Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, automatically generate references for free.
- Knowledge Base
- Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples
Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples
Published on 19 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.
To reference a website in Harvard style , include the name of the author or organization, the year of publication, the title of the page, the URL, and the date on which you accessed the website.
Different formats are used for other kinds of online source, such as articles, social media posts and multimedia content. You can generate accurate Harvard references for all kinds of sources with our free reference generator:
Harvard Reference Generator
Table of contents
Online articles, social media posts, images, videos and podcasts, referencing websites with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard website references.
Blog posts and online newspaper articles are both referenced in the same format: include the title of the article in quotation marks, the name of the blog or newspaper in italics, and the date of publication.
The format for a magazine article is slightly different. Instead of a precise date, include the month, season, or volume and issue number, depending on what the magazine uses to identify its issues.
The URL and access date information are included only when the article is online-exclusive.
To reference posts from social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, include the username and the platform in square brackets. Write usernames the way they appear on the platform, with the same capitalization and symbols.
If the post has a title, use it (in quotation marks). If the post is untitled, use the text of the post instead. Do not use italics. If the text is long, you can replace some of it with an ellipsis.
Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.
Online content is referenced differently if it is in video, audio or image form.
To cite an image found online, such as an artwork, photograph, or infographic, include the image format (e.g. ‘Photograph’, ‘Oil on canvas’) in square brackets.
Online videos, such as those on YouTube, Instagram, Vimeo and Dailymotion, are cited similarly to general web pages. Where a video is uploaded under the name of an individual, write the name in the usual format. Otherwise, write the username of the uploader as it appears on the site.
If you want to locate a specific point in a video in an in-text citation, you can do so using a timestamp.
For a podcast reference, you just need the name of the individual episode, not of the whole series. The word ‘Podcast’ is always included in square brackets. As with videos, you can use a timestamp to locate a specific point in the in-text citation.
Online sources are often missing information you would usually need for a citation: author, title or date. Here’s what to do when these details are not available.
When a website doesn’t list a specific individual author, you can usually find a corporate author to list instead. This is the organisation responsible for the source:
In cases where there’s no suitable corporate author (such as online dictionaries or Wikis), use the title of the source in the author position instead:
In Harvard style, when a source doesn’t list a specific date of publication, replace it with the words ‘no date’ in both the in-text citation and the reference list. You should still include an access date:
It’s important to assess the reliability of information found online. Look for sources from established publications and institutions with expertise (e.g. peer-reviewed journals and government agencies).
The CRAAP test (currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, purpose) can aid you in assessing sources, as can our list of credible sources . You should generally avoid citing websites like Wikipedia that can be edited by anyone – instead, look for the original source of the information in the “References” section.
You can generally omit page numbers in your in-text citations of online sources which don’t have them. But when you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a particularly long online source, it’s useful to find an alternate location marker.
For text-based sources, you can use paragraph numbers (e.g. ‘para. 4’) or headings (e.g. ‘under “Methodology”’). With video or audio sources, use a timestamp (e.g. ‘10:15’).
In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’
A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.
The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 27 February 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-website-reference/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, a quick guide to harvard referencing | citation examples, harvard style bibliography | format & examples, harvard in-text citation | a complete guide & examples, scribbr apa citation checker.
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
Free Harvard Citation Generator
Powered by chegg.
- Select style:
- Archive material
- Chapter of an edited book
- Conference proceedings
- Dictionary entry
- DVD, video, or film
- E-book or PDF
- Edited book
- Encyclopedia article
- Government publication
- Music or recording
- Online image or video
- Press release
- Religious text
What is the Harvard Referencing System?
The Harvard citation style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people’s quotes, findings and ideas into their work in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws. The popular format is typically used in assignments and publications for humanities as well as natural, social and behavioural sciences.
It is a parenthetical referencing system that is made up of two main components:
- In-text citations including the author’s surname and the year of publication should be shown in brackets wherever another source has contributed to your work
- A reference list outlining all of the sources directly cited in your work
While in-text citations are used to briefly indicate where you have directly quoted or paraphrased a source, your reference list is an alphabetized list of complete Harvard citations that enables your reader to locate each source with ease. Each entry should be keyed to a corresponding parenthetical citation in the main body of your work, so that a reader can take an in-text citation and quickly retrieve the source from your reference list.
Note that some universities, and certain disciplines, may also require you to provide a bibliography. This is a detailed list of all of the material you have consulted throughout your research and preparation, and it will demonstrate the lengths you have gone to in researching your chosen topic.
‘Harvard referencing’ is an umbrella term for any referencing style that uses the author name and year of publication within the text to indicate where you have inserted a source. This author-date system appeals to both authors and readers of academic work. Scholars find the format an economical way of writing, and it is generally more accessible to the reader as there are no footnotes crowding the page. Only the name of the author, the publication date of the source and, if necessary, the page numbers are included in the parenthetical citations, for example: (Joyce, 2008).
Use the Cite This For Me Harvard style referencing generator to create your fully-formatted in-text references and reference list in the blink of an eye. Stop giving yourself extra pain and work for no reason and sign up to Cite This For Me today – your only regret will be that you didn’t use our citation generator sooner!
Popular Harvard Referencing Examples
- Chapter of a book
- Conference proceedings
- Court case
- Encyclopedia article
- Image online or video
- Presentation or lecture
- Video, film, or DVD
Cite This For Me Harvard Referencing Guide
The following guide provides you with everything you need to know to do justice to all your hard work and get a mark that reflects those sleepless nights. If you’re not sure how to format your Harvard style citations, what citations are, or are simply curious about the Cite This For Me citation generator, our guide will answer all of your questions while offering you a comprehensive introduction to the style. Keep reading to find out why you need to use a referencing system, how to add citations in the body of your assignment, and how to compile a reference list.
Sometimes, students do not encounter citing until they embark on to degree-level studies, yet it is a crucial academic skill that will propel you towards establishing yourself in the academic community. It’s a common mistake to leave citing and creating a complete and accurate bibliography until the very last minute, but with the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator you can cite-as-you-go.
So, if you need a helping hand with your referencing then why not try Cite This For Me’s automated citation generator ? The generator accesses knowledge from across the web, assembling all of the relevant information into a fully-formatted reference list that clearly presents all of the sources that have contributed to your work. Using this Harvard reference generator to cite your sources enables you to cross the finishing line in style.
It is important to bear in mind that there is a plethora of different citation styles out there – the use of any particular one depends on the preference of your college, subject, professor or the publication you are submitting the work to. If you’re unsure which style you should be using, consult your tutor and follow their guidelines. If your lecturer or department does not ask you to use a particular style, we recommend using the Harvard referencing system because it is simple to use and easy to learn.
The powerful citation generator above can auto-generate citations in 7,000+ styles. So, whether your professor prefers that you use the MLA format , or your discipline requires you to adopt the APA citation or Chicago citation style , we have the style you need. Cite This For Me also provides citation generators and handy style guides for styles such as ASA , AMA or IEEE . To accurately create citations in a specific format, simply sign up to Cite This For Me for free and select your chosen style.
Are you struggling with citing an unfamiliar source type? Or feeling confused about whether to cite a piece of common knowledge? This guide will tell you everything you need to know to get both your parenthetical Harvard citations and reference list completed quickly and accurately.
Why Do I Need to Cite?
Harvard referencing can be a confusing task, especially if you are new to the concept, but it’s absolutely essential. In fact, accurate and complete referencing can mean the difference between reaching your academic goals and damaging your reputation amongst scholars. Simply put – referencing is the citing of sources you have utilised to support your essay, research, conference or article, etc.
Even if you are using our Harvard style citation generator, understanding why you need to cite will go a long way in helping you to naturally integrate the process into your research and writing routine.
Firstly, whenever another source contributes to your work you must give the original author the appropriate credit in order to avoid plagiarism, even when you have completely reworded the information. The only exception to this rule is common knowledge – e.g., Brazil is a country in South America. While plagiarism is not always intentional, it is easy to accidentally plagiarize your work when you are under pressure from imminent deadlines, you have managed your time ineffectively, or if you lack confidence when putting ideas into your own words. The consequences can be severe; deduction of marks at best, expulsion from college or legal action from the original author at worst. Find out more here.
This may sound overwhelming, but using our Harvard citation generator can help you avoid plagiarism and carry out your research and written work thoughtfully and responsibly. We have compiled a handy checklist to follow while you are working on an assignment.
How to avoid plagiarism:
- Formulate a detailed plan – carefully outline both the relevant content you need to include, as well as how you plan on structuring your work
- Keep track of your sources – record all of the relevant publication information as you go (e.g., If you are citing a book you should note the author or editor’s name(s), year of publication, title, edition number, city of publication and name of publisher). Carefully save each quote, word-for-word, and place it in inverted commas to differentiate it from your own words. Tired of interrupting your workflow to cite? Use our Harvard referencing generator to automate the process.
- Manage your time effectively – make use of time plans and targets, and give yourself enough time to read, write and proofread
- When you are paraphrasing information, make sure that you use only your own words and a sentence structure that differs from the original text
- Every quote or paraphrase should have a corresponding reference in the text. In addition, a full reference is needed on the final page of the project.
- Save all of your research and citations in a safe place – organise and manage your Harvard style citations
If you carefully check your college or publisher’s advice and guidelines on citing and stick to this checklist, you should be confident that you will not be accused of plagiarism.
Secondly, proving that your writing is informed by appropriate academic reading will enhance your work’s authenticity. Academic writing values original thought that analyzes and builds upon the ideas of other scholars. It is therefore important to use Harvard style referencing to accurately signpost where you have used someone else’s ideas in order to show that your writing is based on knowledge and informed by appropriate academic reading. Citing your sources will demonstrate to your reader that you have delved deeply into your chosen topic and supported your thesis with expert opinions.
Here at Cite This For Me we understand how precious your time is, which is why we created our Harvard citation generator and guide to help relieve the unnecessary stress of citing. Escape assignment-hell and give yourself more time to focus on the content of your work by using the Cite This For Me citation management tool.
Harvard Referencing Guidelines by School
- Anglia University Harvard Referencing
- Anglia Ruskin University
- Bath University
- Bournemouth University Harvard Referencing
- Cape Peninsula University of Technology
- Cardiff University Harvard Referencing
- City University London
- Coventry University Harvard Referencing
- Cranfield Harvard
- DMU Harvard Referencing
- Durham University Business School
- Edge Hill University Harvard Referencing
- European Archaeology
- Imperial College University Harvard Referencing
- Institute of Physics
- Leeds University Harvard Referencing
- King’s College London
- LSBU Harvard Referencing
- Manchester Business School
- MMU Harvard Referencing
- Newcastle University
- Northwest University
- Oxford Brookes University
- Oxford Centre for Mission Studies
- SHU Harvard Referencing
- Staffordshire University Harvard Referencing
- Swinburne University of Technology
- The Open University
- UCA Harvard Referencing
- University of Abertay Dundee
- University of Birmingham
- University of Cape Town
- University of Gloucestershire
- University of Greenwich Harvard
- University of Hull
- University of Kent – Harvard
- University of Limerick
- University of Melbourne
- University of Northampton
- University of Sunderland
- University of Technology, Sydney
- University of West London
- UWE Harvard Referencing
- UWS Harvard Referencing
- Wolverhampton University Harvard Referencing
- York University
How Do I Create and Format In-text Harvard Style Citations?
In-text citations are the perfect way to seamlessly integrate sources into your work, allowing you to strengthen the connection between your own ideas, and the source material that you have found, with ease. It is worth noting that in-text citations must be included in your assignment’s final word count.
When adopting Harvard style referencing in your work, if you are inserting a quote, statement, statistic or any other kind of source information into the main body of your essay you should:
- Provide the author’s surname and date of publication in parentheses right after the taken information or at the end of the sentence
There are many assumptions when it comes to the information processing approach to cognition… (Lutz and Huitt, 2004).
- If you have already mentioned the author in the sentence, Harvard referencing guidelines require you to only enter the year of publication in parentheses, directly after where the author’s surname is mentioned.
In the overview of these developmental theories, Lutz and Huitt (2004) suggest that…
- If you are quoting a particular section of the source (rather than the entire work), you should also include a page number, or page range, after the date, within the parenthetical Harvard citation
“…the development of meaning is more important than the acquisition of a large set of knowledge or skills …” (Lutz and Huitt, 2004, p.8), which means that …
- Note that if the source has four or more authors, you do not need to write out all of their surnames; simply use the first author’s surname followed by the abbreviation ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘and others’).
The results showed that respondents needed to reach out to multiple health agencies in order to cover the costs of their services (Wolbeck Minke et al., 2007).
- If you are reading a source by one author and they cite work by another author, you may cite that original work as a secondary reference. You are encouraged to track down the original source – usually this is possible to do by consulting the author’s reference list – but if you are unable to access it, the Harvard referencing guidelines state that you must only cite the source you did consult as you did not actually read the original document. Include the words ‘cited in’ in the in-text citation to indicate this.
Fong’s 1987 study (cited in Bertram 1997) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people…
(Fong, cited in Bertram 1997)
Why use a Harvard referencing tool? As well as saving you valuable time, the Cite This For Me generator can help you easily avoid common errors when formatting your in-text citations. So, if you’re looking for an easy way to credit your source material, simply login to your Cite This For Me account to copy, save and export each in-text Harvard citation.
How Do I Format My Reference List?
Utilizing and building on a wide range of relevant sources is one way of impressing your reader, and a comprehensive list of the source material you have used is the perfect platform to exhibit your research efforts. A reference list is always required when you cite other people’s work within your assignment, and the brief in-text Harvard style citations in your work should directly link to your reference list.
As a general rule a reference list includes every source that you have cited in your work, while a bibliography also contains any relevant background reading which you have consulted to familiarise yourself with the topic (even those sources that are never mentioned in the narrative). Your Harvard referencing bibliography should start on its own page, with the same formatting as the rest of the paper and aligned to the left with the sources listed alphabetically. Certain fields ask you to provide an annotated bibliography that includes your full citations with the addition of notes. These notes are added to further analyze the source, and can be of any length.
Many people use the terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’ interchangeably, and if you are using the Harvard reference style you may be required to provide a bibliography as well as a reference list, so be sure to check this with your tutor.
Follow these guidelines when compiling your reference list:
- Start your reference list on a new page at the end of your document
- General formatting should be in keeping with the rest of your work
- Use ‘Reference List’ as the heading
- Copy each of your full-length Harvard citations into a list
- Arrange the list in alphabetical order by the author’s last name (titles with no author are alphabetized by the work’s title, and if you are citing two or more sources by the same author they should be listed in chronological order of the year of publication)
- When there are several works from one author or source, they should be listed together but in date order – with the earliest work listed first
- Italicize titles of books, reports, conference proceedings etc. For journal articles, the title of the journal should be printed in italics, rather than the title of the journal article
- Capitalize the first letter of the publication title, the first letters of all main words in the title of a journal, and all first letters of a place name and publisher
Creating and managing your reference list with the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator will help improve the way you reference and conduct research.
Reference list / bibliography examples:
- Book, one author:
Bell, J. (2010) Doing your research project . 5th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
- One author, book, multiple editions:
Hawking, S.W. (1998) A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes . 10th edn. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.
- Chapter in an edited book:
Jewsiewicki, B. (2010). ‘Historical Memory and Representation of New Nations in Africa’, in Diawara, M., Lategan, B., and Rusen, J. (eds.) Historical memory in Africa: Dealing with the past, reaching for the future in an intercultural context . New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 53-66.
If all information resembles a book, use the template for a book reference
If a page number is unavailable, use chapter number. URL links are not necessary, but can be useful. When including a URL, include the date the book was downloaded at the end of the Harvard citation:
Available at: URL (Downloaded: DD Month YYYY)
- More than three authors, journal article*:
Shakoor, J., et al. (2011) ‘A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry , 53(3), pp. 254–261. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02488.x.
- Conference papers:
Drogen, E. (2014) ‘Changing how we think about war: The role of psychology’, The British Psychological Society 2014 Annual Conference . The ICC, Birmingham British Psychological Society, 07-09 May 2014.
- Web page, by an individual:
Moon, M. (2019) Ubisoft put an official video game design course inside a video game . Available at https://www.engadget.com/2019/09/25/ubisoft-video-game-design-course/ (Accessed 19 November 2019).
- Web page, by a company or organization:
RotoBaller (2019) NFL player news . Available at https://www.rotoballer.com/player-news?sport=nfl (Accessed 17 September 2019).
For both types of web page references, the date the page was published or updated is placed in parentheses immediately following the author information. If a date is missing from the source, place (no date) next to the author’s name and make sure to include an accessed date at the end of the reference.
Are you struggling to find all of the publication information to complete a reference? Did you know that our Harvard citation generator can help you?
Time is of the essence when you’re finishing a paper, but there’s no need to panic because you can compile your reference list in a matter of seconds using the Cite This For Me Harvard style citation generator. Sign in to your Cite This For Me account to save and export your reference list.
Harvard Referencing Formatting Guidelines
Accurate referencing doesn’t only protect your work from plagiarism – presenting your source material in a consistent and clear way also enhances the readability of your work. Closely follow the style’s formatting rules on font type, font size, text-alignment and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Before submitting your work check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference list – according to the style’s formatting guidelines.
How to format in Harvard referencing:
- Margins: 2.5cm on all sides
- Shortened title followed by the page number in the header, aligned to the right
- Double-space the entirety of the paper
- ½ inch indentation for every new paragraph (press tab bar)
- Suggested fonts: Times New Roman, Arial and Courier New for Windows; Times New Roman, Helvetica and Courier for Mac, 12pt size. Ensure that all Harvard citations are in the same font as the rest of the work
- Reference list on a separate page at the end of the body of your work
Even when using a Harvard citation generator, always check with your professor for specified guidelines – there is no unified style for the formatting of a paper. Make sure that you apply the recommended formatting rules consistently throughout your work.
A Brief History of the Harvard Reference Style
The author-date system is attributed to eminent zoologist Edward Laurens Mark (1847-1946), Hersey professor of anatomy and director of Harvard’s zoological laboratory. It is widely agreed that the first evidence of Harvard referencing can be traced back to Mark’s landmark cytological paper (Chernin, 1988). The paper breaks away from previous uses of inconsistent and makeshift footnotes through its use of a parenthetical author-date citation accompanied by an explanatory footnote.
- Parenthetic author-year citation, page 194 of Mark’s 1881 paper:
[…] The appearance may be due solely to reflection from the body itself. (Comp. Flemming, ‘78b, p. 310.*)
- Mark’s rationale for his Harvard citational scheme:
*The numbers immediately following an author’s name serve the double purpose of referring the reader to the list (p. 591) where the titles of papers are given, and of informing him at once of the approximate date of the paper in question.
A tribute dedicated to Mark in 1903 by 140 students credits Mark’s paper with having ‘introduced into zoology a proper fullness and accuracy of citation and a convenient and uniform method of referring from text to bibliography’ (Parker, 1903). Today Harvard referencing is widely considered one of the most accessible styles and, although it originated in biology, these days it is used across most subjects – particularly in the humanities, history and social science.
The Evolution of the Harvard Referencing Style
Due to its simplicity and ease of use, the format has become one of the most widely used citation styles in the world. Unlike many citing styles there is no official manual, but institutions such as colleges offer their own unique Harvard reference style guide, and each has its own nuances when it comes to punctuation, order of information and formatting rules. Simply go to the Cite This For Me website to login to your Cite This For Me account and search for the version you need. Make sure you apply consistency throughout your work.
It is increasingly easy for writers to access information and knowledge via the internet, and in turn both the style’s guidelines and our citation generator are continually updated to include developments in electronic publishing. The Cite This For Me Harvard style citation generator currently uses the Cite Them Right 10th Edition, which has evolved in recent years to match the rapidly advancing digital age. In order to avoid plagiarism, you must be cautious about pulling information from the internet, and ensure that you accurately cite all source material used in your written work – including all online sources that have contributed to your research.
Key differences from previous Harvard referencing Cite Them Right editions:
- Previous editions required printed books and eBooks to be referenced differently – in the 10th edition, both are now referenced using the same template (if all the necessary information is available). An Ebook is considered to be the digital format of a published book (or a book that is only published in digital format) that is meant for reading on an electronic device.
- URLs are no longer a requirement for digital media if the information provided in the Harvard citation is sufficient to find the source without it. They should be included if the source is difficult to find, or pieces of source information – such as an author name – are missing.
- When a source has more than 3 authors, use the abbreviation “et al.” instead of listing each out.
These days students draw on a diverse range of digital sources to support their written work. Whether you are citing a hashtag on Instagram , a podcast or a mobile app, the Cite This For Me generator will take care of your Harvard citations, regardless of the type of source you want to cite. So don’t be held back by sources that are difficult to cite – locating unusual source material will help your work to stand out from the crowd.
How Do I Create Accurate Harvard Citations?
Creating complete and correctly formatted citations can be a challenge for many writers, especially when documenting multiple source types. Our primary goal at Cite This For Me is to offer support to students and researchers across the globe by transforming the way in which they perceive citing. We hope that after using our citation generator and reading this Harvard referencing guide, what was once considered an arduous process, will be viewed as a highly-valued skill that enhances the quality of your work.
Disheartened by the stressful process of citing? Got a fast-approaching deadline? Using the Cite This For Me fast, accessible and free generator makes creating accurate citations easier than ever, leaving more time for you to focus on achieving your academic goals.
Create a free account to add and edit each Harvard citation on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries. Things get even easier with Cite This For Me for Chrome – an intuitive, handy browser extension that allows you to create and edit a citation while you browse the web. Use the extension on any webpage that you want to cite, and add it to your chosen project without interrupting your workflow.
The Cite This For Me citation management tool is here to help you, so what are you waiting for? Accurate Harvard citations are just a click away!
Chernin, E. (1988) The ‘Harvard System’: A mystery dispelled. Available at: http://www.uefap.com/writing/referenc/harvard.pdf (Accessed: 4 July 2016).
Parker, G. (ed.) (1903) Mark anniversary volume. New York: Henry Holt.
Manage all your citations in one place
Create projects, add notes, and cite directly from your browser. Sign up for Cite This For Me today!
- SCU Library
- Referencing Guides
Harvard Referencing Guide
- In-text citations
Using in-text citations
- No specific font type or size required . Recommendations include Times New Roman, Arial, or Courier New for Windows, or Times, Helvetica, or Courier for Mac ) at size 12.
- The last name of the author(s) and the year of publication are generally needed.
- They can appear within a sentence or at the end of a sentence before the full stop eg. .... this week (Brown 2019).
- A page number is included for a direct quote. Place a colon directly after the year and separate multiple pages with a dash eg. (Dombrow 2014:155) or (Wardell 2018:32-33). There is no spacing between these elements. If there is no identifiable page number, provide another way for the reader to find the quoted information, eg. (heading or section name, paragraph, chapter, table or figure number).
- if work is not yet published , use in press eg. Smith (in press).
The Learning Zone Quick Guides to Writing at University
- How to use paraphrases in your writing
- Summarising and Paraphrasing
- Use reporting verbs to introduce evidence
In-text citation formats
In-text citations can be presented in two formats:.
- Information focused format - the citation is usually placed at the end of a sentence.
- Author focused format - the name of the author appears as part of the text, it need not be repeated in parenthetical citation. The date should immediately follow the author's name.
Example - Information focused
The wellbeing of workers is important (rodrıguez-garavito 2005), and managers must check in with their staff (ngai 2005)., example - author focused, in the long run, saarinen (2006) argues, development of tourism may not always be the most favourable use of natural and cultural resources ….
- If quoting and using a page number, add a colon next to the date, followed by the page number/ range.
Saarinen (2006:35-36), citing quotations, citing a direct quote.
You must include page number(s) in the in-text citation when incorporating a direct quotation into a sentence. Use single quotation marks to enclose short quotations (sentence fragments, a sentence or sentences with less than 30 words). Fit quotations within your sentences, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.
When Ladkin (2011:1136) suggests that knowledge of tourism and hospitality labour ‘clearly has a contribution to make to current wider societal debates’ she is, as we are, reflecting on the shifting phenomenon of hospitality work.
There seems to be a 'consensus among researchers and policy makers that experiments constitute a gold standard in policy evaluation, although they are not a complete recipe for policy evaluation’ (danielson 2007:381–382)., citing a block quote.
A direct quote that is more than 30 words long is usually indented from the text margin in a block format and use one size smaller font in single line spacing. Quotation marks are not needed.
New institutional studies of organisations in the 1970s and 1980s are largely characterised by an emphasis on diffusion, isomorphism, and decoupling:
The new institutionalism in organisation theory and sociology comprises a rejection of rational-actor models, and interest in institutions as independent variables, a turn towards cognitive and cultural explanations, and an interest in properties of supra individual units of analysis that cannot be reduced to aggregations or direct consequences of individuals' attributes or motives (DiMaggio and Powell 1991:8).
Modifying a direct quote
If you need to omit a word or words from a quote, indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots) with a space before and after the ellipsis ( ... ). A direct quote should neither start nor end with an ellipsis. Words should only be omitted from a quote if they are superfluous to the reason why you are using the quote and the meaning of the quote is not affected by the change.
For example (in a block quote):
The modernist view of the individual voice has been debated:
As with an early modernist like Lautréamont ... the subject or “character” is always an unstable collective, perpetually on the make, on trial and in degeneration, as much as it is in productive process, riven by contradiction and interruption, and by virtue of the textual mosaic, it hosts a crazed polyphony with no “originary” voice (Campbell 2014:157).
If you need to add a word or words to a quote, or change the capitalisation of a word to fit with your syntax, put the word(s)/letter in square brackets [ ]. Words should only be added to a quote for explanatory reasons (e.g. a name might be added to explain who a pronoun is referencing).
The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured, as '[t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings, like the family home' (jones 1998:89)..
If you need to indicate a misspelling, grammatical error or lack of inclusive language, insert the word [sic] (meaning so or thus ) in square brackets immediately following the error but do not change the error in the quote.
For example (non-inclusive language):
According to havelock (1986:63), the written word can be looked at as an extension of conversation where the author ‘writes down what he [sic] is saying so that another person can read what he [sic] says instead of just hearing it.’, for example (spelling):, the claim that ‘confiscation of these lands was both illegal and sacrilegious [sic]’ takes the approach that the church should be involved in these decisions (hamilton and strier 1996:165)., list of abbreviations and expressions, acceptable abbreviations and expressions to use in citations and reference list include the following:, author information, one author - in-text citation, (author last name year), .....finding information (richardson 2018) or richardson (2018) claimed that …, two authors - in-text citation, (author last name and author last name year) - use the word 'and' not '&' between names., (black and jacobsen 2020) or black and jacobsen (2020) mention that .., three authors - in-text citation, (first author last name et al. year) or first author last name et al. (year), (jackson et al. 2018) or jackson et al. (2018), group authors - in-text citation, format , (group author name [abbreviation] year), subsequent references, (abbreviation year) or abbreviation (year), in text citation:, (department of foreign affairs and trade [dfat] 2021) or department of foreign affairs and trade (dfat 2021), authors with same surname - in-text citation.
- When citing sources written by authors with the same surname, include the authors’ initials in in-text citations.
D Nguyen (2009) and L Nguyen (2009) both reported the same effects occurring in lakes and rivers.
Three or more authors, same first author - in-text citation.
- When referencing two or more sources published in the same year, and all these sources have the same first author and maybe even the same second, third authors, provide the names of enough authors in the in-text citation to show the difference.
(Larour, Morlighem, et al. 2012)
(larour, schiermeier, et al. 2012), (milillo, rignot, mouginot, scheuchl, li, et al. 2017), (milillo, rignot, mouginot, scheuchl, morlighem, et al. 2017), multiple works by same author(s) and same year - in-text citation.
- Works published in the same year by the same author are listed alphabetically by the title of the work and a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ...) is added immediately after the date, in both the reference list and in-text citations.
She has written extensively on Australia – New Zealand relations (Dobell 2018a, 2018b).
Multiple works by same author - in-text citation.
- If you cite two or more works from the same author/s at one point in the text , arrange the sources in chronological order , starting with the earliest date.
The process first identified by Watson (1960, 1966, 1968), shows..
Multiple sources cited at one point - in-text citation.
- When citing multiple works in the same in-text citation , use semicolons between citations. Place authors names in alphabetical order .
- Enclose all the citations in one set of parentheses.
Other researchers reported similar results (Abaza 2019; Black 2018; White and Jones 2017).
Works with no author - in-text citation.
- When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year . Use the first few words if the title is too long.
This was apparently not the case before about 1995 ( The entrepreneur's guide to the law 1999).
Works with no publication date - in-text citation.
- For works without a date, write n.d. (for ‘no date’) instead of the year of publication.
White and Jones (n.d.) reported similar results.
Other researchers reported similar results (white and jones n.d.)..
- << Previous: Author information
- Next: Citing a secondary source >>
- Last Updated: Feb 28, 2023 3:04 PM
- URL: https://libguides.scu.edu.au/harvard
Southern Cross University acknowledges and pays respect to the ancestors, Elders and descendants of the Lands upon which we meet and study. We are mindful that within and without the buildings, these Lands always were and always will be Aboriginal Land.
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / Harvard Referencing Style Examples / Harvard Referencing In-text Citations
In-text Citations in Harvard Referencing Style
When you incorporate quotes or ideas of other authors in your work, you must provide an in-text citation in order to credit those authors properly. For in-text citations, Harvard referencing style uses author-date format. In other words, Harvard style uses parenthetical and narrative citations that show the name of the author and the publication year of the source.
Harvard style does not use footnotes or endnotes.
For details about the in-text citation format for different types of sources, see these Harvard referencing examples .
In-text citations and references
Every Harvard style in-text citation has a corresponding reference in a reference list.
In-text citations only refer to the author surname, publication year, and sometimes the page numbers. Less information is included here so as not to interrupt the flow of the reader. This guide on formatting page numbers in Harvard style provides more details on how to include page numbers in your citations.
References include additional information about a source, such as its title, publisher name, location, etc. More information is given here, so the reader can track down the source, should they want to read more details. All references are consolidated into a single reference list that is placed at the end of the work.
Narrative and parenthetical citations
As mentioned above, there are two types of in-text citation: narrative and parenthetical. Both have the following source details:
- Author surname
- Publication year
- Page numbers; only needed if you are using a direct quotation AND there are page numbers available
A parenthetical citation includes all of the information within round brackets in the sentence that contains the borrowed information.
(Author Surname, Publication Year)
(Author, Year, p. nn)
(Author, Year, pp. nn-nn)
A narrative citation includes the author’s name in the text of the sentence and the other information within round brackets.
Author Surname (Publication Year)
(Year, p. nn)
(Year, pp. nn-nn)
Let’s look at several examples of these citations below.
When you are providing a Harvard style in-text citation for a work that has only one author or one company accredited to its name, the following format is used:
Basic citation structures:
(Author Surname or Company Name, Publication Year, p. nn)
Author Surname or Company Name (Publication Year, p. nn)
Only include a page number if you are using a direct quotation and if page numbers exist in the source.
“Miss Maudie had known Uncle Jack Finch, Atticus’s brother, since they were children.” (Lee, 1960, p. 48)
In the online report, Smith postulated that the cause was due to vasodilation (2019).
When including a direct or paraphrased quote that spans multiple pages, use ‘pp.’ instead of ‘p.’ to denote a range of pages.
The author talks about ‘the events of a summer in the countryside while the British army prepared for the Second World War’ (Henderson, 1955, pp. 11-21).
Sometimes the work that you are referring to has two or three authors. In such cases, the following format is used for in-text citation in Harvard style:
Citation structure (two authors) :
(Author 1 Surname and Author 2 Surname, Publication Year, p. nn)
Author 1 and Author 2 (Year, p. nn)
The stock market predictions were right, based on their educated theories (Holland and Smithson, 2011).
Holland and Smithson (2011) stated in their work that…
“The president’s predictions were right on target” (Holland and Smithson, 2011, p. 55).
Citation structure (three authors):
(Author 1 Surname, Author 2 Surname and Author 3 Surname, Publication Year, p. nn)
Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3 (Year, p. nn)
A closer examination of the study demonstrated that researcher biases had influenced the data (Bolton, Lopez and Dawson, 2018).
Bolton, Lopez and Dawson stated that “the data was biased towards local businesses” (2018, p. 11).
More than four authors
When the work that you are citing has more than four authors, you only show the first author listed, then use the Latin term ‘ et al.’ in italics. This helps you succinctly show that the source has four or more authors.
Citation structure (four or more authors):
(Author 1 Surname et al. , Publication Year, p. nn)
Author 1 et al. (Year, p. nn)
Watson et al. found that “nothing more could be gained from continued experimentation” (1999, p. 271).
Research began because of urgings by the local ethics board (Watson et al. , 1999).
No author or editor
When the work that you are citing does not have a known author or editor, first consider that the name of the publishing company could be used in place of the author. This is often the case with reports or white papers put out by associations and organizations.
The online report showed that lychee demand increased internationally by 50 percent (Lychee Growers Association, 2002).
According to the Lychee Growers Association, international demand for lychee grew by 50 percent (2002).
If it does not make sense to use a company name, use the title of the source instead of the author’s name.
“Music is a universal language” ( Music Theory for Dummies , 2012, p. 13).
If you cannot find the date of publication of the document or paper that you are citing, then [n.d.] should be used in place of the date.
“Nothing they said would convince them otherwise” (Cristosomo, [n.d.], p. 32).
Footnotes are used to reference quotes or paraphrases of a text used in another work. The Harvard style referencing does not use footnotes . The citation of the sources is provided in the text instead of in footnotes.
The Harvard author-date style is often used by both writers and readers of academic texts, as it does not interrupt the flow of reading. It saves time and keeps the attention focused on the text, whereas, in the styles that incorporate footnotes, the attention of the reader is constantly diverted to the footnotes.
Published October 29, 2020.
Harvard Formatting Guide
- et al Usage
- Direct Quotes
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Writing an Outline
- View Harvard Guide
- View all Harvard Examples
How useful was this post?
Click on a star to rate it!
We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!
Let us improve this post!
Tell us how we can improve this post?
Harvard Referencing Examples
Other Citation Styles
Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
- Link to facebook
- Link to linkedin
- Link to twitter
- Link to youtube
- Writing Tips
How to Cite a Website in Harvard Referencing
- 11th June 2019
With so much information now available online, you may need to cite a website in a piece of academic writing at some point.
But since most referencing systems focus on books and journals, knowing how this works can be tricky. Thus, to help out, we’ve prepared this quick guide to citing a website using Harvard referencing .
In-Text Citations (Named Author)
To cite a website in Harvard referencing, you will need to give the author’s surname and a year of publication. For instance:
Rousseau converted to Catholicism in 1728 (Bertram, 2010).
If you have already named the author in the main text, though, you don’t need to duplicate this information in the citation. Instead, you can just give a year of publication in brackets after the author’s name.
In addition, since websites don’t have page numbers, you will not usually need to give a pinpoint citation when quoting an online source.
However, for long or complicated texts, you could include a paragraph or section number (use “para.” to signal a paragraph number or the “§” symbol to denote a section). So to cite a website like this, we would write:
According to Bertram (2010, § 2.1), Rousseau thought morality had been displaced by “the impulse to dominate, oppress and exploit.”
Make sure to check your style guide for information on citing sources with no page numbers, though, as different places will have different rules.
In-Text Citations (No Named Author/Date of Publication)
To cite a website that does not name its author, the best approach is usually to reference an organizational author instead. This will be the company or organization that runs the website:
Tax avoidance often involves using contrived transactions that serve no purpose other than exploiting legal loopholes (HMRC, 2016).
Find this useful?
Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox.
If no date of publication is available, you can use “n.d.” in its place:
Moths are “an essential part of food chains” (RSPB, n.d.).
It can be hard to spot the author and publication date for websites, though, so make sure to check carefully before omitting this information from citations.
How to Cite a Website in the Reference List
As with any source in your work, you should add all cited websites to a reference list at the end of your document. The information you need here is:
Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year or Publication/Last Update) Title of Web Page [Online]. Available at: URL [Accessed date].
In practice, then, the reference list entry for a website would look like this:
Bertram, C. (2010) Jean Jacques Rousseau [Online]. Available at: plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/ [Accessed 24 October 2016].
Of course, if a webpage is missing a named author or date of publication, this should also be indicated in the reference list:
RSPB (n.d.) Grow Food for Moths [Online]. Available at: https://ww2.rspb.org.uk/makeahomeforwildlife/givenatureahomeinyourgarden/gardenactivities/growfoodformoths/ [Accessed 19 September 2016].
A Quick Note on Harvard Referencing
Although Harvard referencing is a common citation style, it is not a single unified system. As such, the rules your school uses may differ, so you should always check your style guide if you are not sure how to cite sources.
Share this article:
Post A New Comment
Need more help perfecting your writing proofed has the perfect editor.
You can also upload a document to get an instant quote
Drag & drop your file
or browse your computer
Browse from your device
Drop your file here!
Your file is being uploaded!
Punctuation Tips: Parenthesis
Whether you’re writing an essay, email, or cover letter, you’ll likely use parentheses. Maybe you...
Word Choice: May Versus Might
May and might are two modal verbs (a type of auxiliary verb) that often get...
5 Free French-to-English Translation Services
Below is a list of five free translation apps for French speakers seeking French-to-English translation...
How to Format Fiction Manuscripts
Like non-fiction and screenplays, fiction has unique formatting standards designed to ease the publishing process....
An Introduction to Orthography
If you’re looking up the definition of orthography, you’re probably either a language buff like...
How to Format an Argumentative Essay
When writing an argumentative essay, you would typically research a topic and adopt a certain...
In Harvard style, citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. Up to three authors are included in Harvard in-text citations. If there are four or more authors, the citation is shortened with et al. Table of contents
To reference a website in Harvard style, include the name of the author or organization, the year of publication, the title of the page, the URL, and the date on which you accessed the website. Different formats are used for other kinds of online source, such as articles, social media posts and multimedia content.
If you need to cite multiple pages from the same website, and the pages have different authors and/or publication dates associated with them, then you can simply use corresponding individual in-text citations and reference list entries for each page that you cite.
The Harvard citation style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people’s quotes, findings and ideas into their work in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws.
Harvard Referencing Guide Using in-text citations No specific font type or size required . Recommendations include Times New Roman, Arial, or Courier New for Windows, or Times, Helvetica, or Courier for Mac) at size 12. The last name of the author (s) and the year of publication are generally needed.
Every Harvard style in-text citation has a corresponding reference in a reference list. In-text citations only refer to the author surname, publication year, and sometimes the page numbers. Less information is included here so as not to interrupt the flow of the reader.
In-Text Citations (Named Author) To cite a website in Harvard referencing, you will need to give the author’s surname and a year of publication. For instance: Rousseau converted to Catholicism in 1728 (Bertram, 2010). If you have already named the author in the main text, though, you don’t need to duplicate this information in the citation.