emergency response. Professional continuing education programs on mitigating the effects of natural disasters should be made widely available through colleges, universities, and professional associations. Development of advanced materials for use in curricula, workshops, conferences, and similar activities should be encouraged. Continuing education requirements should be built into the certification, licensing, and evaluation of professionals in the field. Courses in hazard-resistant land-use, design, and structural techniques should be included in engineering, architecture, and construction curricula. Special attention should be given to planning for reconstruction and other elements of community recovery. Schools of medicine, nursing, and public health should offer courses on disaster preparedness and response as they relate to individual and community health.
The spectacular damage caused to the highway and bridge systems of the San Francisco Bay area during the Loma Prieta earthquake is being studied for applications to updating building and safety codes.
Initial priorities for U.S. participation in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, declared by the United Nations, are contained in this volume. It focuses on seven issues: hazard and risk assessment; awareness and education; mitigation; preparedness for emergency response; recovery and reconstruction; prediction and warning; learning from disasters; and U.S. participation internationally.
The committee presents its philosophy of calls for broad public and private participation to reduce the toll of disasters.
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Essay on natural disasters: top 12 essays | geography.
Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Natural Disasters’ for class 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Natural Disasters’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Natural Disasters
- Essay on the Initiatives Taken by the Government
Essay on Natural Disaster # 1. Introduction:
The definition of natural disasters is any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth. The severity of a disaster is measured in lives lost, economic loss, and the ability of the population to rebuild. Events that occur in unpopulated areas are not considered disasters. So a flood on an uninhabited island would not count as a disaster, but a flood in a populated area is called a natural disaster.
All natural disasters cause loss in some way. Depending on the severity, lives can be lost in any number of disasters. Falling buildings or trees, freezing to death, being washed away, or heat stroke are just some of the deadly effects. Some disasters cause more loss of life than others, and population density affects the death count as well.
Hence, there is loss of property, which affects people’s living quarters, transportation, livelihood, and means to live. Fields saturated in salt water after tsunamis take years to grow crops again. Homes destroyed by floods, hurricanes, cyclones, landslides and avalanches, a volcanic eruption, or an earthquake are often beyond repair or take a lot of time to become livable again. Personal effects, memorabilia, vehicles, and documents also take a hit after many natural disasters.
The natural disasters that really affect people worldwide tend to become more intense as the years go on. Frequency of earthquakes, mega storms, and heat waves has gone up considerably in the last few decades. Heavy population in areas that get hit by floods, cyclones, and hurricanes has meant that more lives are lost.
In some areas, the population has gotten somewhat prepared for the eventuality of disasters and shelters are built for hurricanes and tornadoes. However, loss of property is still a problem, and predicting many natural disasters isn’t easy.
Scientists, geologists, and storm watchers work hard to predict major disasters and avert as much damage as possible. With all the technology available, it’s become easier to predict major storms, blizzards, cyclones, and other weather related natural disasters. But there arestill natural disasters that come up rather unexpectedly, such as earthquakes, wildfires, landslides, or even volcanic eruptions.
Sometimes, a time of warning is there, but it’s often very short with catastrophic results. Areas that are not used to disasters affected by flash floods or sudden hail storms can be affected in an extreme way. However, despite the many natural disasters the world over, mankind has shown amazing resilience.
When an area or country is badly affected by a natural disaster, the reaction is always one of solidarity and aid is quick to come. There are organizations set up with the primary goal of being prepared for natural disasters. These groups work on global and local scale rescue work. Aside from those who have chosen to make disaster relief their life-work, when disasters hit, it’s the individuals who step in who help to make a difference.
Many people talk about when a disaster has hit and their neighbours and countrymen have come to aid, often to their own loss. People will step in and donate items, time, and skills in order to help those affected by a natural disaster. Celebrities will often do what they can to raise money through concerts, phone marathons, and visiting affected areas with aid.
People have also shown that they can rebuild, lives can be remade or start over. Trauma is a big after effect of natural disasters and getting counseling has been the focus of aid-to heal emotionally as well as physically. It’s clear that natural disasters are a part of life as we know it. However, science is making it more possible to predict, aid is faster at coming, and people are learning how to rebuild in safer areas.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 2. Earthquake :
India is having a high risk towards earthquakes. More than 58 per cent of India’s land area is under threat of moderate to severe seismic hazard. During the last 20 years, India has experienced 10 major earthquakes that have resulted in more than 35,000 deaths. The most vulnerable areas, according to the present seismic zone map of India include the Himalayan and Sub-Himalayan regions, Kutch and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Depending on varying degrees of seismicity, the entire country can be divided into the following seismic regions: Of the earthquake-prone areas, 12% is proneto very severe earthquakes, 18% to severe earthquakes and 25% to damageable earthquakes.
Though the regions of the country away from the Himalayas and other inter-plate boundaries were considered to be relatively safe from damaging earthquakes, the presence of a large number of non-engineering structures and buildings with poor foundations in these areas make these regions also susceptible to earthquakes.
In the recent past, even these areas also have experienced earthquake, of lower magnitude than the Himalayan earthquakes. The North-eastern part of the country continues to experience moderate to strong earthquakes. On an average, this region experiences an earthquake with magnitude greater than 5.0 every year.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are situated on an inter-plate boundary and therefore are likely to experience damaging earthquakes frequently. The increase in earthquake risk in India in recent times is caused due to a spurt in developmental activities driven by urbanization, economic development and the globalization of India’s economy. The increase in the use of high-technology equipment and tools in manufacturing and service industries have also made them susceptible to disruption due to relatively moderate ground shaking.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 3. Flood and Drought :
The country receives an annual precipitation of 400 million hectare meters. Of the annual rainfall, 75% is received during four months of monsoon (June — September) and, as a result, almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during this period. The flood hazard is compounded by the problems of sediment deposition, drainage congestion and synchronization of river floods with sea tides in the coastal plains.
The area vulnerable to floods is 40 million hectares and the average area affected by floods annually is about 8 million hectares. About 30 million people are affected by flood every year. Floods in the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plains are an annual feature. On an average, a few hundred lives are lost, millions are rendered homeless and several hectares of crops are damaged every year around 68% arable land of the country is prone to drought in varying degrees.
Drought prone areas comprise 108.11 million hectares out of a total land area of 329 million hectares. About 50 million people are affected annually by drought. Of approximately 90 million hectares of rain-fed areas, about 40 million hectares are prone to scanty or no rain.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 4. Cyclone :
India’s long coastline of 7,516 kilometer is exposed to nearly 10 per cent of the world’s tropical cyclones. Of these, the majority has their initial genesis over the Bay of Bengal and strike the east coast of India. On an average, five to six tropical cyclones form every year, of which two or three could be severe.
Cyclones occur frequently on both the Coasts (the West Coast —Arabian Sea; and the East Coast —Bay of Bengal). More Cyclones occur in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea and the ratio is approximately 4:1.
An analysis of the frequency of cyclones on the East and West Coasts of India between 1891 and 1990 shows that nearly 262 cyclones occurred (92 severe) in a 50 km wide strip on the East Coast. Less severe cyclonic activity has been noticed on the West Coast, with 33 cyclones occurring in the same period, out of which 19 of these were severe.
In India, Tropical cyclones occur in the months of May-June and October-November. The cyclones of severe intensity and frequency in the north Indian Ocean are bi-modal in character, with their primary peak in November and secondary peak in May. The disaster potential is particularly high at the time of landfall in the north Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea) due to the accompanying destructive wind, storm surges and torrential rainfall.
Of these, storm surges are the greatest killers of a cyclone, by which sea water inundates low lying areas of coastal regions and causes heavy floods, erodes beaches and embankments, destroys vegetation and reduces soil fertility.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 5. Landslide :
In the hilly terrain of India including the Himalayas, landslides have been a major and widely spread natural disasters that often strike life and property and occupy a position of major concern. One of the worst tragedies took place at Malpa (Uttrakhand) on 11th and 17th August, 1998. When nearly 380 people were killed when massive landslides washed away the entire village. This included 60 pilgrims going to Lake.
Mansarovar in Tibet. In 2010 Cloud burst led flash mudslides and flash floods killed 196 people, including 6 foreigners and injured more than 400 and swept away number of houses, sweeping away buildings, bus stand and military installations in trans-Himalaya Leh town of Jammu and Kashmir.
Giving due consideration to the severity of the problem various land reform measures have been initiated as mitigation measures. Landslides occur in the hilly regions such as the Himalayas, North-East India, the Nilgiris, and Eastern and Western Ghats.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 6. Avalanche :
Avalanches are river like speedy flow of snow or ice descending from the mountain tops. Avalanches are very damaging and cause huge loss to life and property. In Himalayas, avalanches are common in Drass, Pir Panijat, Lahaul-Spiti and Badrinath areas.
As per Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), on an average around 30 people are killed every year due to this disaster in various zones of the Himalayas. Beside killing people, avalanches also damage the roads and others properties and settlements falling in its way.
Area Prone to Avalanches:
I. Avalanches are common in Himalayan region above 3500 m elevation.
II. Very frequent on slopes of 30-45°.
III. Convex slopes more prone to this disaster.
IV. North facing slope have avalanches in winter and south facing slopes during spring.
V. Slopes covered with grass more prone to this hazard.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 7. Tsunami:
Tsunami, or seismic sea waves, are large ocean waves generated by impulses from geophysical events occurring on the ocean floor or along the coastline, such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions.
Mostly occurring in the Pacific Ocean, tsunamis, although hardly noticeable at sea, can reach gigantic proportions as they reach shallow, coastal waters. In Hawaii and Japan, for example, tsunamis have been known to reach 30 m in height. At least 22 countries along the rim of the Pacific are estimated to beat risk from potential tsunami.
The fact that tsunamis can travel 10,000 km at velocities exceeding 900 km per hour with little loss of energy and are, therefore, capable of hitting areas not directly affected by the inducing event, has led to the establishment of a tsunami early warning service for the whole circum-Pacific area.
However, only a few of the 22 countries most at risk are considered to have standard operating procedures for immediate evacuation or reliable, rapid communication systems capable of receiving real-time warnings from the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre.
About 6,000-people have been killed by tsunami during 1977-1986 alone. Probably the best documented of these events is the occurrence at Noshiro, Japan, in 1983 which caused approximately 100 deaths and extensive property damage and flooding. The tsunami (Dec. 2004) in South East Asia lead to a death tool of over 2.5 lakhs peoples of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Sumatra and India.
Tsunamis have multiple origin—16.5 per cent resulted from tectonic earthquakes associated with the eruption, 20 per cent from pyroclastic (ash) flows or surges hitting the ocean, 14 per cent from submarine eruptions, 7 per cent resulted from the collapse of the volcano and subsequent caldera formation, 5 per cent from landslides or avalanches, 3 per cent from atmospheric shock waves and 25 per cent had no discernible origin, but probably were produced by submerged volcanic eruptions.
A partial geographical distribution of tsunamis is given in Table 30.2:
Over past two thousand years there have been 10, 00,000 deaths attributed to tsunami in the Pacific region alone. Earlier Pacific Tsunami warning system was established for forecasting the event. Now global network was established in all Oceans & Seas.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 8. Windstorms:
Judged by the frequency with which they cause damage and by the surface area of the regions they strike, windstorms can be said to be the most significant of all natural hazards. Windstorms influence precipitation systems floods and, most importantly, cause severe destruction to crops and properties.
Severe tropical cyclones (called “ hurricanes ” in the Atlantic, Caribbean and north-eastern Pacific; “ typhoons ” in the western Pacific; and “ cyclones ” in the Indian Ocean and in the sea around Australia), tornadoes, monsoons and thunderstorms between them affect every country in the world.
Today increasing attention is being paid to windstorms, particularly tropical cyclones as some scientists see their incidence as being a possible indicator of global climatic change and predict an increase in their frequency.
Have tropical cyclone frequencies or their intensities increased with global changes throughout the last century? At present, available evidence does not support this idea, perhaps because the warming is not yet large enough to make its impact felt (WMO/UNEP, 1990).
Global information on Kanor windstorms and their impact is collated by organisations such as UNDRO UNEP and AID/OFDA. However, global listings of disasters rarely include those which occur in small states such as island states, which in areas such as the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and South Pacific are particularly prone to tropical cyclones.
This is because listings often set a criteria based on magnitude of impact with which small states cannot compete against larger countries. However, the proportional impact upon small states is often far greater in terms of population, housing and economics.
The impact of cyclones goes far beyond just deaths and building damage. In developing countries destruction of infrastructure and primary agriculture can lead to a decrease in exports and gross national product, while increasing the likelihood of forfeiture of international loan repayments. Contamination of water supplies and destruction of crops can also lead to disease and starvation.
Many mid-latitude cyclonic depressions can give rise to exceptionally heavy rain and widespread flooding and snow fall too. Dust storms are windstorms accompanied by suspended clay, silt materials, usually but not always without precipitation. Average 130-800 million tonnes of dust are entrained by winds each year.
Severe windstorms with high level of flush rain often called thunderstorms associated with lightning, hail and tornadoes cause massive destruction of properties and also human lives through out the world. Early warning and emergency relief operation are the major management activity.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 9. Forest Fire :
Forest or bush fire, though not causing much loss to human life, is a major hazard for forest cover in the country. As per Forest Survey of India report, 50 per cent of the forest cover of the country is fire prone, out of which 6.17 per cent is prone to severe fire damage causing extensive loss to forest vegetation and environment. Average annual physical loss due to forest fire in the country is estimated to worth Rs.440 crores.
The major loss due to forest fire is caused to the environment which gets adversely affected by this calamity. The degradation of climate, soil and water quality, loss of wildlife and its habitat, deterioration of human health, depletion of ozone layer, etc., along with direct loss to timber are the major adverse impact of forest fires.
The coniferous forests in the Himalayan region are very susceptible to fire and every year there are one or more major fire incidences in these areas. The other parts of the country dominated by deciduous forest are also damaged by fire up to an extent. It is worth mentioning that in India 90 per cent of the forest fires are man-made (intentionally or unintentionally).
Essay on Natural Disaster # 10. Volcanoes:
Volcanoes are conduits in the earth’s crust through which gas enriched molten silicate rock magma reaches to the surface of earth crust.
An active volcano occurs where magma (molten rock) reaches the earth’s surface through a central vent or a long crack (fissure) Volcanic activity can release ejecta (debris), liquid lava and gases (H 2 O vapour C 2 , SO 2 , NO x , etc.) to the environment.
There are two types of magma ejected out of volcanoes —silica poor materials, and silica rich materials. The silica poor volcanoes called basaltic volcanoes, while the silica rich volcanoes are andesitic volcanoes.
There are many hazardous phenomena produced directly or as secondary effects, by volcanic eruptions.
The direct hazards of volcanic eruptions are:
a. Lava flow;
b. Ballistics and tephra clouds;
c. Pyroclastic flows and base surges;
d. Gases and acid rains;
e. Lahars (mud flows); and
f. Glacier bursts (Jokulhlamps).
In addition indirectly they are associated with earthquake and tsunami events. Volcanoes are visually one of the most spectacular natural hazardous to occur and probably most devastating in terms of loss of human life.
The volcano likes Mt. Vesurivs, Mt. St Helena, Krakatoa, and Mt, Pelee are significant because of either the enormity of the eruption or the resulting death tool. As per Gaius Pinius Caecilius secundus on 24 August, 79 AD the Nt. Vesuvius eruption causes 2,000 death and burying of the Pompeii city.
There is no doubt that the earth is experiencing on of the most intense periods of volcanism in the last 10,000 years. This period began at the beginning of the seventh century, concomitant with global cooling that peaked in the little ice age.
In contrast the volcanic events of the last century may be viewed as freak eruption of supposedly dormant volcanoes. In the present era, volcanic eruption are pervasive, unpredictable and deadly.
Land use planning better prediction of volcanic eruptions and development of effective evacuation plans reduce the loss of human life from volcanic eruption. The prediction systems related to volcanic activity has improved considerably during past few decades. The environmental consequence of volcanic eruption without or with anthropogenic emission is shown in Fig. 30.3.
Essay on Natural Disaster # 11. Planning For a Safer Tomorrow :
Natural disasters have a severe impact on the society, therefore it is important to plan and develop a safety programme and devise means to efficiently deal with natural disaster. Development programme that go into promoting development at the local level have been left to the general exercise of planning.
Measures need also to be taken to integrate disaster mitigation efforts at the local level with the general exercise of planning, and a more supportive environment created for initiatives towards managing of disasters at all levels: national, state, district and local.
The future blue-print for disaster management in India rests on the premise that in today’s society while hazards, both natural or otherwise, are inevitable, the disasters that follow need not be so and the society can be prepared to cope with them effectively whenever they occur.
The need of the hour is to chalk out a multi-pronged strategy for total risk management, comprising prevention, preparedness, response and recovery on the one hand, and initiate development efforts aimed towards risk reduction and mitigation, on the other. Only then can we look forward to “sustainable development”.
Prevention and Preparedness :
Disaster prevention is intrinsically linked to preventive planning.
Some of the important steps in this regard are:
1. Introduction of a comprehensive process of vulnerability analysis and objective risk assessment.
2. Building a Robust and Sound Information Database:
A comprehensive database of the landuse, demography, infrastructure developed at the national, state and local levels alongwith current information on climate, weather and man-made structures is crucial in planning, warning and assessment of disasters. In addition, resource inventories of governmental and non-governmental systems including personnel and equipment help inefficient mobilization and optimization of response measures.
3. Creating State-of-the-Art Infrastructure:
The entire disaster mitigation game plan must necessarily be anchored to front line research and development in a holistic mode. State-of-the art technologies available worldwide need to be made available in India for upgrading of the disaster management system; at the same time, dedicated research activities should be encouraged, in all frontier areas related to disasters like biological, space applications, information technology, nuclear radiation etc., for a continuous flow of high quality basic information for sound disaster management planning.
4. Establishing Linkages between all knowledge-based Institutions:
A National Disaster Knowledge Network, tuned to the felt needs of a multitude of users like disaster managers, decision-makers, community etc., must be developed as the network of networks to cover natural, man-made and biological disasters in all their varied dimensions.
Capacity Building :
Reconstruction and rebuilding is a long drawn process and those involved in this exercise have to draw upon knowledge of best practices and resources available to them. Information and training on ways to better respond to and mitigate disasters to the responders go a long way in building the capacity and resilience of the country to reduce and prevent disasters.
Training is an integral part of capacity building as trained personnel respond much better to different disaster sand appreciate the need for preventive measures. The multi-sectoral and multi-hazard prevention based approach to disaster management. Professional training in disaster management is essential and should be built into the existing pedagogic research and education.
Specialised courses should be treated as a distinct academic and professional discipline, the subject needs to be discussed and taught as a specific component in professional and specialised courses like medicine, nursing, engineering, environmental sciences, architecture, and town and country planning.
Secondly, there has to be a focus towards preventive disaster management and development of a national ethos of prevention calls for an awareness generation at all levels. An appropriate level of awareness at the school level will help increase awareness among children and, in many cases, parents and other family members through these children.
Curriculum development with a focus towards dissemination of disaster related information on a sustained basis, covering all school levels may be worked out by the different school boards in the country.
Training facilities for government personnel involved in disaster management are conducted at the national level by the National Centre for Disaster Management at the Indian Institute of Public Administration, in New Delhi which functions as the nodal institution in the country for training, research and documentation of disasters.
At the State level, disaster management cells operating within the State Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) provide the necessary training. Presently, 24 ATIs have dedicated faculties. There is a need for strengthening specialized training, including training of personnel in disaster response.
Finally, capacity building should not be limited to professionals and personnel involved in disaster management but should also focus on building the knowledge, attitude and skills of a community to cope with the effects of disasters. Identification and training of volunteers from the community towards first response measures as well as mitigation measures is an urgent imperative.
A programme of periodic drills should be introduced in vulnerable areas to enable prompt and appropriate community response in the event of a disaster which can help save valuable lives.
Communi ty Level:
Disaster management programme must strive to build a disaster resilient community equipped with safer living and sustainable livelihoods to serve its own development purposes. The community is also the first responder in any critical situation there by emphasizing the need for community level initiatives in managing disasters.
There is a need to create awareness through education training and information dissemination, community based approach followed by most NGOs and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) should be incorporated in the disaster management sector as an effective means of community participation.
Finally, within a vulnerable community, there exist groups that are more vulnerable like women and children, aged and in firm and physically challenged people who need special care and attention especially during crisis. Efforts are required for identifying such vulnerable groups and providing special assistance in terms of evacuation, relief, aid and medical attention.
Management of disasters should therefore be an interface between a community effort to mitigate and prevent disasters as also an effort from the government machinery to buttress and support popular initiatives.
Developing a St ronger Plan:
Given the damage caused by disaster, planned expenditure on disaster management and prevention measures in addition to the CRF is required. The Central Sector Scheme of Natural Disaster Management Programme has been implemented since 1993-94 by the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation with the objective to focus on disaster preparedness with emphasis on mitigation and preparedness measures for enhanced capability to reduce the adverse impact of disasters.
The major activities undertaken within this scheme include the setting up of the National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) at the Indian Institute of Public Administration, creation of 24 disaster management faculties in 23 states, research and consultancy services, documentation of major disaster events and forging regional cooperation.
The Eighth Plan allocation of Rs.6.30 crore for this scheme was increased to Rs.16.32 crore in the Ninth Plan. Within this scheme, NCDM has conducted over 50 training programme, training more than 1000 people, while 24 disaster management centers with dedicated faculty have been established in the states.
Over 4000 people have been trained at the State level. In addition, some important publications and audio-visual training modules have been prepared and documentation of disaster events has been done.
Though limited in scope and outlays, the Scheme has made an impact on the training and research activities in the country. Creation of faculties in disaster management in all 28 states is proposed to be taken up in the Tenth Plan in addition to community mobilisation, human resource development, establishment of Control Rooms and forging international cooperation in disaster management.
There is also an urgent need for strengthening the disaster management pedagogy by creating disaster management faculties in universities, rural development institutes and other organisations of premier research. Sustainability is the key word in the development process.
Development activities that do not consider the disaster loss perspective fail to be sustainable. The compounded costs of disasters relating to loss of life, loss of assets, economic activities, and cost of reconstruction of not only assets but of lives can scarcely be borne by any community or nation.
Therefore, all development schemes in vulnerable areas should include a disaster mitigation analysis, where by the feasibility of a project is assessed with respect to vulnerability of the area and the mitigation measures required for sustainability. Environmental protection, afforestation programme, pollution control, construction of earthquake resistant structures etc., should therefore have high priority within the plans Mitigation measures on individual structures can be achieved by design standards building codes and performance specifications.
Building codes, critical front-line defence for achieving stronger engineered structures, need to be drawn up in accordance with the vulnerability of the area and implemented through appropriate techno-legal measures. Mitigation measures need to be considered in land use and site planning activities.
Constructions in hazardous areas like flood plains or steep soft slopes are more vulnerable to disasters. Necessary mitigation measures need to be built into the design and costing of development projects. Insurance is a potentially important mitigation measure in disaster-prone areas as it brings quality in the infrastructure consciousness and a culture of safety by its insistence on following building codes, norms, guidelines, quality materials in construction etc.
Disaster insurance mostly works under the premise of ‘higher the risk higher the premium, lesser the risk lesser the premium’, thus creating awareness towards vulnerable areas and motivating people to settle in relatively safer areas?
Essay on Natural Disaster # 12. Major Initiatives taken by Government of India:
Natural disasters have become a recurring phenomenon in the recent past. In the last twenty years or so three million people have been killed as a result of such events. There is a need to focus and develop a plan that would focus on disaster management planning for prevention, reduction, mitigation, preparedness and response to reduce life and property due to natural disaster.
If we take it in the Indian context, the five year plans have never really taken into consideration the issues relating to the management and mitigation of natural disasters. The traditional perception has been limited to the idea of “calamity relief”, which is seen essentially as a non-plan item of expenditure. Disasters can have devastating impact on the economy and is a significant setback to the development in a given region.
Two recent disasters, the Orissa Cyclone and the Gujarat Earthquake, are cases in point. The development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention and mitigation aspects. There is thus a need to look at disasters from a development perspective as well.
Disaster management may not be directly associated with planned financing, but number of schemes are in operation, such as for drought proofing, afforestation, drinking water, etc., which deal with the prevention and mitigation of the impact of natural disasters. Extra assistance for post-disaster reconstruction and streamlining of management structures also is a major consideration of the plan.
A specific, centrally sponsored scheme on disaster management also exists. The plan thus already has a defined role in dealing with the subject. There have been an increasing number of natural disaster over the past years, and with it, increasing losses on account of urbanisation and population growth, as a result of which the impact of natural disasters is now felt to a larger extent.
According to the United Nations, in 2001 alone, natural disasters of medium to high range caused at least 25,000 deaths around the world, more than double the previous year, and economic losses of around US $ 36 billion. Devastations in the aftermath of powerful earthquakes that struck Gujarat, El Salvador and Peru; floods that ravaged many countries in Africa, Asia and elsewhere; droughts that plagued Central Asia including Afghanistan, Africa and Central America; the cyclone in Madagascar and Orissa; and floods in Bolivia are global events in recent memory.
However, what is disturbing is the knowledge that these trends of destruction and devastation are on the rise instead of being kept in check.
Natural disasters know no political boundaries and have no social or economic considerations. They are borderless as they affect both developing and developed countries. They are also merciless, and as such the vulnerable tend to suffer more at the impact of natural disasters.
For example, the developing countries are much more seriously affected in terms of the loss of lives, hardship borne by population and the percentage of their GNP lost. Since number of the most vulnerable regions is in India, natural disaster management has emerged as a high priority for the country.
Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the event, we now have to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation, in order that the periodic shocks to our development efforts are minimized.
Physical vulnerabilities have a direct impact on the population their proximity to the hazard zone and standards of safety maintained to counter the effects. For instance, some people are vulnerable to flood only because they live in a flood prone area. Physical vulnerability also relates to the technical capacity of buildings and structures to resist the forces acting upon them during a hazard event.
However, physical calamities is not the only criteria, there are prevailing social and economic conditions and its consequential effect on human activities within a given society. Parts of the Indian sub-continent are susceptible to different types of disasters owing to the unique topographic and climatic characteristics.
About 54 per cent of the sub-continent’s land mass is vulnerable to earthquakes while about 4 crore hectares is vulnerable to periodic floods. The decade 1990-2000, has been one of very high disaster losses within the country, losses in the Orissa Cyclone in 1999, and later, the Gujarat Earthquake in 2001 alone amount to several thousand crore of Rupees, while the total expenditure incurred on relief and reconstruction in Gujarat alone has been to the tune of Rs.11,500 crore. Disasters often result in enormous economic losses that are both immediate as well as long term in nature and demand additional revenues.
Also, as an immediate fall-out, disasters reduce revenues from the affected region due to lower levels of economic activity leading to loss of direct and indirect taxes. In addition, unplanned budgetary allocation to disaster recovery can hamper development interventions and lead to unmet developmental targets.
Disasters may also reduce availability of new investment, further constricting the growth of the region. Besides, additional pressures may be imposed on finances of the government through investments in relief and rehabilitation work.
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