Persuasive Speech On Cloning
Human cloning and its ethical issues.
There have been many arguments in the world about human cloning and its ethical issues. In an issue there will always be pros and cons, but the question is, is this experiment right for humanity? This paper will give in detail about what is cloning, human cloning and how it is done. It will provide my point of view in this topic and two other different arguments from both sides of the issue and finally determine which ones are great arguments.
Animal Cloning Speech
In this speech, I will talk about three topics, first, what clones are and what they are not, how animal cloning would be beneficial, and how human cloning would cause discomfort and should not be used.
Monsters We Have Created
Cloning is “the creation of exact copies of a gene, cell, or entire organism” (“Cloning”). Many objects can be cloned such as plants and cells. The topic of cloning becomes controversial when the focus is toward humans. It is evident that cloning of other species and organisms is possible. Because of this, the thought of human cloning has arisen in the science community within the previous few centuries. According to a poll produced by Time Magazine, ninety-three percent of American’s are opposed to human cloning (“Human Cloning”). This proves that the advancement of this topic has developed far beyond our wisdom. If nearly one hundred percent of the population disagrees with even the idea of this experiment, it is evident that they are unaware of the ways in which this technology has advanced. Furthermore, this unpredictable outcome of cloning will be irreversible. “Whatever effects cloning might have, cloning would be like opening Pandora’s Box, because there would be no way to turn back once the technology was developed and in use” (“Human Cloning”). As has been noted, the science of human cloning is not yet understood therefore it has advanced far too quickly for society to
The Controversy of Genetic Cloning
Genetic cloning is one of the most controversial topics of all time. People, specifically scientists, are constantly searching for ways to improve the quality of human life. As a result, they began genetically engineering animals and are currently in search of a method to genetically engineer humans as well; which is called human cloning. There are many reasons why people should not go forward with this step since genetic cloning, consequently human cloning, does not respect nature nor does it ensure diversity and survival in natural ecosystems. In addition, genetic cloning is a cruel, harsh, and an unsafe experiment.
Human Cloning Is Not More Difficult Than Cloning
Although the clone has the DNA of the donor, the clone will have epigenetic effects. Epigenetic disturbances refer to the altered physical structures of the DNA, but not the DNA sequence itself (Epigenetics). Cloning technology has produced clones of several mammals, including sheep, mice, goats, and horses (AMA). Cloning humans is technically more difficult than cloning other mammals (Cloning Fact Sheet). The process is still extremely inefficient and rarely produces viable cells. Those usable cells are unlikely to survive until birth (AMA). So far, animal cloning research has caused death and deformities of the clone (Kilner). Dolly, a cloned sheep, aged rapidly and had to be euthanized at six years old (Glannon, p91). We can assume that human cloning will also have a dismal failure rate (AMA). It would be considered unethical to attempt to produce human clones due to the potential physical harm to the cloned child
Therapeutic And Reproductive Cloning Is A Waste Of Money
I am writing to address the problem I have with cloning. Therapeutic and Reproductive cloning is a waste of money and time. Why would you pay fifty thousand american dollars to clone something or someone that won’t be an exact copy? Every person or animal in the world is made for a reason, so why make a clone if you’re one of a kind.
Cloning: A Therapeutic Analysis
One of the diseases that forms from cloning is Large Offspring Syndrome (LOS) which results in a clone being bigger than normal (What are the Risks of Cloning). No one has successfully cloned a human but according to William Dudley, “cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders than non cloned animals.” ("Background to Controversy: Basic Questions About Cloning" 92). Because of the illnesses clones can get, it can also result in clones having shorter lives. When a human’s cells divide, their chromosomes naturally get shorter which causes everyone to age. Telomeres will increase in length every time a strand of DNA is copied and if an animal is young, the animal’s telomeres will be long, and if an animal is older, the animal’s telomeres will be shorter. When Dolly the sheep was born, she was born with abnormally short telomeres which resulted in her living a shorter life than an average sheep.(“What are the Risks of Cloning”). Clones would also have severe medical conditions and reproductive problems. “Some clones without LOS have developed kidney or brain malformations and impaired immune systems, which can cause problems later in life” (“What are the Risks of Cloning”). Another medical condition is reproductive problems that also make cloning very unsuccessful. According to Nancy Gibbs, “Even with practiced
Cloning, The, And False Interpretations Of Cloning
Cloning, an ethical issue that has been pressed across the globe, has become a substantial debate throughout a majority of nations. The incorporation of a new type of reproduction in the United States has a plentiful amount of benefits for certain animals and objects, but duplicates of humans is hard to comprehend for many people across America. Currently, cloning is an interesting topic that could become a new way to improve reproduction of animals and humans, prevent diseases, and increase the overall health of Americans.
Essay On Cloning: The Immortal Life Of Henrietta Lacks
Cloning has always been a controversial subject. It has been discussed verbally, electronically, and academically. It has been discussed through books, movies, and newspaper articles, even if some of those are not serious and more fictional. Once source of discussion is the book called The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. It is about the true story of a woman named Henrietta Lacks, who had her cells taken without her knowledge. Within the book, the controversy of cell cloning and human cloning are discussed.
Persuasive Essay Against Animal Cloning
Cloning is a topic that has arisen in today’s modern day society and many people have talked about it, positive and negatively. Cloning can fix several problems including that donor donation and even the cloning of extinct animals. Many are against the use of animal cloning claiming it is inhumane and cruel, however, more are for animal cloning. Although many people are against the use of animal cloning, it would eliminate the need
Persuasive Essay On Cloning
Lets take a visual examination. Now there are definitely advantages to such a technological advance. Very essential advantages of cloning include: availing rejuvenating a patient, inverting heart attacks, infertility, plastic, reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, and taking away defective genes and many other essential endowments. It does this by sanctioning scientists to abstract or engender incipient cells. Another advantage is the utilization of stem cells. These are cells, which are blank cells, and can become any other type of cell. They are utilized for cloning, making it more expeditious for medicos to find donors for sick people. This is because the patient would not repudiate it as it was a clone. If somebody was astringently burned and needed more skin cells, a medico would just have to clone a few stem cells, to make incipient skin cells for the patient. By doing this, it would avail many people. Cloning can avail parents or couples, who are infertile or have lost their children, to get a child or a clone of their child. Also, this could be acclimated to avail parents whose child is sick to make a clone of that child and then utilize the cloned child to donate blood, skin cells, etc. to avail the sick child become more preponderant. By doing this, it would avail many
Persuasive Essay About Cloning
The idea of cloning has been around for a long time. The possible benefits it could bring to both mankind and other life on Earth. However, the morality and ethics of doing just this have only more recently filter to the surface. How can cloning help or hurt?
Persuasive Essay: What Is Cloning Ethical?
The survival rate is about one clone for every one hundred experiments. The cloned animals never last long and most die prematurely. Cloned animals also may have complications due to liver failure, pneumonia, and obesity throughout their lives. Why would we want to put a human through this? Human’s should not be experimented with in this way because it has a chance of being very harmful.
The Health Risks of Human Cloning
There are many defects and health risks regarding to human cloning. Embryos will be at risk during this process because embryos will be tested on whether or not they are deformed and are going to discard it or save it for a later use. There are also times when there will be embryos that get lost during pregnancy. A small percentage has been taken off live offspring that great deals of clones have undergone numerous conditions such as heart failures, shorter life span, diabetes, physical abnormality, and a great deal of organ deficiencies. Modern technology for human cloning is not at its peak yet and is risky at this time because there will be great failure levels. Many people wonder what will happen if some abnormal clones are unable to function properly in society. The clone itself may have a mental breakdown and suffer many hardships in life with the way it has been created. Many health and risk issues will arise when dealing with something that can only be created naturally (Gogarty 84).
Essay about Argument Against Human Cloning
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Many ethical and moral dilemmas arise when discussing human cloning, and one can have many positions for and against each. To understand the issues surrounding human cloning, one must have a basic
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Is Human Cloning Is Wrong Essay
Year 10 science assessment task: research.
My Opinion is that it is a bad process because there is a risk of mutations. This can result in deaths and extreme abnormalities in the cloned
Eugene C. Newman's Argument Against Human Cloning
Cloning is an idea that is often portrayed in science fiction as a way to essentially duplicate another living being. It has been making an appearance in the real world as something that could be useful in the medical and scientific fields as a way to bring back animals or to save peoples’ lives. Due to how unique cloning is, it was portrayed in famous parts of the media such as Jurassic Park. Although cloning does sound promising, it does possess a darker side to it, which does raise both moral and ethical issues. There are articles that do discuss cloning in which they either list the benefits of it or tell us about what moral and ethical issues that do come out of cloning. The differences between the articles allow the reader to make their own decisions on how they perceive the notion of cloning.
Human Cloning Controversy Essay
“The moral issues posed by human cloning are profound and have implications for today and for future generations. Today 's overwhelming and bipartisan House action to prohibit human cloning is a strong ethical statement, which I commend. We must advance the promise and cause of science, but must do so in a way that honors and respects life” (Muhlrad, P. J., A., D. S., Cole-Turner, R., Lewis, R., BlakeMore, C., & Kuhar, M. J. 2008).
The Dangers Of Cloning In Frankenstein
If human clones were to be successfully created, they’d likely be controlled by the scientific or medical communities for research. Creating clones for the sole purpose of infecting them with diseases so that medicine can advance quicker is a common theoretical use for human clones, along with creating them for organ or limb transplants (Aurelia, 2011). With the purpose of creating a clone to be to serve another person, this takes away consent of
The Ethics Of Cloning In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
James Joyce once said that “mistakes are the portals of discovery.” However, when it comes to the field of genetic engineering, specifically cloning, mistakes, or even discoveries, could turn out to be disastrous. Victor Frankenstein found this out when, in the book Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, he discovers the secrets to creating life which, some might say, led to a horrifying 8 foot tall creature. Nonetheless, cloning has become a lucrative field in the past twenty years since the first sheep was cloned. The process of cloning is essentially extracting tissue from an organism and growing the tissue within a laboratory by means of asexual reproduction. Bioethics have limited cloning to just animals such as a sheep as well as a monkey, but as technology has advanced, so it seems that humans are closer to being able to clone a human. Genetic engineering, specifically cloning, denies the dignity of human life because it crosses the ethical borders in which mankind is attempting to surpass God as a creator.
Frankenstein And The Birthmark Analysis
Many believe cloning is a perversion of science, and some are even concerned with a real life Frankenstein situation: “Reproductive cloning… could lead to a Dr. Frankenstein’s vision of lab manufactured humans. To me this is a perversion of science” (Ford 1). Furthermore, in Frankenstein, Dr. Frankenstein detached from the world as he became obsessed with his studies, diminishing his health. A similar thing could happen to scientists who clone if they decide that they are “playing god,” which can be dangerous for the scientists and the clones. Cloning is so controversial and causes an overbearing amount of stress for it to be befitting to the human mind, as Victor Frankenstein puts it, “If the study to which you apply yourself has a tendency to weaken your affections, and to destroy… those simple pleasures in which no alloy can possibly mix, then that study is certainly unlawful… not befitting of the human minds” (Shelley 50). That power trip in humans can lead to an unhealthy obsession. Scientist who create clones will have too much power, which will lead to them becoming so obsessed with their work that that is all they care about. In “The Birthmark,” Aylmer became obsessed with just the slightest flaw in a perfect woman, to the point where “when they sat together at the evening hearth his eyes wandered stealthily to her cheek…” (Hawthorne 2). Even when Aylmer was sitting, enjoying time with his wife, he was thinking about the birthmark. Also, the consequences of these obsessions can be fatal, like in “The Birthmark,” proving once again that some science can be unbefitting of
Should Taxpayer Money Go To Cloning Essay
If therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are both dangerous then why allow it in human and animal cloning? Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals. “95% of cloning have resulted in failures.” Therapeutic cloning can be replacing old organs on to someone or something else. Reproductive cloning is cloning a whole new human body. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning are just a waste of taxpayer money. Taxpayers would not benefit off of cloning in any way. Both therapeutic and reproductive cloning are dangerous. Cloning a relative whom past away is not the best idea.
Frankenstein Pros And Cons Of Cloning
In the story Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, Victor Frankenstein, the main character and narrator of the story, attempted to re-create a human from the dead for the sake of having done so. Victor did not take a minute to think about the pros and cons of creating it. This situation is like modern day Scientists who are enthralled with the idea of cloning a human being. The ramifications -- both physical and social -- of accomplishing this is where the concern is. Cloning is bad because we don't know what is going to happen in the end, although there are those who are on the opposing side.
Human Cloning Be Banned Essay
Do you know that based on the scientific studies, 90% human cloning tuned out to be unsuccessful. Human cloning(modifying babies) is a process of producing new identical babies by altering their genomes. Some of studies show that scientists successfully cloned animals such as cows, Pigs, and sheep. For the past 3-5 years human cloning have a lot of debates and controversies between peoples. However Human cloning is dangerous for the new engineered baby and their moms, so it should be banned to prevent new disease, to constantly limit the population of dying human beings, and to stop unnecessary fees to modify babies.
Misuse Of Knowledge In Frankenstein
I believe human cloning interferes with nature in ways humanity will not be able to handle. This source states, " This could lead to a set of problems that we have no ability to handle." The evidence suggests that human cloning can lead to the fall of humanity, due to clones becoming soverienty. However, some people believe that human cloning can be useful, due to assisting with unlawful interests. I beleive that this will only create misuse of knowledge in trying to correct clones in right paths.
How Would Utilitarians View Human Cloning
I’m not sure if I agree with cloning at all. I believe that when it is a person time to die then it is their time and no one should get favors. Cloning can create genetical defects and nowhere does it specify that the diseases you already have wont transfer over to your clone.
Frankenstein And The Birthmark
Human Cloning, an exact replication of an adult human, should be banned in the United States of America because of its possible consequences to society as a whole, as proven by the science fiction novel Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, and the short story “The Birthmark,” by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
David B Hershenov's An Argument For Limited Human Cloning
Cloning means ‘replicating a fragment of DNA placed in an organism so that there is enough to analyze or use in protein production’. This means to create a copy of some existing organism from already matured cells. There are many moral complexities that can be derived from the concept of cloning such as the manufacturing or the evolving of animals, humans, or plant material. There’s a conflict within society with the basic idea of manipulating cells in such a way that you create something. All in all, cloning seems to be a broad field with many varying opinions. For the sake of this essay, we will be concentrating on human cloning for reproductive reasons. I will be analyzing the views of David B. Hershenov in An Argument for Limited Human Cloning and presenting objections brought to us by the Presidential Panel for Bioethics. Hershenov will be taking the affirmative stance against the Presidential Panel who provides the objections to the question “Is human Cloning
Argumentative Essay: The Ethics Of Human Cloning
Not only are there many ways in which human cloning can be misused, such as, creating clones for organ donors or replacement children, but cloning has also proved to be rather dangerous (Hoskins). It takes scientists many attempts and many failures before they successfully clone animals and there is no reason to think it would be different with humans (Harrison). Many human embryos would need to be sacrificed in order to protect this practice and many of these children clones who did survive would
Essay On The Pros And Cons Of Animal Cloning
Cloning at the gene level is acceptable and is done extensively in research areas. However, therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning raises skepticism and debate both in the general society and the scientific community. Among the argument raised is the possibility of cloning human beings; whether the individuals derived are seen as a complete human with the whole set of human rights attached to them.
More about Is Human Cloning Is Wrong Essay
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Essays on Cloning
A controversy over the idea of human cloning, discussion on whether human cloning should be legal, research on cloning: definition, history and facts, review on cloning, issue of cloning in modern world, cloning and ethical controversies related to it, the principles of the cloning in the biology, the ethical dilemma of therapeutic cloning, the different challenges in the cloning of baby jason, review of the features of the process of cloning, the extinction of pyrenean ibex, selective breeding and trans genesis of cows, positional cloning of genetic disorders, the changes of matt in the house of the scorpion by nancy farmer, benefits and imperfection of the human genome project and gene cloning, cloning within the human genome project, dolly the sheep as a huge breakthrough in the world of biotechnology, feeling stressed about your essay.
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Should Human Cloning Be Allowed?
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Cloning in general has been a rising debated issue across the globe since before Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1996.The success of being able to clone animal brought scientists to wonder about a more challenging task, cloning humans. This challenging task is morally wrong and should not be stood for. However, some people seem not to realize the negative aspects that cloning would bring into a world which is already nuisance. We cannot deny that cloning may help in saving one’s life or making someone’s life better but will it cause nuisance to the society with the misuse of the cloning process?
First of all, the advantage of cloning is this process provide organs for transplantation where if vital organ in human body is cloned and served as a backup system.
The cloned body parts like heart, lungs liver and many more could be a lifesaver. Furthermore, when the organ failed to function well, it may be replaced with the cloned organs.
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Moreover, the doctors can clone identical organs like kidney so that the patient will not face risk of rejection of the kidney after operation. Thus, it will be safer and directly benefit the patients. In the case of accident victims, or transplant patients, obtaining the needed tissues, or organ parts in a timely manner can mean the difference between life and death. In this situation, the ability of being able to produce needed tissue materials and organs in the lab would provide a timely source of treatment.
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In short, cloning helps to save one’s life.
Recently, the success rate of current infertility treatments is very low. Further, the couple has to go through tormenting procedures with a small chance of getting a child. The advent of cloning technology will make it possible for infertile couples to have child than ever before where the cloned embryos are implanted into their bodies. This method, while providing couples with the chance to conceive, and also the capability to determine the gender of an embryo, which would make it possible to select which embryo lives and which one dies depending on its gender. Thus, cloning may help to eliminate the mental and physical pains among the infertile couples.
Besides that, cloning has the ability to determine the health of an infant. The process of cloning can eliminate all the worrying regarding the child’s health. Scientist can alter the genes to ensure a healthy child. For example, if a mother has given birth to two children which suffered from Down’s syndrome. Doctors can manipulate and balance out the number of chromosomes in the embryo to give the mother a normal and healthy child. Through the cloning process, parents can also prevent their child from inheriting their sickness that their child might high risk of inheriting it. Thus, the cloning process might help in ensuring younger generation from inheriting unwanted genes from their parents.
In a nutshell, I strongly feel that cloning should not be banned from the society as this process has contribute lots of advantages to the society and provide a better life for the future generations. Every coin has two sides, cloning has its flip side too. Nevertheless, we cannot deny that cloning might cause nuisances to the society if it is misused by other irresponsible homo sapiens for their own benefit. However if it is used in an appropriate manner, it will contribute lots of pros to the world.
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Cloning Argumentative Essay
Show More Cloning is something that has come up very often in the past few years. The technology of cloning has been researched and attempted; it was tried with sheep and cows. But it’s a touchy subject as it pertains to the soul, what role do God play in this and what kind of life would the person/animal have. But there seem to be some advantages of the process of cloning . For humans you could live longer, they may even be able to find cures for terminal illnesses like such as AIDS and cancer. Would human cloning really make this world a better place? Will it be helpful or harmful to the world as a whole? Bad DNA lines occur as humans continue to reproduce. This creates mutations and defective genes. But it could be stopped thanks to the cloning of …show more content… But i do not agree with cloning humans. The world is in an uproar as it is, we do not need humans made science walking around, and they couldn’t possibly be like us because a human being cannot be man-made. It’s just impossible, God made us all in his own image and special way and cloning a human in my opinion would be an insult to God. Would the cloned humans be able to live in the real world with us? I don’t think so they would have to live in their own little world and their own society. I don’t think the cloned humans and the real humans could live in the real world together. Would they believe in God? Would they even know God who would be their lord and savior? It just wouldn’t be a good idea i think they might just go crazy one day and try to destroy all humans. Or make a plan to start a World War III. There could be some good things about human cloning, but I think the scientist should just stick to cloning animals that would be better for the world than cloning humans. And I’m pretty sure it’s very expensive and cost millions of dollars for research. And Equipment When that money can be spent on something else like food or medicine for people in third world countries. Maybe in a world where things like that were normal that would be ok, but in this world i think that that just isn’t
Cloning argumentative analysis.
Proponents of the idea say that cloning could lead to more disease resistant plants, but, this very creation could cause lack of DNA diversity. So, cloning should not be allowed because because people are still very conflicted on the subject, also the cost of cloning is too extreme and, it would lack in DNA diversity. First of all, cloning is still very new to the world. Although cloning has been around since Dolly the Sheep, the whole world is still conflicted on the subject. Some feel that the cloning of embryos, is morally repugnant and may feel that the idea of cloning humans is “playing God” according to “What are the Pros and Cons of Cloning?” So, if too many people are conflicted based on a moral stance, it will create too much turmoil in the science community.…
Gene Therapy Cons
Through genetic engineering and gene therapy, genetic diseases can be reversed and avoided. Gene therapy is the "manipulation of someone 's genetic material to prevent or treat disease". This is possible by replacing an absent or mutated gene with a working gene, by repairing a mutated gene, or by activating…
Heterogeneity Of Cancer
It was interesting that there is precancerous cells which does not spread around the body tissues but may become invasive. Also, it was surprising that the technology is so developed that scientists now can analyze every single cancer cell not average of them. Furthermore, just like other organisms, the more genetically diverse cancer cells, the higher chance to survive in changing environments. I would like to introduce this article to classmates because this article might be helpful to give some idea that how our current cancer research is improved and know about precancerous and cancer cell research. It will be long way to go; however, we are able to find treatment and cure the cancer completely…
Cloning: Is It Right?
Stem cells in the brain can become neurons that heal damage from Alzheimer’s disease. Another benefit of cloning would be to give infertile couples a chance to raise a child who shared the genetics of at least one parent. If the couple has tried but not been successful in having a baby they may now know what it is like to be parents. Also cloning can be used in the saving of an endangered species. If a species is about to die out scientists can take short segment of its DNA and multiply it to populate that species.…
Argumentative Essay: The Cloning Controversy
I stand on the line of it won’t work and even if it does it shouldn’t be allowed. It’s basically stealing one 's identity. Most importantly, it defies nature preventing the genetic differences that occur within a species to take place allowing it to survive. In many cases like the one from the article “The Cloning Controversy” “Opponents called for a ban on human cloning research, arguing that cloning offers few benefits to science while requiring unacceptable risks and undermining our very concept of humanness.” Readers can clearly take away that our humanness comes from our natural births and our individuality. Who are we to take away that right to our uniqueness?…
While many of these views are religious in origin, many argue on the basis of different value systems. One can say, that cloning would be a “parody of God”. Humans do not have the right to create clones, because it is God’s task to do so. Likewise, it is not their job to create, safe or end lives. Cloning is simply against God’s will.…
Arguments Against Human Cloning
One of those is cloning could save numerous peoples lives. Even though cloning humans for their organs is wrong in so many ways, but if they are only taking organs that the clone can live without then it wouldn 't be as bad. They also explain how cloning humans could possibly cure cancer. They can make it possible if cloning helps them better understand cell differentiation. Cell differentiations is how generic embryonic cells become specialized cells.…
Is Human Cloning Possible
Scientists only want to create clones in order to have better organ donors. Besides, if cloning is imperfect, it would be dangerous to use the organs of the clones for the natural human race. Instead of helping the original humans, clones would be a danger to us. Moreover, the clones were never asked if they wanted to be an organ donor, so it is unethical to force the clones to donate their organs to the original person. It is also wrong to give something life and kill them later on because they have something that you want.…
Argumentative Essay: Creating Genetically Altered Babies
Many countries have passed laws stating that experimenting with human embryos in humans cannot be done. Altering human embryos is against many countries policies. This is because it such risky experimenting. Developing a human embryo from altering genetics can cause many problems, and a country does not want to be responsible for that. “A dozen countries, not including the United States, have banned germ-line engineering, and scientific societies have unanimously concluded it would be risky to do.…
Essay On Stem Cell Research
If science can find a way to harness the power of stem cells we could potentially cure many diseases that we currently have no fix for just a way to prolong a person’s life with the disease. Why would we deprive millions of people of something that could save their lives and save their families grief? “In principle, embryonic stem cells can be expanded and then differentiated into most cells lineages of a living organism” (Carson, Christian T). When they say in principle this means it is not a…
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Argumentative and Persuasive Essays - Concerning Cloning Humans Cloning Argumentative Persuasive Essays
Concerning Cloning Humans The ethics of human cloning has become a great issue in the past few years. The advocates for both sides of the issue have many reasons to clone or not to clone. This is an attempt to explore the pros and cons of human cloning and to provide enough information of both sides of the arguments in order for the reader to make their own informed decision on whether human cloning is ethical or not. Cloning will first be defined. Then a brief explanation of why questions concerning cloning humans have arisen will be presented. Some things cannot be known for sure unless it is tested, i.e., human cloning is allowed. Followed by that, a discussion of the facts and opinions that support cloning will be presented and then the same against cloning. Please remember that not all of this has proven true nor is able to be proven yet, but has simply been argued as a scientific hypothesis. Finally, my own personal opinion will be stated. Defining Human Cloning When speaking of human cloning, what is meant? Different groups and organizations define it differently. To use a specific definition, the American Medical Association (AMA) defined cloning as "the production of genetically identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer. 'Somatic cell nuclear transfer' refers to the process which the nucleus of a somatic cell of an existing organism is transferred into an oocyte from which the nucleus has been removed" (Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs 1). In other words, cloning is the method of produce a baby that has the same genes as its parent. You take an egg and remove its nucleus, which contains the DNA/genes. Then you take the DNA from an adult cell and insert it into the egg, either by fusing the adult cell with the enucleated egg, or by a sophisticated nuclear transfer. You then stimulate the reconstructed egg electrically or chemically and try to make it start to divide and become an embryo. You then use the same process to implant the egg into a surrogate mother that you would use with artificial insemination. (Eibert) However, many groups have used a broader definition of cloning. They include the production of tissues and organs through growing cells or tissues in cultures along with the actual producing of embryos to be born. This is done with the use of stem cells. When an egg is fertilized and begins to divide, the cells are all alike. As the cells divide, certain cells differentiate and become the stem cells that produce certain tissue and then organs. Research in this very active. There is still much for scientists to learn about cell differentiation and how it works. To a clone an organ, a stem cell must be produced and then used to a clone that specific organ. For the sake of this paper, both definitions will be used in order to cover all opinions. One must understand that cloning does not produce an exact copy of the person being cloned. What cloning does, is that it copies the DNA/genes of the person and creates a duplicate genetically. The person will not be a Xerox copy. He or she will grow up in a different environment than the clone, with different experiences and different opportunities. Genetics does not wholly define a person and the personality. How It All Started In February 1997, when embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly, the world was introduced to a new possibility and will never be the same again (Nash). Before this, cloning was thought to be impossible, but now there is living proof that the technology and knowledge to clone animals exist. Questions began to arise within governments and scientific organizations and they began to respond. Are humans next? Is it possible to use this procedure to clone humans also? Would anyone actually try? What can we learn if we clone humans? How will this affect the world? These are only a few of the questions that have surfaced and need answered. A whole new concept in ethics was created when the birth of Dolly was announced. There are a great number of possible medical benefits and disadvantages to cloning and its technology. They include the following: Potential Medical Benefits The possibility that through cloning technology we will learn to renew activity of damaged cells by growing new cells and replacing them. The capability to create humans with identical genetic makeup to act as organ donors for each other, i.e., kidney and bone marrow transplants. The benefit of studying cell differentiation at the same time that cloning is studied and developed. Sterile couples will be able to have offspring will have either the mother's or father's genetic pattern. Potential Harms and Disadvantages The possibility of compromising individualities. Loss of genetic variation. A "black market" of fetuses may arise from desirable donors that will want to be able to clone themselves, i.e., movie stars, athletes, and others. Technology is not well developed. It has a low fertility rate. In cloning Dolly, 277 eggs were used, 30 started to divide, nine induced pregnancy, and only one survived to term (Nash). Clones may be treated as second-class citizens. Unknown psychosocial harms with impacts on the family and society. The Governments Make a Move The governments went to work shortly after the cloning of Dolly. They wanted to take control and make laws before anything drastic could ever happen. Several ethics committees were asked to decide whether scientists should be allowed to try to clone humans. Many of the committees found the data displayed above. In the United States, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission recommended a five-year moratorium on cloning a child through somatic cell nuclear transfer (Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs 1). In the state of Michigan, Governor Engler signed a law last year making human cloning illegal with harsh penalties if it is attempted ("Governor Engler..."). In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the Human Genetics Advisory Commission (HGEC) have approved human cloning for therapeutic purposes, but not to clone children ("HFEA supports Human Cloning in U.K."). Many organizations have come out and stated their opinions also. Amongst all this ethical defining, many people are being ignored by the governments. People are speaking out about what they want done. Let Us Clone After a couple has had their first child, to their disappointment they become infertile and cannot have more children. Cloning would enable such a couple to have a second child, perhaps a younger twin to the child they already have. This example has a very good argument. Many couples have difficulties having children, and sometimes it is impossible for couples to have children because they are infertile. Cloning would allow these couples to have children. Also, occasionally a woman is born without a uterus or has other complications and cannot produce eggs, then with the help of a surrogate mother, she can have a child of her own using her own DNA or her husband's. This and the example at the beginning are both arguments that some have made in promoting cloning. It is hard to tell someone that they cannot use cloning to have children when no other possible ways to produce offspring are available. This is one reason why it is difficult to decide if cloning is ethical or not. The following are some of the reasons why cloning should be allowed. As just discussed, cloning can be used to help benefit those that are sterile and cannot have children through the normal, natural way. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child. Cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. Through cloning, research can progress. It is hard to say what we can learn from cloning if cloning is not allowed. We possibly can learn more about cell differentiation. We can learn enough to produce human organs without having to produce human beings. We may develop technology to allow easier genetic testing and fixing problems such as spinal cord injuries, cancer, Tay-Sachs disease, and many more. Cloning organs for organ transplants is one of the major practical reasons that cloning should be allowed. There is always a high demand for organs. Some argue for the cloning of humans to create spare body parts. Others talk of just wanting to clone an organ to replace a defective organ. Rejuvenation is also a key argument for advocates of cloning. Human cloning may one day reverse heart attacks. Some scientists believe that by injecting cloned healthy heart cells into damaged heart tissue will lead to healing of the heart (Human Cloning Foundation). By combining the technology for cloning and the technology for growing human stem cells, conditions like Alzheimer=s disease, Parkinson=s disease, and degenerative joint disease may be curable. The possibilities are endless and may be left undiscovered if human cloning is banned. Thou Shalt Not Clone One of the main goals of the government is to protect human life. Some people want the government to regulate cloning and not allow it. Michigan=s government believes this and became the first government to place a ban on cloning. As mentioned before, the governor signed laws that prohibit engaging or attempting to engage in human cloning. A Michigan state senator, Mr. Bennett said, "This legislation boils down to one thing: Prohibiting the creation of human life for scientific research. Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now!" ("Governor Engler...") Producing clones for research or to use their parts is unethical. It would be against the code of ethics of a doctor to harm a clone (i.e., use it for an organ transplant). The clone would be a human being and deserve all the rights and privileges that a non-cloned human has. A clone should not be a second-class citizen. It is speculated that they would be considered as such. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place. They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool (Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs 4-6). We just simply do not know the harms that will come from cloning. Cloning would lead to the loss of individuality because one=s genetic predispositions and conditions would be known. If raised by a clone-parent or as a sibling to the cloned, one may have great expectations to live up to. However, the human clones could differ greatly in personality and even grow up with different conditions than the cloned. Even monozygotic twins differ. This could be a great stress to the clone and possibly even the loss of ability to chose for itself (Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs 5). The long term genetic effects of cloning may cause more problems than can be imagined. The question of what can go wrong in cloning needs to be discussed. In an evolutionary standpoint, cloning is not good. Evolution relies on a continual mixing and matching of genes to keep the gene pool alive (McCormack). With cloning, the natural process of selection of genes would be bypassed and evolution would be impaired. The Council of Ethical and Judicial Affairs for the AMA stated the following concerning possible problems with mutations and clones: Since the somatic cell from which clones originate likely will have acquired mutations, serial cloning would compound the accumulation that occurs in somatic cells. Although these mutations might not be apparent at the time of cloning, genetics problems could become exacerbated in future generations. (Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs 6) We can see that cloning can possibly change the gene pool from how we now know it. Most likely, it would not be a good change. Technology as we presently know it will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low when cloning Dolly. Only one of the 277 tries succeeded, see chart 1. The same problems of the difficulty of having the fertilized egg implant parallels with that in in vitro fertilization. Technology has not yet been able to provide an answer to this problem. The fear that clones will be treated as second-class citizens is also present. If a clone is created to act as bone marrow or kidney donor, the question arises if they would be treated like the first child? Would the parents even love this child the same? If not, this would lead to negative self-esteem and/or other physiological problems. There is also the fear that some would want to clone people to create large armies of the same soldier or even produce large amounts of workers. This would also lead to the creation of a second and lower class for clones. From a Latter-day Saint point of view, the Proclamation on the Family clearly does not agree with cloning. The Proclamation states: "We . . . declare that God has commanded that the sacred powers of procreation are to be employed only between man and woman, lawfully wedded as husband and wife. We declare the means by which mortal life is created to be divinely appointed. We affirm the sanctity of life and of its importance in God's plan." (Italics added) In other words, the power to create humans is only to be used in a marriage between husband and wife. Cloning only involves one parent, therefore it is not following God's plan in which a man's sperm and a woman's egg are needed to create life. My Personal Recommendation As a student studying biology, I have tried to approach both sides and approach them with an unbiased opinion. I personally think that the world of genetics is fascinating, but after learning of what is now possible through technology, I changed my mind about pursuing a career in the field. I see cloning as a wonderful advancement in technology and knowledge. I do not think it should be used to reproduce humans though. I do not believe that we should try to develop other ways beside the natural way to bring life into this world. I strongly believe that God created us and that we are subjected to His laws and must obey. The laws of God that have the worst punishment deal with bringing life into the world and taking life out of the world. I believe that cloning people would fall under these laws also. Cloning tissues and organs falls under a different category that cloning human beings. I think it would be advantageous to science and medicine to clone tissues and organs. However, the research in this involves fetal tissue which is a completely different ethical discussion. I do not know enough about the procedure be against it. So, with my present understanding I would allow cloning for tissues and organs. Conclusion Cloning can revolutionize the world and the way we live or it may be so minimal that it would not affect us at all if it is allowed. The first human to be cloned was reported in Korea by Dr. Kim Seung Bo and Dr. Lee Bo-Yeon. The clone was born and then killed just days into life (Alton). Before we knew it, the first clone was created and then destroyed. Is this the world you want to live in? Each person individually must decide for himself or herself if they believe that cloning should be allowed or if the governments should intervene with it. Works Cited Alton, David. Send on the Clones. no date. (No longer on line.) Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association. Report 98: The Ethics of Human Cloning. Jun 1998. Unpublished Report. Online Posting. Eibert, Mark D. Human Cloning: Myths, Medical Benefits and Constitutional Rights. 1999. Governor Engler Signs Legislation to Ban Human Cloning. 1999. HFEA supports Human Cloning in U.K.. no date. Human Cloning Foundation. The Benefits of human cloning. 1998. McCormack, Chris. To Err is Human, but to Clone One Divine?. 21 Jan 2000. Nash, J. Madeliene. The Age of Cloning. Online Posting. Time. 10 Mar 1997. vol. 149 no. 10. The Family: A Proclamation to the World. Salt Lake City, UT: The First Presidency and Council of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 23 Sep1995. Additional Works Referenced Human Cloning Foundation. All the Reasons to Clone Human Beings. 1998. Human Cloning Foundation. The First Cloned Human Embryo. 1998. Kluger, Jeffery. Will We Follow the Sheep? Online Posting. Time; 10 Mar 1997. vol. 149 no.10. Steinberg, Avraham. Human Cloning - Scientific, Moral and Jewish Perspectives. No date.
In this essay, the author
- Explains the ethics of human cloning has become a great issue in the past few years.
- Defines cloning as the production of genetically identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer.
- Explains that many groups have used a broader definition of cloning. they include the production of tissues and organs through growing cells or tissues in cultures along with the actual producing of embryos.
- Explains that cloning doesn't produce an exact copy of the person, but it copies the dna/genes and creates a duplicate genetically.
- Explains that when ian wilmut and his colleagues at roslin institute in scotland were able to clone a lamb, named dolly, the world was introduced to another possibility.
- Describes the medical benefits and disadvantages of cloning and its technology.
- Opines that cloning technology could renew the activity of damaged cells by growing new cells and replacing them.
- Explains the ability to create humans with identical genetic makeup to act as organ donors for each other.
- Explains the benefit of studying cell differentiation at the same time that cloning is studied and developed.
- Opines that sterile couples will be able to have offspring with either the mother or father's genetic pattern.
- Opines that a "black market" of fetuses may arise from desirable donors that want to be able to clone themselves, i.e., movie stars, athletes, and others.
- Explains that technology is not well developed and has a low fertility rate. in cloning dolly, 277 eggs were used, 30 started to divide, nine induced pregnancy, and one survived to term.
- Explains that governments wanted to take control and make laws before anything drastic could ever happen. many ethics committees were asked to decide whether scientists should be allowed to clone humans.
- Argues that cloning would allow couples to have a second child, perhaps if they are infertile.
- Explains that it is difficult to decide if cloning is ethical or not.
- Explains that cloning can be used to benefit those that are sterile and cannot have children through the normal, natural way.
- Opines that through cloning, research can progress. it's hard to say what we can learn from it if it isn't allowed.
- Opines that cloning organs for organ transplants is one of the major practical reasons why it should be allowed.
- Argues that human cloning may one day reverse heart attacks by injecting healthy heart cells into damaged heart tissue.
- Opines that michigan's government is the first government to ban cloning.
- Explains that the american medical association holds four reasons why cloning shouldn't take place.
- Opines that cloning would lead to the loss of individuality because one's genetic predispositions and conditions would be known.
- Opines that the long-term genetic effects of cloning may cause more problems than can be imagined. evolution relies on a continual mixing and matching of genes to keep the gene pool alive.
- Explains that serial cloning would compound the accumulation that occurs in somatic cells, and genetics problems could become exacerbated in future generations.
- Opines that cloning could change the gene pool from how we now know it, but it would not be a good change.
- Explains that technology as we presently know it will not effectively support the cloning of humans.
- Analyzes the fear that clones will be treated as second-class citizens, and asks if they would treat them like the first child, which would lead to negative self-esteem and physiological problems.
- Opines that there is also the fear that some would want to clone people to create large armies of the same soldier or even produce large amounts of workers.
- Explains that the proclamation on the family does not agree with cloning. the power to create humans is only used in a marriage between husband and wife.
- Opines that cloning is a wonderful advancement in technology and knowledge. they believe that god created us and that we are subject to his laws and must obey.
- Opines that it would be advantageous to science and medicine to clone tissues and organs, but the research involves fetal tissue, which is a completely different ethical discussion.
- Explains that cloning can revolutionize the world and the way we live or it may be so minimal that it would not affect us at all if it is allowed.
- Explains mccormack, chris. to err is human, but to clone one divine?.
- Analyzes nash, j. madeliene's the age of cloning. time, 10 mar 1997, vol. 149 no. 10.
- Cites the family: a proclamation to the world. salt lake city, ut: the first presidency and council of the twelve apostles of the church of jesus christ of latter-day saints.
- Opines that kluger, jeffery, will follow the sheep? online posting. time, 10 mar 1997.
- Argues that the predicted failure rate of human cloning should be enough evidence to stop any further advancement in the area.
- Argues that human cloning is unsafe because of the complex nature of human genetics.
- Proposes that any money funding the cloning of a human should be redirected to inner city educational improvements.
- Explains that the batch produced 30 blastocysts (an early stage of embryonic development), of which only one yielded a self-renewing stem-cell line.
- Explains that the first successfully cloned mammal, dolly, was a breakthrough in scientific research. the world's legislatures banned research related to the technique.
- Opines that cloning is beneficial because the technology will give us a better understanding of the way our bodies work.
- Argues that cloning debases the essence of humanity. it is just another way of reproducing.
- Argues that the immorality of banning something before its potential is a huge mistake.
- Explains that a cloned person has its own personality because it is the environment and experiences that make the person.
- Argues that reproduction through copulation is the norm, and that it goes against gods will. birth control pills and organ transplant surgery were also criticized.
- Opines that cloning technology is too risky and requires further research, not banning it.
- Explains the medical advances that cloning will bring to humanity. many people have died from infirmities and disease because their vital organs failed on them.
- Explains that cloning technology will increase the possibility of a barren couple conceiving.
- Explains the benefits of cloning, such as understanding how cells behave and why they die, and learning about the predisposition of certain cells to maladies like cancer and tumors.
- Concludes that cloning will have enormous beneficial repercussions around the world. the only objection that stands up under analysis is that the technology has not been perfected.
- Opines that to ban cloning is to cheat the world out of a very valuable service.
- Opines that the day when the human being will be cloned is not far away.
- Argues that cloning could be beneficial for parents who are at risk of passing a genetic defect to their child. infertile couples could have children of their own rather than using sperm of another man.
- Argues that a ban on cloning may be unconstitutional and would deprive people of the right to reproduce and restrict the freedom of scientists.
- Argues that cloning would intervene with the normal 'cycle' of life, which minimizes the chances of mutation, and, in turn, evolution.
- Opines that scientists haven't 100 per cent guarantee that the first cloned humans will be normal, which could result in additional defects in the human 'gene-pool'.
- Argues that human cloning has been a matter of science fiction for centuries, but the prospect that it could actually happen is recent.
- Argues that cloning can improve human genetics, and prevent genetically transmitted diseases.
- Explains that cloning is a possible solution to organ donation, since it will provide body parts.
- Argues that cloning experiments are likely to produce mishaps and deformities similar to those that result from research on animals.
- Recommends declaring that human cloning is unethical and dangerous in its likely consequences, and calling for a national legal ban.
- Opines that our political institutions have set reasonable parameters around scientific inquiry, while it puts a ban on human cloning and research.
- Opines that cloning raises serious moral concerns, whether scientific knowledge covers the interests of society or whether scientists know better.
- Explains that cloning and the future of human embryo research. oxford: oxford up, 2001.
- Explains masci, margaret o., and john f. setaro. medicine's brave new world: bioengineering and the new genetics.
- Explains that advances in the field of cloning have allowed for the possibility of human-like animal breeding. the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer (scnt) has improved scientists' understanding of genes and the cell cycle.
- Explains that dolly, the first clone from an adult somatic cell, was created on july 5, 1996.
- Explains how wilmut and campbell used a technique developed by steen willadsen to halt cell division and to separate cells out of the blastula to be used as receptors for dna.
- Explains the use of unfertilized oocytes in the making of the clone zygote rather than enucleated fertilized eggs. this technique was ineffective because most cells did not survive longer than the blastocyst phase.
- Explains wilmut and campbell's control of the donor cell nucleus' cell cycles, which enabled them to transfer the somatic cells into g0, a stable stage, and activate the embryo with an electrical pulse.
- Explains that scientists have improved their methods of cloning, altering timings of the cell cycle from which the somatic cell nuclei are taken, and allowing more time before stimulating cell growth and development.
- Explains that using somatic nuclear cell transfer, human organs could be cloned using a patient's own dna. the patient would have no problems with organ rejection.
- Explains that by cloning human embryos scientists can gain a better conception of multiple human processes and mechanisms including miscarriages, morulas, and even cancer behavior.
- Opines that further research on cloning will allow scientists to gain a greater understanding of human genetics and biological processes and use the technology for various medical purposes.
- Analyzes how modern science is manipulating nature based on the idea of multiplying human beings. scientists have already been able to clone a sheep.
- Explains that infertile and gay couples could have a baby by having themselves cloned. serious diseases like alzheimer and parkinson could be cured by transplanting unaffected cells into the brain.
- Explains that cloning can be used for a lot of questionable aims, like in the book 'the boys from brazil.
- Opines that cloning human beings to grow spare organs is tempting, but aborting one's own is awful.
- Rejects the idea of cloning humans when this is meant to enable childless couples to have a baby. these couples will have to accept they'll never have their own son or daughter.
- Defines a clone as an organism that has the same genetic information as the original organism.
- Opines that cloning could also offer a means of curing diseases or could offer techniques.
- Explains that the nucleus is formed from one individual and places it in the egg or another individual, from which it originates.
- Explains that cloning from an adult cell would make it easier to alter the adult cells.
- Explains that couples who are infertile, or have genetic disorders, could use cloning to produce a child.
- Explains that people need organ transplants to have a clone born to donate organs.
- Opines that cloning on a large scale would lead to decline in gene pool.
- Explains that cloning relatives would only cause the extinction of breeds that are not related in some way.
- Describes the sheep cloned in roslin, scotland by ian wilmut and keith campbell.
- Opines that killing the last females integral to the survival of a species may be the main goal.
- Explains that cloning is an intrusion to the human body, it is dehumanizing, and it deprives a person of human dignity.
- Opines that cloning does not respect the fact that humans have souls, and that their rights will be respected.
- Opines that mental and emotional problems would result if a clone was to find out that he or she was
- Opines that the need to move too fast without proper preparation, and knowledge of cloning and its uses.
- Explains that there are too many genes in a specific species that are the same. what would happen if we lost the ability to clone?
- Opines that cloning should not be used in any form or fashion. it needs to be perfected before it is used as an everyday way of life.
- Explains that cloning is a group of cells or organisms, which are genetically identical, and have all been produced from the same original cell.
- Opines that cloning is totally immoral, but they feel that in order to understand its morality and obligations, we have to first look at both sides of the argument.
- Argues that reproductive cloning is the logical next step in reproductive technology. if couples are infertile, why shouldn’t they be able to produce more of them?
- Explains that while some believe cloning to be acceptable, others feel equally strongly that humans are completely wrong. the dignity of human life and the genetic uniqueness we all have would be attacked
- Opines that cloning is immoral and unbiblical, but the bible says nothing directly about it. there are plenty of scriptures that, when rightly divided, clearly tells us what god thinks.
- Opines that cloning is sinful and obstructs god's purpose for the family.
- Explains that cloning is wrong and sinful because it is playing the role of god.
- Concludes that cloning in any way shape or form is not moral, and that the pros outweigh the cons.
- Explains how ian wilmot's research team successfully cloned a lamb named dolly from an adult sheep in 1996, which shocked the world.
- Explains that human cloning involves the creation of another identical individual, but this definition is not enough.
- Explains that human cloning can help infertile couples by allowing them to give birth to a child that is genetically related to them.
- Explains that cloning can grow "spare parts" of the human body to be used in organ transplants.
- Explains that human cloning could be used to help people who suffer from genetic diseases.
- Opines that clones are mindless zombies, like frankenstein monsters or "doubles" and that they would be carried and delivered after nine months by a human mother, just like any normal baby.
- Argues that the fear of cloning being used to create an army is baseless and absurd.
- Argues that millionaires could create clones to be used as slaves, or as organ banks, which is absurd and ridiculous as the rest of the claims.
- Explains that the most commonly used arguments against cloning involve the ethics and morals of the people regarding religious perspectives.
- Explains that many nations stood against cloning human beings in 1997, but it is not illegal in the united states. the reaction of the people is the same as at any new scientific discovery or scientific revolution.
- Opines that human cloning is unethical and that it could be dangerous to society as a whole. humans are guaranteed the right to their own personality.
- Explains that cloning involves a degree of power and control over another person's physical identity and that violates their rights and degraded their unique individuality.
- Explains that cloning would also deal with killing embryos. dolly, the sheep that was cloned in 1996, was the only embryo that survived.
- Explains that cloning someone would be extremely dangerous to the birth mother and the embryo. in studies done on cows, 4 out of 12 birth mothers died and there is a high failure rate.
- Opines that the risks outweigh the benefits of cloning. it would be a violation of one's genetic identity and individuality.
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Cloning Argumentative Essay
The present study offers an in-depth discourse analysis of two important yet distinctive types of mass media on a single issue: Human cloning. Since the cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1997 and recent developments in therapeutic cloning, mass media framing of this issue has taken on increasing political, sociological, and ethical significance. The present study shows that US-based popular films on the topic have predominately focused upon reproductive cloning and concomitant themes of fear and mad science. In contrast, the broadsheet press based in the United Kingdom has centred their coverage of the issue on a theme of hope, fuelled by the frequently uncritical expressions of hype from scientists, patient groups, bioscience business interests, and their advocates in the public sphere. Politicians at the highest level in Britain have espoused an open regulatory framework that allows bioscience enterprise to thrive, however the study concludes that in practice this perspective has employed uncritical and technocratic discourses in order to achieve national dominance in the field of techno-economic development. The consequences of such a trade-off include the strong potential for fostering false hope in patients and for systematically excluding essential forms of democratic accountability from the decision-making process.
New Genetics and Society
Over the last seven years, a major debate has arisen over whether human cloning should remain legal in the United States. Given that this may be the ‘first real global and simultaneous news story on biotechnology’ (Einsiedel et al., 2002, p. 313), nations around the world have struggled with the implications of this newly viable scientific technology, which is often also referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1997, and with increasing media attention paid to the likelihood of a successful human reproductive clone coupled with research suggesting the medical potential of therapeutic cloning in humans, members of the scientific community and Christian fundamentalist leaders have become increasingly vocal in the debate over U.S. policy decisions regarding human cloning (Wilmut, 2000). Yet despite a surfeit of public opinion polls and widespread opining in the news media on the topic of human cloning, there have been no empirical studies comparing the views of scientists and Christian fundamentalists in this debate (see Evans, 2002a for a recent study of opinion polls assessing religion and attitudes toward cloning). In order to further investigate thevalues that underlie scientists’andChristian fundamentalist leader’s understanding ofhumancloning, aswell as theirdifferentialuse of language in communicatingabout this issue, we conducted an open-ended, exploratory survey of practicing scientists in the field of molecular biology and Christian fundamentalist pastors.We then analyzed the responses from this survey using qualitative discourse analysis. While this was not necessarily a representative sample (in quantitative terms, see Gaskell & Bauer, 2000) of each of the groups and the response rate was limited, this approach was informative in identifying both commonalities between the two groups, such as a focus on ethical concerns about reproductive cloning and the use of scientific terminology, as well as significant differences including concerns over ‘playing God’ for the Christian pastors, focus on therapeutic cloning by scientists, and subtle but informative differences between the two groups in their use of scientific terminology and their interpretations of human cloning as scientific progress. Weasel, Lisa H. and Jensen, E. (2005). ‘Language and values in the human cloning debate: A web-based survey of scientist and Christian fundamentalist pastors’. New Genetics & Society, 24 (1): p. 1-14.
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MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO THE HUMAN CLONING
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Free Essay: The rule of science says “What you think impossible today will be possible ... Cloning Argumentative Analysis ... Risks Of Human Cloning Essay.
Arguments Against Human Cloning. One of those is cloning could save numerous peoples lives. Even though cloning humans for their organs is wrong in so many ways
Concerning Cloning Humans The ethics of human cloning has become a great issue in the past few years. The advocates for both sides of the
Cloning humans allows for humans to control the genes of the clone. People would no longer be genetically unique if clones were allowed in society. Patrick D.