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Reflection Toolkit

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

One of the most famous cyclical models of reflection leading you through six stages exploring an experience: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan.

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences.  It offers a framework for examining experiences, and given its cyclic nature lends itself particularly well to repeated experiences, allowing you to learn and plan from things that either went well or didn’t go well. It covers 6 stages:

Below is further information on:

This is just one model of reflection. Test it out and see how it works for you. If you find that only a few of the questions are helpful for you, focus on those. However, by thinking about each stage you are more likely to engage critically with your learning experience.

A circular diagram showing the 6 stages of Gibbs' Reflective cycle

This model is a good way to work through an experience. This can be either a stand-alone experience or a situation you go through frequently, for example meetings with a team you have to collaborate with. Gibbs originally advocated its use in repeated situations, but the stages and principles apply equally well for single experiences too. If done with a stand-alone experience, the action plan may become more general and look at how you can apply your conclusions in the future.

For each of the stages of the model a number of helpful questions are outlined below. You don’t have to answer all of them but they can guide you about what sort of things make sense to include in that stage. You might have other prompts that work better for you.


Here you have a chance to describe the situation in detail. The main points to include here concern what happened. Your feelings and conclusions will come later.

Helpful questions:

Example of 'Description'

Here you can explore any feelings or thoughts that you had during the experience and how they may have impacted the experience.

Example of 'Feelings'

Here you have a chance to evaluate what worked and what didn’t work in the situation. Try to be as objective and honest as possible. To get the most out of your reflection focus on both the positive and the negative aspects of the situation, even if it was primarily one or the other.

Example of 'Evaluation'

The analysis step is where you have a chance to make sense of what happened. Up until now you have focused on details around what happened in the situation. Now you have a chance to extract meaning from it. You want to target the different aspects that went well or poorly and ask yourself why. If you are looking to include academic literature, this is the natural place to include it.

Example of 'Analysis'


In this section you can make conclusions about what happened. This is where you summarise your learning and highlight what changes to your actions could improve the outcome in the future. It should be a natural response to the previous sections.

Example of a 'Conclusion'

Action plan.

At this step you plan for what you would do differently in a similar or related situation in the future. It can also be extremely helpful to think about how you will help yourself to act differently – such that you don’t only plan what you will do differently, but also how you will make sure it happens. Sometimes just the realisation is enough, but other times reminders might be helpful.

Example of 'Action Plan'

Different depths of reflection.

Depending on the context you are doing the reflection in, you might want use different levels of details. Here is the same scenario, which was used in the example above, however it is presented much more briefly.

Adapted from

Gibbs G (1988). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.


Social Work and Human Services Guide: Reflective Practice

Some reflective models (click to enlarge)

What? So what? Now what? Model

Rolfe et al's Reflective Model

Source: The Open University

Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory

Source: The Starting Point project

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle model

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

Reflective thinking.

The figure below shows that the reflective thinking process starts with you. Before you can begin to assess the words and ideas of others, you need to pause and identify and examine your own thoughts.  This involves revisiting your prior experience and knowledge of the topic you are exploring. It also involves considering how and why you think the way you do. The examination of your beliefs, values, attitudes and assumptions forms the foundation of your understanding.

Reflective writing and critical thinking inverted pyramid image

Find out more

gibbs reflective cycle social work

Reflective writing

Engaging in reflective writing will develop your understanding in many ways, including helping you to:

Reflective writing - a very brief guide

You may want to mute the music for this video

Acknowledgement of Country


Study Skills

Reflective practice toolkit, introduction.

gibbs reflective cycle social work

If you are not used to being reflective it can be hard to know where to start the process. Luckily there are many models which you can use to guide your reflection. Below are brief outlines of four of the most popular models arranged from easy to more advanced (tip: you can select any of the images to make them larger and easier to read).

You will notice many common themes in these models and any others that you come across. Each model takes a slightly different approach but they all cover similar stages. The main difference is the number of steps included and how in-depth their creators have chosen to be. Different people will be drawn to different models depending on their own preferences.

ERA Cycle

The cycle shows that we will start with an experience, either something we have been through before or something completely new to us. This experience can be positive or negative and may be related to our work or something else. Once something has been experienced we will start to reflect on what happened. This will allow us to think through the experience, examine our feelings about what happened and decide on the next steps. This leads to the final element of the cycle - taking an action. What we do as a result of an experience will be different depending on the individual. This action will result in another experience and the cycle will continue. 

Jasper, M. (2013). Beginning Reflective Practice. Andover: Cengage Learning.

Driscoll's What Model

Driscoll's What Model

By asking ourselves these three simple questions we can begin to analyse and learn from our experiences. Firstly we should describe what the situation or experience was to set it in context. This gives us a clear idea of what we are dealing with. We should then reflect on the experience by asking 'so what?' - what did we learn as a result of the experience? The final stage asks us to think about the action we will take as a result of this reflection. Will we change a behavior, try something new or carry on as we are? It is important to remember that there may be no changes as the result of reflection and that we feel that we are doing everything as we should. This is equally valid as an outcome and you should not worry if you can't think of something to change. 

Borton, T. (1970) Reach, Touch and Teach. London: Hutchinson.

Driscoll, J. (ed.) (2007) Practicing Clinical Supervision: A Reflective Approach for Healthcare Professionals. Edinburgh: Elsevier.

Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle

Kol's Experiential Learning Cycle

The model argues that we start with an experience - either a repeat of something that has happened before or something completely new to us. The next stage involves us reflecting on the experience and noting anything about it which we haven't come across before. We then start to develop new ideas as a result, for example when something unexpected has happened we try to work out why this might be. The final stage involves us applying our new ideas to different situations. This demonstrates learning as a direct result of our experiences and reflections. This model is similar to one used by small children when learning basic concepts such as hot and cold. They may touch something hot, be burned and be more cautious about touching something which could potentially hurt them in the future. 

Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Gibb's Reflective Cycle

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

As with other models, Gibb's begins with an outline of the experience being reflected on. It then encourages us to focus on our feelings about the experience, both during it an after. The next step involves evaluating the experience - what was good or bad about it from our point of view? We can then use this evaluation to analyse the situation and try to make sense of it. This analysis will result in a conclusion about what other actions (if any) we could have taken to reach a different outcome. The final stage involves building an action plan of steps which we can take the next time we find ourselves in a similar situation. 

Gibbs, G. (1998) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechic .

Think about ... Which model?

Think about the models outlined above. Do any of them appeal to you or have you found another model which works for you? Do you find models in general helpful or are they too restrictive?

Pros and Cons of Reflective Practice Models

A word of caution about models of reflective practice (or any other model). Although they can be a great way to start thinking about reflection, remember that all models have their downsides. A summary of the pros and cons can be found below:

These are just some of the reflective models that are available. You may find one that works for you or you may decide that none of them really suit. These models provide a useful guide or place to start but reflection is a very personal process and everyone will work towards it in a different way. Take some time to try different approaches until you find the one that works for you. You may find that as time goes on and you develop as a reflective practitioner that you try different methods which suit your current circumstances. The important part is that it works - if it doesn't then you may need to move on and try something else.

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Active Social Care -

Reflective Practice

Reflective practice is important not only to do our work but to understand why we do it in a particular way.

Doing a job for a long time does not necessarily make us competent. Some people are in fact skilled at being incompetent!

To be competent and to work responsibly we need to understand the influence which our thoughts and beliefs have over what we do. We need to be aware of the impact of our words and actions on others. We need to be able to plan and apply our knowledge of how to undertake tasks in a way that upholds Social Care Values. For example, there are several ways we can assist a person to move, some ways may preserve the persons dignity and maximise their independence. This is the option we need to be aware of and choose.

We need to be able to think through the consequences of what we do, intend to do, so that we protect peoples dignity, promote independence and operate safely in line with best practice modules and company procedures.

How Reflecting on Practice Helps Improve your Knowledge, Skill and Understanding

Reflective practice is a process which enables us to achieve :

People who do not analyse what they have done or who do not think about the possible consequences of their actions can actually put themselves, the people they support and, in some instances colleagues too, at risk.

Your supervisor can enable you to improve your reflective practice and learning by encouraging you to reflect on what you have done and learned during one-to-one supervision and asking you questions about why you did something and what might have happened had you tackled it differently.

Use to answer question 2.2d of the Care Certificate

There are a number of methods for reflective learning here is one example which is often used in health and social care settings.

Here is a representation of Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle (also known as Gibbs’ Model of Reflection) (1988)

This is a model for reflective learning and practice


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What is the Gibbs' Reflective Cycle?

The Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is a Tool that helps professionals Grow and Learn from their past Experiences .

To do this, it proposes to analyze the Situations in which someone wants to Improve.

It consists of  6 Repetitive Steps (a cycle):

This cycle must be repeated until Obtaining the Desired Results .

The Six Steps of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

1. Description : Describe in detail the Situation in which you want to improve .

2. Feelings : Reflect on How you Felt in that Situation, How you Coped with it.

3. Evaluation : Evaluate the Experience and its Outcome , Objectively.

4. Analysis : Analyze the Reasons that explain the Result of this Situation.

5. Conclusion : Get the Lessons from this Analysis; How to do things better.

6. Action Plan : Develop and Implement a Plan to do things better.

Repeat the Cycle until Reaching the Desired Results .

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle Template

Now, before sharing some examples , we want to explain one important thing:

We know that it can get a bit Confusing (Feelings, Action Plan, etc).

That is why we’ll offer you a Guideline that you can Follow .

How to use the Gibbs Reflective Cycle

Description : Details are important, as is the Context of any Situation.

Feelings : They Can give us a Clue as to what we need to Improve .

Evaluation : Here, you should not try to find Reasons , only Facts .

Analysis : Now it is the time to find the Whys .

Conclusions : Time to “Connect the Dots” and obtain Solid Conclusions .

Action Plan : Now, you have to put things into Practice .

Let’s see some examples:

Gibbs Reflective Cycle examples

Now, let’s Imagine that you have recently been Promoted to Manager .

You are very happy about it, but you do not feel very Comfortable when you face your employees .

Also, it is something you would like to Improve on .

That is Why you decided to use Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle .

Let’s see How you use it:

Description - Gibbs Reflective Cycle example

The Situation in which you want to Improve :

Feelings - Gibbs Reflective Cycle example

After thinking Carefully about it, you Discover that you Felt :

Evaluation - Gibbs Reflective Cycle example

You then Evaluate what happens in these Situations :

Analysis - Gibbs Reflective Cycle example

Now, you start thinking about the Whys :

Conclusion - Gibbs Reflective Cycle example

You Obtain important Conclusions from this Analysis :

This People are Reluctant to “obey” you, and make you Feel Insecure and Anxious.

Action Plan - Gibbs Reflective Cycle example

Finally, you decide to Develop an Action Plan :

You Estimate that you will need 2 months to have met with all your employees.

The Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is a Tool that helps professionals Grow and Learn from their past Experiences.

Consists of 6 Repetitive Steps that must be repeated until getting the desired Results:


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gibbs reflective cycle social work

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Gibbs reflective cycle

Gibbs Reflective Cycle

Posted on: January 6, 2020

Author:  Clare Hopkinson

Reflection is a key aspect of the personal and professional development that nurses are required to undertake to keep pace with the changing nature of practice. It helps ensure safe and effective evidence-based care by allowing nurses to constantly improve their skills.

This article brings a fresh perspective to G ibbs Reflective Cycle  for nurses starting out in practice and shows how critical reflection can be used as a systematic and thoughtful approach to improve and develop skills. It also explains why it is necessary to go beyond this model and includes ideas and activities for how to put this into practice by keeping a diary.

Why is Reflection important for nurses?

We all engage in the kinds of conversations in which the shortcomings of systems, organisations or other people are identified and where simple solutions for making things better are suggested. Unfortunately, the same cannot always be said in relation to ourselves: indeed, we rarely engage in conversations that identify our own shortcomings, let alone provide solutions for improving our performance as nurses. If nothing else, reflection provides an opportunity to review the effects and consequences of our behaviour and actions.

By using a structured form of reflection it can enable you to identify your role in an incident and to help you to begin to understand how the incident might have been avoided altogether. From this a plan of action can be constructed to assist you with personal and professional development.

To develop is to improve. Development occurs when things can be said to have improved. Development is intimately bound with thinking; thinking about the way things are now and thinking about the way things might be improved: and to engage in thinking about things in this way is to engage in reflection. Thus reflection is an essential feature of development, and as suggested above, most of us engage with this type of activity on an everyday basis. We might not normally call this ‘reflection’ but when we think about how things are and how they might be improved we are reflecting on what is and what might be.

Personal development is personal improvement, while professional development involves improving experiences of health and nursing care for patients. So in a professional sense, engaging with reflection (i.e., thinking about how things are and thinking about how they might be improved for patients) must be accompanied by action (i.e., actually doing something in an attempt to make things better for patients). Thus reflection is an integral part of personal and professional development.

Gibbs Model Of Reflection

gibbs reflective cycle

The simple cyclical structure of gibbs reflective cycle model makes it easy to use and popular among nurses. It is useful as it emphasises the link between reflection and action (and this can assist in setting a personal development plan). However, it neither encourages consideration of other people in (or affected by) the event nor does it require examination of motives, values, knowledge, or congruence between thoughts and actions. While action-based and thus relevant for professional development it may not encourage deeper reflection of self and thus may be limited in terms of personal development.

gibbs reflective cycle social work

Reflective Nursing Journal

A deeper understanding of ourselves can be achieved through writing. Written reflection is a common theme in the literature as a way of reflecting on action but it is strewn with confusing language. There are learning logs, journals, portfolios, structured accounts, reflective models, reflective reviews and personal diaries. Some reflective writing is public (e.g., a portfolio for an assignment) while other writing is private (e.g., a diary). Through writing, nurses can be encouraged to reflect on critical incidents from practice (I prefer the term ‘stories of experience’). These stories are usually prompted by some emotional or ethical discomfort. Stories can focus on positive or negative experiences and allow you the chance to view events from a distance, considering:

• What happened, paying attention to the context and detail of the story. • What you did and why you did it. • What you felt about the experience and how this may connect with past experiences. • What you have learned about yourself, others, your practice. • What were the gaps in your knowledge, attitudes and skills. • What could be done differently. • How your practice has changed now you have read or considered a different way of working.

The stories help you to identify areas of knowledge and skills for development and help you to explore the context in which you practise. There are many questions that you can ask yourself to develop your learning from a story of practice. This can form part of your informal diary writing or more formal writing for a public portfolio document. As you get more practised at writing you will develop your own ability to ask questions in order to develop your practice insight.

However, writing does not come easily to everyone and some individuals may need regular practice if patterns are to emerge or if deeper learning from experience is to take place. When you first start, it can be useful to share your writing with others: a tutor or a friend, perhaps, who can help you to question your practice. Depending on your preferred way of knowing you may find it challenging. Do not be put off writing just because it is difficult. Try experimenting with different ways of writing, either with different models or just putting your thoughts down in no particular order, just as they come (free-fall writing) and your ability to analyse your experiences will begin to develop.

gibbs reflective cycle social work

My preference is to use an A5-size notebook and write two or three times each week. Like many people, I find it easier to write about negative (rather than positive) experiences. However, this tends to remind me of my weaknesses rather than my strengths and this can undermine my self-esteem. Sometimes I go weeks without writing; other times I write in short bursts of 10 minutes most days.

Writing two or three times a week can allow you to process the emotional component of work and re-reading old diaries provides me with insights into my patterns of thinking and behaviour, allowing me to make changes. Several of my diary entries involve pre-planning and these sometimes become ‘to do’ lists (these help me to clarify my need to act). I have evolved my own method of keeping a diary which often is just free-fall writing. When I do structure my writing, I tend to use the following:

• I notice – this tells the story of what happened. • I feel – these notices are how I felt and how I feel after writing. • I imagine – this involves me thinking about others involved in my experience. If I am critical of others what is this saying about myself? What might be some of the consequences of this for myself and others? • I want – this often turns into a ‘to do’ list of actions as it is not always easy to decide what I want. Sometimes I decide what I do not want first! • What have I learned or achieved? – even if the experience has been difficult this helps to reframe it and allows me to let go of the emotional component.

We hope that reading this blog post will encourage you to have a go at reflection and find for yourself its value in your development as a professional nurse. In this way you can learn to become a reflective practitioner and begin to use your personal and professional experience as a means for continuing development.

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Queen's University, Belfast

Gibbs Reflective Cycle for Interview with Service User

Seaneen barr – 2nd year social work.

This essay will look at Gibbs 1998 model of reflection to evaluate my role play in which Robin will be playing the part of the service user, and the aim is to provide a description, feelings, evaluation, analysis and conclusion and an action plan with the purpose of reflection and improvement in social work practice.  The role-play is part of the university module with the focus to reflect on learning and to further develop in certain areas with the aim to ‘promoting and facilitating personal growth’ (Thompson, 2015, p.15) with self-actualisation for social work practice and for the practice learning opportunity.  It will concentrate on three key areas of development from the tutor, such as the need to slow down at the beginning of the role play, setting an agenda, making sure I talk it through with the service user, and my interpersonal skills come out more.  It is acknowledged the need and ability to engage professionally with service users, and the importance of ‘structure and interaction are required for every interview’ (NICE, 2015, p.91) with an overall reference to the importance of reflective learning for professional development in social work practice and better outcomes working with service users.

The role-play with Robin started with introducing who I was, where I worked and discussed the confidentiality policy.  I advised them of why I was there and going to work through an agenda with her.  At this point, I did not ask Robin ‘was there anything she wanted to add’ to the agenda, which I should have done to provide her with the opportunity to open up more on the issues she was having.  At the beginning of the interview, I was nervous for the first minute as it was an unnatural setting; I seemed to be talking fast, then I settled down as the conversation got underway.  I started to think about what questions I would ask next, then the questions flowed during the interview.   I asked Robin opening questions, closed questions, clarifying questions, which provided her with the opportunity to discuss her situation and how she was feeling. During the role-play, I incorporated what I have learned so far and put my knowledge into practice. However, with the ‘hard and soft features of social work’ (Ingram et al., 2014, p.75) it is looking into how this had undergone, and to review this ‘single-loop learning’ (Knott and Scragg, 2016, p.98a) process and working on areas of improvement.

The tutor describing my role play picked up on my nerves at the beginning, and that it seemed rushed.  I was nervous initially as I was meeting Robin for the first time, I was aware of this, and I worked on slowing down during the first minute. As Cottrell articulated in Knott and Scragg, we can ‘learn how to manage these feelings’ (2016, p.65b), and I acknowledged that I must tune into my feelings to spontaneously capture my thoughts before I meet the service user next time.  The tutor had also picked up on when I was setting the agenda; I did not ask Robin ‘is there anything else you would like to add’ (Case Scenario, 2019), therefore not setting this with her. 

At this point, I was thinking about asking Robin without actually giving her that opportunity to add in what she wanted to talk about, which would have shown she is being listened to.  This fits into what Newman et al. states on ‘being clear on what the benefits should be for service users’ (2005, p.118) by exploring what we will be discussing to support service user needs, which was not set in the agenda.  During the interview, I had felt more confident this time than I did in week two of my Personal and Professional Development Workbook (PPDW, 2019), in which I had not mentioned an agenda and that I was nervous about asking open questions.  This prompted me to ‘identify and explore aspects and issues of the situation, feelings, challenges and questions on how and why? (Rutter and Brown, 2012, p.30) I responded this way, which I worked on to connect to my mental intransigence to do better this time around.

My interpersonal skills is another key area that my tutor picked up on in which I could have shown these more.  In this situation, I communicated with Robin as best as I could, considering she expressed her views in most of the interview, and I intervened when she stopped her conversation.  Although, I will take these comments onboard on showing my interpersonal skills more in the next role play.  Overall, during the interview process, I felt that I worked with ‘effective and ethical practice’ (Watson and West, 2006, p.163) working in a person-centred way, with self-awareness, self-structure, and providing good listening skills, showing empathy and ‘respect the rights of service users’ (BASW, 2014, p.1, NISCC, 2019, p.5, Parker, 2017, p.17a) throughout.  The process of linking ‘praxis’ (Banks, 2012, p.208) social work values within the practice and self-regulating the need for continuous ‘monitoring, reviewing or evaluating progress’ (Trevithick, 2002, p.174) in this role will be an ongoing process.

Evaluating my practice found positive experiences, firstly, in offering positive responses to Robin, such as being mindful with self-knowledge and assimilating personal professionalism not to say, ‘I know how you feel’ or that ‘I understand what you are going through. Instead, I responded with ‘that must be very hard for you’, showing empathy and unconditional positive regard.  Secondly, when Robin was expressing her views when prompted using open questions, I had the opportunity with ‘reflection in action (Adams et al., 1998, p.97, Coulshed and Orme, 2012, p.89, Mantel, 2013, p.9a) to listen on what was being said and ‘to keep the interview focused in useful directions’ (Cameron, 2008, p.95) by providing empathetic responses and keeping the conversation flowing.  Thirdly, the only bad experience taken from the interview was that I would have liked more time for the interview process, for my interpersonal skills to come out more.  It would have allowed me to develop practice wisdom, and conceptualise asking ‘how many, ‘by when’, and ‘because of what’ (Parker, 2017, p.195b) and it would have provided learning needs from this experience.

The analysis on my practice showed I would benefit from controlled emotions before the interview and a psychodynamic approach to ‘emotional intelligence’ (Howe, 2014, p.83/84a, Lishman, 1991, p.85, Mantel, 2013, p.17b) before working with the service user.  I could have managed my nervousness and talking fast, by tuning in beforehand.  As Payne 2000 articulated on the three-stage approach in Parrott 2006 that the ‘secondary level is to catch problems and try to deal with them early’ (p.42) which I did, by slowing down in the first minute when I realised I was nervous. This approach, is particularly useful when setting an agenda, realising I missed it then bringing it back into the role play at some point which I need to do next time.

I realised that in social work practice, as Cournoyer 1991 states that ‘comport with a social work purpose within the context of a phase of practice’ (Dickson and Bamford, 1995, p.88), preparation and structure is paramount, and when ‘others critique these’ (Parker, 2017, p.195c) such as the tutor, we need to analyse and question what has happened and how we fix this for future reference.

Concluding on the role-play using Gibbs 1998 reflective cycle, it focussed on three key areas with the overall aim to improve my practice.  It acknowledged the need to control my nerves before the initial visit, which will help the conversation be slower and controlled.  For my interpersonal skills to come through more, the need to engage professionally with the use of different questions, setting an agenda, and including Robin to discuss other issues may change the conversation’s dynamics and bring out the good communications skills that I possess within my social work practice.  The feedback from the role play acknowledged the strengths of what was successful and identified areas of improvement; it is ‘increasing both Internal and Interactive Consistency’ (Hitchin, 2016, p.973, Douglas, 2008, p.383) from the feedback given and learning from this.  It recognized that within social work practice, it is working with ‘stability and unpredictability’ (Koprowska, 2014, p.1, Pease and Fook, 1999, p.154) and that we must control our emotions in each situation we are working in.  As Forte and Fowler articulated for preparation for practice learning, a ‘positive role model leads to a greater degree of interprofessional learning’ (2009, p.59). We must take advice on board to improve our learning for better social work outcomes. It is improving how we use this learning, put an action plan into place for how I practice next time around and what factors will support me in my learning.

Firstly, improving on the key areas set out above on tuning into my emotions, being calm before I meet the service user will improve the way I work and allow the client to open up within the conversation.  As Tompkins 1962 quoted in Howe 2014 that social workers need to know how thoughts can activate feelings and that ‘reason without effect would be impotent, affect without reason would be blind’ (p.84b) therefore, being self-aware and controlling how we feel will provide better social work practice.  Secondly, improving my practice by putting an action plan into place in structuring for the interview next time, setting an agenda and asking the client ‘what they want to add’.  This will improve practice for the social worker and the client to discuss their issues, rather than what the social worker has only set out.  Lastly, the factors that will support my learning is a commitment to my role, using my knowledge and skills and putting these into practice.  As Rogers 2010 states in Parris 2012 with ‘active experimentation’ (p.32), it is taking on board the feedback given. The key learning taken from Gibbs reflective cycle is the analysis of your own experience to improve professional social work practice areas.


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Banks, S., (2012) ‘Ethics and Values in Social Work Practice’, ‘Practice Social Work’. (4 th Edition. Palgrave. MacMillen. England.

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Cameron, H. (2008 ) ‘Managing the focus of the Interview’ .  Baskingstoke, Palgrave MacMillen.

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Social Work Students: The Problem of Transfer of Training and What to do

About it’ ‘British Journal of Social Work Practice’ , 25, p. 85-105. Available at: .  Accessed: 15 th November 2019.

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Gardner, F. (2014) ‘Being Critically Reflective’, ‘Engaging in Holistic Practice’. Palgrave MacMillen, London.

Gibbs, G. (1988) ‘Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods’ . Oxford Further Education Unit, Oxford.

Hitchin, S. (2016) ‘Role-played interviews with service users in preparation for social work practice: exploring students’ and service users’ experience of co-produced workshops’, ‘Social Work Education’ , 35 (8) p.970-981.

Houston, S. (2004) ‘Critical Commentary’, ‘Rumble in the Jungle’, ‘The British Journal of Social Work’. 34 (2) p.261-267.

Howe, D. (2014) ‘The Compleat Social Worker’. Palgrave MacMillen.  Surrey.

Ingram, R. Fenton, J. Hodson, A. Jindal-Snape, D. (2014) ‘Reflective Social Work Practice’. Palgrave MacMillen, New York.

Ixer, G. (1999) ‘Theres no such thing as reflection’, ‘The British Journal of Social Work’. 29 (4) p.513-527.

Knott, C. Scragg, T. (2016) ‘Reflective Practice in Social Work’, ‘Transferring Social Work Practice’ .   (4 th ed). Learning Matters. London.

Koprowsa, J., (2014) ‘Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Social Work’.  Sage Learning Matters Ltd.  London.

Lishman, J., (1991) ‘Handbook of Theory for Practice Teachers in Social Work’. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.  London.

Mantel, A. (2013) ‘Reflective Practice’, ‘Skills for Social Work Practice’. (2 nd Ed).  London. Sage.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2015) ‘Violence, aggression: short term management in mental health, health and community settings’ . Available at:  Accessed: 14th November 2019.

Newman, T., Moseley, A., Tierney, S., Ellis, A. (2005) ‘Evidence -based Social Work’, ‘A guide for the perplexed’. Russell House Publishing.  Dorset.

Northern Ireland Social Care Council (2019 ) ‘Standards of Conduct of Practice for Social Workers’, ‘Working Together Making a Difference’ . (Online).  Available at: Accessed: 10th October 2019.

Parker, J., (2005) ‘Effective Practice Learning in Social Work’.  (2 nd Edition).  Learning Matters Ltd.  Exeter.

Parker, P. (2017) ‘Social Work Practice’, ‘Assessment, Planning, Intervention and Review’. Open University Press.  London.

Parris, M. (2012) ‘An introduction to Social Work Practice’, ‘A Practical Handbook’ . Open University Press, England.

Parrott, L. (2006) ‘Values and Ethics in Social Work Practice’ .  Learning Matters.  Exeter.

Payne, M., (1996) ‘What is Professional Social Work’, ‘British Association of Social Workers’. Venture Press. Birmingham.

Pease, B., Fook, J. (1999) ‘Transforming Social Work Practice’, ‘Postmodern Critical Perspectives’. Routledge. London.

Rutter, L. Brown, K. (2012) ‘Critical Thinking and Professional Judgement for Social Work’, ‘Post Qualifying Social Work Practice’. (3 rd ed).  Learning Matters.  London.

Thompson, N. (2015) ‘Understanding Social Work’, ‘Preparing in Practice’ . (4 th Ed). Palgrave Macmillen.

Trevithick, P. (2002) ‘Social Work Skills: A Practice Handbook’, ‘Communication, Observation, Listening, and Assessment Skills’ . (Second Edition). Open University Press, Buckingham.

Watson, D., West, J. (2006) ‘Social Work Process and Practice’, ‘Approaches, Knowledge and Skills’ . Palgrave MacMillen, Hampshire.

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Gibbs Reflective Essay On Health And Social Care

Importance of reflection in nursing.

Reflection is when an activity or incident requires thought about the action, and is used to determine what points are positive and negative, and how it could be improved or changed if done again in the future. The reflection process begins with thinking about an incident and how the situation can be utilised in future situations. The process consists of being open, this would involve an individual looking at things from a different perspective. In addition, the process would involve being inquisitive, desiring knowledge. With reflection it is important that the individual is honest, which needs to be reflected in written record keeping, this enables others to easily understand what has occurred (Williams et al, 2012).

Driscoll Model Of Communication Essay

Driscoll (2000) model) consists of three stages (What, So what & Now what) completing one cycle help me to improve my caring practice continuously and learning from those experience for better practice in the future. The cycle starts with a description of the situation (“What”), which include analysis of the incident. “So what” evaluate the experience, including the analysis to make sense of the experience, and the final stage “Now what” is a conclusion of what else could I have done better and an action plan to prepare for, if the similar situation arose again. Baird and winter (2005) gave some reasons why reflection is required in the reflective practice. They highlighted that a reflection could generate the practical knowledge, help to adapt

The Importance Of Reflection In Nursing Practice

These two models can be interlinked to enable the student to explore his/her thoughts are feelings without making assumptions whilst creating learning opportunities to change future nursing practice. Due to having two different models of reflection, where Johns (2000) reflective model does not permit the practitioner to delve into their thoughts and feelings, Driscoll (2000) model of reflection enables them to do so to achieve different learning outcomes (Jasper, 2013).

Essay On Reflective Practice In The Early Years

Observation of the environment, the children and our own practice and feelings is at the heart of reflective practice. Observation requires a particular mindset and skill set.

Health And Social Care Reflective Essay

My individual standards and beliefs impact reliably my involvement to work in the health as well as social care background. For my individual input to the care of individuals undergoing significant life occasions, I would give prominence to the circumstance that I still believe to mark a perhaps superior involvement since I have an inadequate knowledge so far. Nonetheless, I have continuously been anxious with the acceptable completion of my proficient responsibilities as well as the operational assistance and help being delivered to individuals suffering challenging and substantial life’ occasions. Moreover, my work in the health and social care environment was a significant affair for me since it added to my professional as well as personal advancement. In this respect, my role encompassed fundamentals of both wellbeing and social care, though I accomplished utilities of a health care professional principally. I took this module in order to grow and progress my learning needs in order to satisfy organisational needs and requirements. By this experience, I have

Ecosystem Framework In Social Work

Being a social worker is often a challenging, yet rewarding career. Social workers are responsible for helping individuals, families, and groups of people to cope with problems they’re facing to improve their patients’ lives. Social workers are also trained caseworkers in social service agencies who perform several functions which they use different components of the practice framework, the theoretical underpinnings to in order to build helping relationships. After interviewing a caseworker in a specific social agency there were advantages and disadvantages of methods along with challenges encountered in working in that specific agency. With all of this the functions, roles and responsibilities of a caseworker is what helps any agency to uphold

Social Work Ethics

The basic purpose of social work is to help individuals improve the quality of their lives. Social work is a helping profession and, resultantly, social workers are oftentimes referred to as change agents. They empower individuals, families, groups, communities, and organizations to reach their full potential and enable them to make the necessary changes in their lives. They encourage clients to be self-determined and reinforce their ability to change and to focus on their own needs. Social workers strive to make contributions to the knowledge base of this profession. Social workers abide by ethical principles that are based on six core values which include service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships,

Reflection On Gibbs Reflective Cycle

Reflection is a part of daily process of learning and thinking. As stated by Jasper, (2003), the reflection is “…the way that we learn from an experience in order to understand and develop practice”. It is useful in dealing with challenges and can be used as a tool for personal and professional development. Moreover, a convoluted process of writing experiences and learning from any event and understanding of its usefulness in future is, defined as Reflective writing. The theoretical model which is often used as a framework for reflective writing was created by Professor Graham Gibbs (1988) and is known as Gibb’s reflective cycle. Gibbs’s reflective cycle has 6 phases.

Nursing Reflective Analysis

This essay is a reflective piece of writing about the critical indecent of a medication error that occurred during my placement. It is a very concise piece of writing due to limited word count of 1500 words. Duke and Appleton (2000) did a literature review and devised a framework of critical reflection, which illustrates eight stages as compare to Gibbs’s (1998) reflective model that consist of six stages. I chose Gibbs reflective model not only it is easy to comprehend but also to illustrate a critical incident. The Gibbs’s reflective cycle comprises of six stages, which are description, feeling, evaluation, analysis of the incident, conclusion and an action plan. I used these stages as a guidance tool during the process of reflective essay about my critical incident (Parsons and White 2008).

Social Work Reflection Essay

Prior to starting this course the MA Social Work course and the PPSWP module I felt very confident in the aspects of communicating effectively and working with a diverse range of people, and after the reading the professional capabilities framework I believe that I hold the same personal values which is expected of a social worker. The PCF6 talks about the importance of critical reflection and reflective practice explaining that it helps improve accountability, professional development and helps to you understand your own tacit knowledge and gain new knowledge, which improves outcomes and experiences for social workers. (Capabilities within the PCF, 2016)

Social Constructivist Approach In Social Work

Greene and Lee (2002) states that when considering the social constructivist approach an understanding of the way individuals function within society is important to appreciate the meaning they ascribe to their experiences of society and culture. Dean (1993 suggests that knowledge and meaning are created and influenced by institutions within the environment. From this individual suffering from mental illness will create their reality and will then view future experiences through this (Dewees, 1999)

Practice Placement Portfolio In Nursing

This reflection is sought about through the use of reflective cycles, for example Gibbs (1988). Reflection enables the student to develop his or her own theories behind why an event occurred, this is also achieved by linking theory to practice in order to gain a deeper understanding (Levett C. 2010, Stonehouse D. 2011). For this practice placement portfolio the reflective cycle that I have chosen is The Reflective Cycle by Gibbs (See appendix one) (Gibbs 1988). Although it wasn’t made predominantly for reflection through nursing scenarios, as it was developed for educational purposes, it does give the student a cycle which can be used easily to analyse their event in a linear fashion. Although Gibbs reflective cycle is one which is mainly focused on the event itself, rather than the knowledge that can be sought from delving further into the reasoning behind an event, it does create a cycle which allows the individual to focus on their actions and the reasoning behind what they did. In doing this the individual can create their own theories behind the event and are able to develop a plan for the future if a similar event was to occur (Jasper M.

Reflection In Action And Reflection On Action

Reflection is a way of going through thoughts and feelings about an incident, or a challenging day and gives us a chance

Reflection Of Interview In Nursing

T. S. Eliot (1943) once wrote, “We had the experience but missed the meaning”. We can have all the experiences in the world, but if we missed out on reflecting, how would we be able to find the meaning? In this reflection of an interview we were tasked to complete, I will be adopting Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle to help me in the describing, exploration of feelings, evaluating analysing, identifying implications, before concluding and writing the action plan.

Reflection Of Reflection In Nursing

Reflection guided by Gibbs ' intelligent cycle empowers understudies to highlight on the positive and negative parts of what happened. This will improve the estimation of understudy learning methodology (Doody, Mcinerney & Linnane, 2012). As per Levett (2010), reflection is paramount to guide us in our every day exercises by recognizing our considerations and information. I trust that this reflection activity will help me see all the more about my flaws and enhance it and turn into a decently prepared nurse.

More about Gibbs Reflective Essay On Health And Social Care

Social Work Haven

Reflection on learning

Critical Reflective Log Example (log 1): Reflection on learning

Reflecting upon past experience is a vital capability for all social work professionals to develop improved communication skills, commend ourselves for what went well, enhance future performance, and continuing professional development.

Example of Critical Reflective Log (log 1): Reflection on learning

There are several reflective models such as Rolfe et al. reflective model, Gibbs reflective cycle and Kolb reflective model. For this example, I will use Gibbs reflective piece to unpick the learning gained.

Taking into account my learning at the onset of my social work placement, this reflective piece is to show how I have progressed and developed as a professional. Consideration will also be given to areas for development.

reflective practice

I will focus on the social work PCF domain of ‘KNOWLEDGE’.

Here’s Why the PCF Domains in Social Work are Important.

A few days into my placement, I was tasked to complete some mandatory in-house online course and to attend a team meeting.

Regarding the online training, I already had a fair knowledge of various policies and key legislation that supported my practice, which I learned via my Ethics and Law module, however, I was looking forward to enhancing my knowledge on legislation around adult social work.

I know that as a student social worker it is my professional obligation to gain knowledge at all times to inform my practice.

Critical Analysis

reflective practice

As part of the social work role, I am aware the authority and responsibility the role of a social worker comes with is authorised by law, especially when carrying out duties in circumstances where the risk involved will be of significant harm to the individual or others.

Hence, to contend with this complex nature of cases and to remain accountable, there is the need to navigate through law.

The Care Act 2014, Mental Capacity Act 2005, Data Protection Act 1998, Mental Health Act 1983 and Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 all play a major part in adult social work.

The application of knowledge from these areas of law informs our practice when working with adults within the community.

Knowledge of the use of theories and methods of social work practice helps us gain a better understanding of our service users (BASW, 2016).

In the course of the online training, I was mindful that the knowledge I would gain should be invaluable in my current placement role and responsibilities.

Upon reflection, learning gained from this training will be useful when I qualify as a social worker.

After the online training, I was confident that I had gained a lot of knowledge on the various pieces of legislation applicable to adult social services.

Through this training imbalance of power between service users, the law and local authorities.

The tendency to discriminate or prejudice cannot be eliminated, but with the law such as the Equality Act 2010 in place, it brings this imbalance to an equilibrium encouraging proportionality in practice.

Theories and Methods

reflective models and theories

The Oxford Dictionary defines knowledge as ‘facts, information, and skills gained through experience or education; the theoretical and practical understanding of a subject’ (Harris & White, 2013).

Every social worker is required to take responsibility for their own practice and continuing professional development, and in doing this, social workers are expected to develop and maintain the knowledge, understanding and skills to provide quality services and accountability in practice.

They also need to keep up to date with relevant research, learning from other professionals and service users. BASW expects employers to ensure social workers’ learning and development needs are met and seek adequate resources to do so.

To facilitate the process of knowledge acquisition, I believe that a social worker must know their own learning styles and what works for them best.  Witkin & Goodenough (1981) described their two learning styles as ‘Field independent’ and ‘Field dependent’ learning styles.

According to them, field independent learners prefer to learn in isolation, as compared to field dependent learners who learn in integration and work well in teams.

Field independent learners are self-motivated, self-directed, approach tasks without consulting others and structure their own learning, whereas field dependent learners prefer an external frame of reference, prefer to work with others to achieve a common goal and like to learn and practice by experimentation before starting the task.

Witkin and Goodenough recognise, however, that the preferred learning style may not apply in all instances, as people may adapt to a unique learning style depending on the environment, their interest and the demands made on them (Witkin & Goodenough, 1981).

I reckon that in the course of my social work training so far; I have adopted more of the field dependent style of learning, relying on my Practice Educator (P.E.) and lecturers as my point of reference before starting a task.

Once I am pointed towards the right direction, I can organise myself to get it done. I feel this field dependent cognitive style of learning best describes me best because I may have some theoretical knowledge, however applying it to practice can be daunting.

However, with the knowledge that I have gained so far regarding the law applicable to adult learning disabilities, I am positive that with some level of support, I should be able to link theory to practice once I am allocated cases.

I also expect that once I qualify as a social worker, some level of support will be required during the first few years in practice until I become more self-confident and gear towards some values of a field independent learner.

PCF Domains in Social Work Important?

Gray, M., & Webb, S. (2012). Social Work Theories and Methods : London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Harris, J., & White, V. (2013). Oxford Dictionary of Social Work & Social Care. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Maclean, S. & Harrison, R. (2015). Theory and Practice. A Straightforward Guide for Social Work. (3rd ed.). Lichfield: Kirwin Maclean Associates.

Taylor, C. And White, S. (2006) ‘Knowledge and reasoning in social work, education for humane judgement’, British Journal of Social Work , 36 , pp. 937–54.

Thompson, N. (2006). Anti-Discriminatory Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Witkin, T & Goodenough, D R (1981) ‘Cognitive Style: Essence and Origin’ New York, International University Press pp: 1-26

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Here’s A Complete Guide to Gibbs Reflective Cycle with Examples!

Here’s A Complete Guide to Gibbs Reflective Cycle with Examples!

March 04, 2023

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Here’s A Complete Guide to Gibbs Reflective Cycle with Examples!

If you are a student pursuing nursing courses then you may have a well understanding of nursing reflection examples such as Johns, Atkins and Murphy, Gibbs, and other models. Composing assignments on these models can be challenging for many students. Keeping this in mind, we are providing Gibbs reflective cycle examples so that they can get assignment help in doing their assignments.  On this page, we along with our nursing assignment experts have discussed essential information about Gibbs reflective cycle, its use, benefits, and Gibbs reflective cycle questions and more. Let's begin!

Introduction to Gibbs Reflective Cycle

Gibbs' reflective cycle is debatably the most used and famous reflection models in nursing. It leads you to various stages to make a sense from an experience. However, Gibbs reflective cycle was developed in 1988 by Graham Gibbs. The purpose of this reflective cycle was to give structure for the learning you have gained from an experience. It provides a framework to study, observe, examine, and evaluate a particular experience, and allows you to plan from experiences that either went correct or not.  There are 6 stages involved in the Gibbs Reflective Cycle –


Action plan

gibbs reflective cycle

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Let's understand these stages with the help of a Gibbs reflective cycle example nursing. 

Gibbs Reflective Cycle Assessment Questions

gibbs reflective cycle assignment sample

The maximum words allotted for this assignment is 500 words. Being a student, you are required to address all the stages of Gibbs reflective cycle, present your understanding for each stage, show self-awareness and depth knowledge of the reflection. In case, if you doubt any skills then you may reach to My Essay Mate where a team of certified academic writers are available to help in Gibbs reflective cycle references , writing, editing, and proofreading. We as My Essay Mate also provide Gibbs reflective cycle examples so that you can get help in understanding the ways to deal with nursing reflective cycle assignments especially Gibbs reflective cycle.  Now, it's the time to discuss the Gibbs reflective cycle stages i.e. description, feeling, evaluation, analysis, conclusion, and action plan. 

Gibbs Reflective Model

Gibbs reflective model is one of the best ways to work based on the experience. It can be either a situation-based or stand-alone experience. For each stage of Gibbs reflective model, few Gibbs reflective cycle questions are listed below. It is not necessary to answer all these questions but these questions guide you with the things that to be included in a specific stage. 

This section allows you to explain the situation of an event in detail. Here, you are required to include a few points concerned with a situation/event. Few helpful questions may be:

Example of 'Description'

gibbs reflective cycle description

The feeling is the second stage of Gibbs reflective cycle where you are free to explore your thoughts and feelings you have experienced when the event/ situation takes place. Moreover, you may discuss the ways in which it has wedged the experience. To write this section, you are required to focus on the following questions - 

The 3rd stage is evaluation. Here, you are required to examine and evaluate the things that have worked and the things that went wrong to the situation. Here, you should be honest and as objective as you can. You may reflect both the negative as well as positive aspects of the situation. In case, if you lack to explain this stage then you can refer Gibbs reflective cycle example anytime.  Helpful questions:

Example of 'Evaluation'

gibbs reflective cycle evaluation sample

An analysis stage is a place where you get a chance to analyse what happened. You may focus on the details such as why this situation happened, what happened, etc. In other words, analysis is a place to extract meaning from the situation based on your experience. Moreover, you are required to focus on the various aspects. Also, it is the best place to introduce academic literature. Helpful questions:

Example of 'Analysis'

gibbs reflective cycle analysis sample


Here, you are needed to make conclusions about the situation. It can be said as a place where you are required to summarise the highlight and learning what types of changes in actions can improve future results. Answering to these student nurse reflection examples questions:

An action plan is a place where you present the steps that can be taken in the future. It could be very much helpful to discuss what you think or act to overcome with the situation if it takes place. Answering the following questions of the Gibbs reflective cycle example nursing can help in creating an action plan. 

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If you are assigned with Gibbs reflective cycle and need help then the best option to be to contact us. We, at My Essay Mate, are best known in Australia for the best writing services. Our nursing assignment help  with nursing reflection examples are well-versed with the Gibbs reflective models and stages and ways to write them. They have written 1000+ assignments for different Australian universities like Monash, University of Sydney, University of Melbourne, Deakin University, and others too. 

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gibbs reflective cycle social work

Learning by Doing – The Gibbs Reflective Cycle. Also known as the Gibbs Model of Reflection and Gibbs Reflection.

The Gibbs Reflective Cycle first became recognised in 1988 when Graham Gibbs published his book ‘Learning by Doing.’ Professor Gibbs’ innovative system reinforces learnings from training and experience (experiential learning) through a cyclical sequence of reflective activities. Since then, Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle has become a seminal text for healthcare professionals, staff developers, and higher education teachers. And it’s popular in business, too.

In this article, we consider how Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle can help companies and individuals get more from training. Additionally, we detail how to do a Gibbs reflection. From there we compare Gibbs with other respected reflection models. There’s Atkins and Murphy, focused on emotions, helpful in training staff to support colleagues’ well-being. Also, Kolb reinforces training through experiential learning, though some critics find Gibbs more analytical.

We explore various resources, including the free online edition of Gibbs’ ‘Learning by Doing.’ To help you get started using reflection methods, we also have the snappily titled 5 Rs of Reflection and Edinburgh Uni’s Reflection Toolkit. So, take a ride on Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle and see where you fetch up. You might even increase your employability!

ATTENTION: Reading The Gibbs Reflective Cycle Could Inspire Serious Thinking

How do we use gibbs reflective cycle.

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is a self-reflection and management tool that helps people think clearly and systematically about learning experiences. It encourages them to make sense of situations and work out how to do better next time.

Who is Graham Gibbs?

Graham Gibbs has had a distinguished career in the field of learning development. His book ‘Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods’ remains the definitive manual on reflective learning.

What is Reflective Learning?

Reflective learning involves the learner stepping back from their learning experiences and applying critical thinking skills to reach conclusions. It’s an intentional process. Success requires commitment.

How Does Reflection Help?

Reflection allows people to make sense of an experience in relation to themselves and others, and the background circumstances. The process enables them to reimagine the experience, for future personal or business benefit.

Work from home businesswoman at desk reflectig with a mirror

What are Reflective Models?

A reflective model is a structured process used to guide personal and situational analysis and improvement. Reflection emphasises awareness of our knowledge, past experiences, and beliefs.

Why Do We Need Reflective Methods?

Reflecting on a learning experience helps improve our performance while it’s happening. It also helps us do better in the future. But without this reflection, it’s hard to improve. And if you don’t reflect on the experience, chances are you’ll forget and lose the possible learnings.

Gibbs Reflective Cycle in Detail

What is the reflective cycle.

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle leads the individual through six stages of exploring an experience. These stages are:

Click on the image below for a larger version.

Purcple cycle infographic showing the 6 part Gibbs Reflective Cycle

Reflective methods like this follow a set process and use the resulting thoughts and feelings to create generalisations. These learnings then enable you to tackle new situations.

How Does Gibbs Reflective Cycle Work?

Gibbs’ reflective method systematises reflections and isolates feelings. Further, the different stages create a structure that helps slow the thought processes, so people reach considered conclusions.

Gibbs created his model as “structured debriefing” to support the process of experiential learning. He designed it as a continuous cycle of improvement for a repeated experience. But it can also be used to reflect on standalone instances.

One thing Gibbs did differently from other reflection systems was to acknowledge the importance of feelings in reflection. He also put greater emphasis on evaluation: deciding what went well in the experience and what didn’t.

What Happens When You Write a Reflection?

You explore the experience in six stages, in sequence:

Number six rose gold helium balloon

#1 Description

Set the scene:

#2 Feelings

Review your thoughts about the experience:

#3 Evaluation

How did it go? Focus on both the positive and negative, even if it was mainly one or the other.

#4 Analysis

This involves making sense of what happened and developing an understanding:

#5 Conclusion

Gibbs cycle proposed two possible conclusions from the Cycle: a personal one for the learner and a general one for the organisation doing the training :

#6 Action Plan

This summarises everything you need to know and do to remember the learning, and improve for next time:

GO COMPARE! Reflections on Reflection Models  

Graham Gibbs isn’t the only person to come up with a reflection model. Let’s compare his Cycle with some other models.

Boud’s Triangular Model

This involves three elements:

Boud’s core notion is that reflection leads to better learning. It contains the same elements as Gibbs, but no guidance on what reflection involves or how learning translates into experience.

Gibbs’s style builds on Boud by breaking down reflection into evaluation and analysis. It also makes a clear link between learning from experience, and future practice.  

Atkins and Murphy’s Cyclical Model

This model supports a deeper level of reflection on emotions than Boud or Gibbs cycle. The cycle comprises:

Atkins & Murphy’s focus on feelings makes it useful for training people to support individuals with emotional issues. Another thought, this particular reflective cycle can also be used to help team members develop listening skills.

Kolb’s Reflective Cycle

Kolb’s reflective model is somewhat different from Gibbs’ cycle. It offers a system for reinforcing training through experiential learning, but with more ‘how to’ detail about the process.

The first stage is Concrete Experience. This can involve:

The Experience part of Kolb’s cycle involves participants actively “doing” something. In the other three stages they review, analyse and evaluate this activity:

The Kolb model works very well for enhancing the lasting value of skill training. It helps people take responsibility for their personal development. This is an important part of getting the maximum benefit from the experience.

Reflective Cycle Versus Kolb

The psychologist John Heron criticised the Kolb Cycle for being too narrow and underdeveloped. Others point out that Gibbs develops the Kolb model further. In what Kolb calls the Experience and Process stages, Gibbs includes discussion and peer- and self-assessment. And in the Generalisation and Application stages, Gibbs suggests action plans.

Both cycles essentially cover the same steps – experience, reflection, and planning. So in theory they can be used in any learning experience. But because Gibbs includes more steps, requiring more individual effort, experts say Gibbs may be better for larger groups.

How Does Gibbs Reflective Cycle Measure Up?  

Possible Disadvantages

Prescriptions For Success: Gibbs Reflective Cycle Practice in Nursing and Childcare

Caucasian nurse checking on sick african american patient

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is used in various professions where professional development is taken seriously. The possible impacts of applying the same reflection in business are endless. Let’s see a few Gibbs’s model of reflection examples:

How They Use The Reflective Cycle in Nursing

Nurses and midwives in the UK are formally required to record five pieces of reflection, on either Continuing Professional Development or practice-related feedback .

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle provides a framework for this work. Reflection is a key aspect of the personal and professional development nurses are required to undertake. They must do this to keep pace with the changing nature of the nursing practice. Reflection helps ensure safe and effective evidence-based care, by helping them to constantly improve their skills.

The Benefits of Childcare Using Gibbs Model of Reflection

Most educators spontaneously engage in reflective practice. This takes place as they make decisions in response to what happens during the day or the session. Teachers build on children’s discoveries by adding new material. They extend students’ thinking by posing questions or suggesting other ways to tackle a problem. And afterwards, they review their efforts.

The consensus in these professions is that Gibbs is clear and precise. It enables description, analysis, and evaluation of the experience. This helps the reflective practitioner to make sense of their experience and examine their practice.

Get the Definitive Word From the Man Himself

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle and reflection, in general, are powerful tools. Used effectively, the process can facilitate significant personal and professional growth. But at the outset, it can feel challenging for leaders and managers to take on board and incorporate it into their training.

The most accessible book on all this is Graham Gibbs’ Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods . It isn’t available in hard copy on Amazon. However, you and your colleagues can download the 2013 online edition as a free eBook from Oxford Brookes University. Have it on your phones!

‘Learning by Doing’ is written to be used as a resource, rather than a book to read right through. It starts by explaining the underlying concepts and then explores practical ideas for teaching methods and designing courses. And there’s plenty of follow-up information to help you apply the ideas. You’ll find all the detail you could possibly want. And it’s an inaccessible language.

There are also various case studies of applications of experiential learning methods, including self-directed learning in office practice. But reading the book on its own isn’t enough. To really learn about experiential methods, you need to be ‘Learning by Doing’! Use these methods and experience them. Follow Gibbs’ Cycle. Reflect on their use and then experiment again.

AND FINALLY:  Is There a Reflection #101, By Any Chance? 

Yes, there is. There’s a lot here to take in. Sure, you can see the obvious benefits of the Gibbs model of reflection in training and personal development. But you’d prefer to start with something simpler and then work up to using Gibbs’ book. That’s fine. So, let’s take a look at the 5 Rs.

The 5 R’s of Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle

Number 5 Rainbow foil balloon on pink background

This is a framework identified by the researchers Bain et al in 2002, to help people make sense of experience. The elements ‘R’:

Reporting: Recall what happened. What did the situation involve?

Responding:  Describe your observations, feelings, and questions.

Reasoning: What are the significant factors underlying the situation? How do they relate to what happened and what the situation involved?

Relating:  Explain your connection with the situation. What is your relevant experience, skills, knowledge and understanding?

Reconstructing: Describe your deeper understanding of the situation after all this, based on this thought process.

The University of Edinburgh has an online Reflection Toolkit you may also like to explore.  As they say, if you take the time to think about the questions you will have started a reflection. Self-questioning like this, to better understand ourselves, our motivations and our experiences are at the heart of reflection.

As the Toolkit says, you can use reflection for many things, including

Parting Thoughts to Ponder on Gibbs Model of Reflection

After reading this, if you’re a boss, could Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle help you develop your team ? Or are you an employee in a business where there’s no Continuous Professional Development? Don’t let that trigger ‘FOMO’ (Fear of Missing Out!) Gibbs’ insights can help you reflect on your skills development, and plan your next move.

And last, of all, don’t forget Edinburgh Uni’s Toolkit’s final tip. You can also use Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle to boost your employability. This stuff can help you get a better job. Reflect on that!

Gibbs Reflective Cycle Template (Added 04-10-22)

Use this simple, yet effective template of 6 questions to reflect on what you did well and could do better:

Click on the image below to open the Gibbs reflective cycle template in a high-resolution pdf:

Links to Gibbs reflective cycle PDF template with 6 boxes to be completed

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However, another reflective model is that developed by David Kolb (1984) on experiential learning. Kolb (1984) created his famous model out of four elements: concrete experience, observation and reflection, the formation of abstract concepts and testing in new situations. These entire four elements are connected in a circular way. Kolb (1984) argued that the experiential learning cycle can begin at any one of the four points and that it should really be consider as a continuous and unending process. Meaning, the learning process often begins with a person carrying out a particular action and then seeing the effect of the action in the given event or intervention. Following this, the second stage is reached in which the professional/learner understands these effects in the event or intervention so that if the same action was taken in the same circumstances it would be possible to anticipate what would follow from the action. With this understanding, the third stage is to understand the general principle under which the particular instance happens.

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Gibbs Reflective Cycle

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The Gibbs reflective cycle model was introduced by Graham Gibbs, who is an American sociologist and psychologist. In 1988, he first quoted the model in his book named "learning by doing." According to the model, it is assumed that we learn a lot of things and lessons from our past experiences. If we will not learn from our mistakes and experiences, our scope of growth will be limited and without reflecting on the experiences we will remain at the same level. This is why the Gibbs Cycle is so much important to us. At the workplace too, the employees can check out a particular situation to know the areas where improvement is needed.

What Is Gibbs Reflective Cycle?

The model encourages and motivates people to systematically think about past situations and experiences. By reflecting on our learning there are higher chances of improvement for upcoming situations. The main idea of this model is to isolate feelings and systematize reflections. There are different stages in the Gibbs model of reflection that helps us to break down our past experiences so that we cannot conclude anything in hurry.

By the end of this blog, you will be able to get familiar with all the stages of this model.

Read Also: What Are The Stages Of Clinical Reasoning

Six stages in gibbs reflective cycle.

There are six elements or stages in the model. Let's break them for your further understanding:

The very first stage is the Gibbs cycle is that of description. To learn from the situation it is important to discuss all the details of the event. Ask yourself the follow-up questions:

The next stage is the concern with the feelings that you experienced during a particular event or situation. It is concerned with the thoughts and feelings the person goes through while dealing with any event. You can't judge the emotions or feeling you are experiencing. This stage is to get aware of the feeling of yourself or a specific person. Ask the following questions for this stage:

It's quite challenging to get knowledge about one's feelings, so the experts advise using empathetic listening and perpetual positions to understand and connect with the feelings of other people.

The third stage in Gibbs reflective cycle 1988 is evaluating the event and trying to understand what happened. The students in this stage analyze different situations which work the best and can be used further. You can ask the following questions during this stage:

To evaluate appropriately one can use the technique of 5 why's to get into the roots of the main reasons for happening

The above six stages can be considered as the phases in the model of reflective practice which can improve the situation from past experiences.

Useful Blog: The Importance Of Professionalism In Nursing

Let's answer some of your doubts and queries:

How Is Gibbs Reflective Cycle Used In nursing?

The Gibbs model plays an important role in nursing assignment is most of the medical staff and nurses first discuss the situation or the status of the patient. After that, they do the critical analyses to check what other alternatives treatment can be given to patients for better care. They also go for the action plan for facing a similar case differently.

Give An Example Of Gibbs Reflective Cycle -

There are different stages involved in the model and you can understand better by the following example:

Why Use Gibbs Reflective Cycle? -

Improvement is what keeps us going and the Gibbs reflective cycle helps us to improve for the future circumstances by looking at the past incidents, activities and events.

The stages of the Gibbs cycle are somehow applicable to improve your academics too. That's why you can seek assignment help online to robust your grades and to improve your performance to the next level.

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Reflection is a collective summary of insights and experiences of a learner from a course or training. It assists a learner to regain, collect and organize the work completed in a precise manner. In this regards, the report is prepared to present the reflective cycle of the four certification courses done by the learner. The four courses will be clearly evaluated and summarised in the report through Gibbs reflective cycle.

Applying the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to my certification programs which I had undertook recently and I have made a summary of my learning. The Gibbs reflective cycle is a six step model that says learning by doing. It is divided into six dimensions including Description, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion and Action Plan. This model basically outlines the interactions and information acquired during certain events, circumstances or activities (Sicora, 2017). Thus, it is the best way to create a reflection of my skills sets and acquired knowledge from the certification programs.

Stage 1: Description

This stage is the description of initial experience of a learner that defines the positive and negative aspects of particular event or situation. It also defines the things that went well and the things that didn’t. Also, the learner can describe the outcome of activity and the expected outcome (Sicora, 2017). In the recent period I have been through four certification programs including Google Forms Essential Training, SPSS Academic Testing, EndNote Essential Training and Learning Office 365. Every program I attended brought a positive experience for me and added to my skills set in a very pleasant mode. SPPSS course taught the leading software and its uses for running academic research to interpret data from quantitative tests. It included t-tests, variance analyses, and statistical measurements for the academic researches. On the other hand, Goggle forms is the program that is quick and simple method of creaking online surveys for taking responses from the recipients in an easy and efficient approach. Next I attended Learning Office 365, a cloud based productivity suite that taught to organise my data and work by using the applications of 365. Also, the EndNote essential training was necessary to save my efforts and time wasted on referencing. The platform is a source to manage the tedious period of creating citations and looking of authentic sources.

For the mentioned courses I attended online programs organised by LinkedIn Learning and got certificates for each. These courses were chosen by me on the basis of my current qualification and future profession. Therefore, I might through my abilities stand out from the crowd. Also, I had many confusing things going on in my mind during the initial phase but later on realised that I had to create some personal sections according to the term and coming chapters in the program. Gradually, I made modules as per each section in program and created objectives for myself. Then I learned that the idea of creating goals for me was the motivation factor that added to my learning. Since, I had some friends who were doing same course I asked them about their planning and learning. Those conversations helped me to understand the learning clearer.

Stage 2: Feelings

In the entire term of any kind of program or activity getting frustrated or irritated and it’s just normal at times. Most of individuals are not very comfortable at the beginning due some events or situations throughout the period (Oham, Pestano and Allen, 2016). Thus, the second phase of reflective cycle explains the emotions, feelings and attitude of an individual during and after the event or activity that is described in stage one. Moreover, the actual emotions of learner are evaluated here but the outcome due to feelings and they lead are identified in this stage. Since, the emotions of a person are the main factor that either motivates or impels them. Throughout my training period I had mixed emotions at different moments, sometimes I was happy and unhappy at times according to my assignments. Since, we had test after every chapter completion and that were motivating factor but they were impelling also due to the rankings. However, when I look back to the term period it was essential for enhancements of employability and academic research skills.

Before I felt these programs are just for a requirement but now when I see the upgrade in my skills set and felt its importance in present and future. Since, I can easily create an online review through Google forms also I can organise my work easily due to the expanded knowledge of Office 365. Alternatively, I can conduct research with the help of SPSS and perform quantitative research and perform statistical tests. Also, the EndNote training is a time saving factor during my research. It trained me to create my own referencing library and creation or editing of citation. Therefore, now I feel content with my training and its outcomes. As well, I the genuine engagement I had during term made me more optimistic and curious to perform such trainings in future also.

Stage 3: Evaluation

This is the third stage of reflective cycle of Gibbs model that evaluates the experiences of learner and also the approaches used all through the term. It can be said that the approach that motivated and assisted the learner to reach those objectives articulated at beginning phase are evaluated in this step (Johns, 2017). The learner can identify the contribution in program by themselves and identify the lacking from them and the mistakes in choosing the approaches. While looking at my training from LinkedIn I have got good remarks on my certificates that defines that I had a great learning period and proved myself. I got remarks that say I have sharpened my skills, expanded my perspective and made myself in demand. Though, I could have done other courses that are more demanding in this period but these courses were actually matching my current strengths and weaknesses.

While learning Google forms I came to know about its assistance for data analysis and conducting research through it. I can now create quick survey before planning an event for my business. Moreover, I learnt how to collect diverse information without making much effort in an efficient manner. I could make real connections with people while doing a test survey and came to know that a simple platform can be so much useful for development. Similarly, when I did 365 training I learnt the ways to organise my work form workplace and even after that. I do not have to wait for next working day to finish the task. The application is user-friendly and I could be able to manage my own form home and schedule future things with the fatuities it has. For instance: the To-do-list feature in Ms Office is so good that I could create a time table for my work according to priorities. Similarly, another program of Endnote training made me realise the benefits of own reference library. Likewise, SPSS taught me actual academic research patterns and approaches through a single platform. I could be able to create my own statistical tests without going in public to perform an experiment. Now I can say that the objectives made by me in beginning are fulfilled. But, some of them are completely realised due to my own mistakes at initial stage. I could have paid more attention to my training. Since, I had some other tasks in hand while I took this training. However, the loss is not so big that I couldn’t recover. Also, I have reached the expected outcome but my own objectives are not fully realised.

Stage 4: Analysis

It is the fourth phase of reflective cycle that performs analysis of the happening during the term. In previous four stages the four programs and their details are been focused upon. But, this step extracts meaning out of all findings in previous stages and their gain for the learner (Sharp, 2018). Also, the learner can reflect the positive or negative experience from programs. I had attended four certification programs that taught me dynamic skills to upgrade my employability skills and academic research skills. I could have created module before my training program so that the initial phase was not wasted. But, I realised the same during the training period. Thus, some of the basic things were not systematically grabbed by me. But, the advanced features and application installed on phone from LinkedIn assisted to analyse my progress and learning. Also, I could identify my mistakes during learning process and rectify them. Additionally, the instructor organised quizzes that boosts my confidence and motivation. Also, I applied Belbin team roles to analyse my own strengths and weaknesses. So, I had managed to minimise my weaknesses and win over them from my strengths. I added the skills I have learned to my LinkedIn profile and share them with my network to ensure that my abilities match with my goals and professional development.

Stage 5: Conclusion

By this reflective cycle I can notice that the reflective portfolio assisted me to evaluate the addition to me skills set. The certification program organised by LinkedIn are very beneficial for my future and my professional development. The courses are certified but their certificates are not accredited but enhanced my personal abilities and skills. I noticed that as a learner these certification programs are source of upgrading personal skills through simple exercise. Also, I learnt that identification of personal strengths and weaknesses is very essential to prepare a framework for learning. Also, I will be continually performing personal swot to ensure that my weaknesses are minimised by strengths. The information gathered in pervious stages is very helpful for creating future action plan for me.

It can also be concluded in the end that the tests and quizzes organised by instructor at regular intervals were positive for my upgrade. But, the distraction were social media that wasted my time after the training immediately and I lost some points. However, now I’m prepared for anything this in future. I would be practising my newly acquired skills to gain expertise in them. Also, I learnt that it is apparently required to create an action plan for future.

Stage 6: Action Plan

It is final phase of Gibbs Reflective cycle that is created for future activities, events or similar situations.  The action plan is based on conclusion from past experiences and learning. Also, it is the guide to avoid the past mistakes and repeat the positive actions in future (Fathelrahman, 2019). It helps to improve the approach of learning and create a correct schedule to avoid hustle and unnatural promises.

In this regards, I have created an action plan for myself so that I would be doing things differently and better. Since, I noticed that the certificates I acquired need some additional certificates to complete the expert knowledge.  Resultantly, I have chosen additional courses for myself from same source in my plan. The Action Plan is as follows:

After the action plan selecting additional courses to enhance my academic research skills an extensive analysis of current skills and future requisite strengths are required. Moreover, genuine engagement is essential to properly grab the available knowledge and enhance the expected skills. Thus, I will attend two additional courses i.e. Office 365 New Features and Survey Monkey Essential Training (2017) to improve my academic research skills. New features will improve my expertise in MS office to organise my work and use latest features to speed up my work. Likewise, survey monkey would be adding business intelligence skills to my portfolio. This is the software which allows the user to generate business surveys and perform online review. The program provides templates for designing and configuring questionnaires

With this reflection report it is inferred that the certification programs have enhanced my knowledge to a certain level. Also, I have noticed that these programs helped me to improve my projection and organising skills. It is clearly evident that the skills sets are improved from the programs attended and relevant research skills are learnt. It is also noticeable that creating action plan for future will reduce chances of past mistakes that acted as backlog in previous trainings.

Ashwin, P., Boud, D., Calkins, S., Coate, K., Hallett, F., Light, G., Luckett, K., McArthur, J., MacLaren, I., McLean, M. and McCune, V., (2020). Reflective teaching in higher education. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Fathelrahman, A., (2019). Using reflection to improve distance learning course delivery: a case study of teaching a management information systems course. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 34(2), pp.176-186.

Johns, C. ed., (2017). Becoming a reflective practitioner. John Wiley & Sons.

Oham, C.A., Pestano, C. and Allen, J., (2016). Social enterprise and the wider community: one possible model. International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 4(2), pp.172-181.

SeekPNG, (2019). Gibb's Reflective Cycle Model Explained - Gibbs Reflective Cycle 1998. [Online] Accessed through: [Accessed on 23 rd  January 2020].

Sharp, L.A., (2018). Reflective practice: Understanding ourselves and our work. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 25(10), pp.48-48.

Sicora, A., (2017). Reflective practice, risk and mistakes in social work. Journal of Social Work Practice, 31(4), pp.491-502.

Sicora, A., (2017). Reflective practice. Policy Press.

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  1. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    Gibbs' Reflective Cycle One of the most famous cyclical models of reflection leading you through six stages exploring an experience: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. Overview Gibbs' Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences.

  2. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in 1988. There are five stages in the cycle: 1. Description. 2. Feelings. 3. Evaluation. 4. Conclusions. 5. Action. You can use it to help team members think about how they deal with situations, so that they can understand what they did well, and so that they know where they need to improve.

  3. Social Work and Human Services Guide: Reflective Practice

    Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Source: The Open University Reflective thinking The figure below shows that the reflective thinking process starts with you. Before you can begin to assess the words and ideas of others, you need to pause and identify and examine your own thoughts.

  4. LibGuides: Reflective Practice Toolkit: Models of reflection

    Gibb's Reflective Cycle. ... Gibbs, G. (1998) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford: ... These models provide a useful guide or place to start but reflection is a very personal process and everyone will work towards it in a different way. Take some time to try different approaches until you find the one that works ...

  5. PDF Applying the Gibbs Reflective Model

    ' (Gibbs 1988) Using this 6 step model should help to identify your strengths, areas for development and actions you can take to enhance your professional skills. Steps 1 - 3 relate to what happened during the experience and steps 4 - 6 focus on how you could improve on the experience and outcome in the future. Step 1 - Description

  6. PDF Gibbs' reflective cycle

    Using Gibbs' reflective model in reflective writing The following text is an example of a piece of reflective writing, following Gibbs' model. The task was to write a reflection about an incident which occurred during the first few weeks of a teaching placement (1000 words). Please note that the references used are fictional.

  7. Reflective Practice

    Reflective practice is important not only to do our work but to understand why we do it in a particular way. ... There are a number of methods for reflective learning here is one example which is often used in health and social care settings. Here is a representation of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle (also known as Gibbs' Model of Reflection) (1988)

  8. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle explained with lots of Examples.

    The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is a Tool that helps professionals Grow and Learn from their past Experiences. Consists of 6 Repetitive Steps that must be repeated until getting the desired Results: Description: Describe in detail the Situation in which you want to improve. Feelings: Reflect on How you Felt in that Situation, How you Coped with it.

  9. Gibbs Reflective Cycle

    Gibbs Model Of Reflection The simple cyclical structure of gibbs reflective cycle model makes it easy to use and popular among nurses. It is useful as it emphasises the link between reflection and action (and this can assist in setting a personal development plan).

  10. Gibbs Reflective Cycle for Interview with Service User

    The key learning taken from Gibbs reflective cycle is the analysis of your own experience to improve professional social work practice areas. Bibliography Adams, R. Dominelli, L. Payne, M. (1998) 'Social Work', 'Themes, Issues and Critical Debates'. MacMillen Press Ltd. London.

  11. PDF Reflective writing: applying Gibbs' (1988) reflective cycle

    Gibbs' (1988) reflective cycle . Gibbs' reflective cycle allows you to structure a piece of reflective writing around six distinct stages, which may be labelled as: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. Description In the first stage of the cycle, you would provide a brief overview of what happened. Feelings

  12. Reflective Log Example

    Reflecting upon past experience is a vital capability for all social work professionals to develop improved communication skills, commend ourselves for what went well, enhance future performance, and continuing professional development. Reflection also allows social workers to link theory to practice.

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    provided: Gibbs' reflective cycle diagram, which is a helpful summary of the social . ... Effective social work practice requires strong writing and communication skills; however, social work ...

  14. Gibbs Reflective Cycle Teaching Resources

    This Gibbs' reflective practice activity is a colourful and fun way to introduce reflective practice to your students. It is targeted for learners aged 14-19 years old, but can be used on younger learners, depending on their level. This is a 3 step activity: First of all, learners needs use the first page to identify the Gibbs' cycle and read ...

  15. Gibbs Reflective Essay On Health And Social Care

    The Gibbs's reflective cycle comprises of six stages, which are description, feeling, evaluation, analysis of the incident, conclusion and an action plan. I used these stages as a guidance tool during the process of reflective essay about my critical incident (Parsons and White 2008).

  16. Critical Reflective Log Example (log 1): Reflection on learning

    Reflecting upon past experience is a vital capability for all social work professionals to develop improved communication skills, commend ourselves for what went well, enhance future performance, and continuing professional development. Example of Critical Reflective Log (log 1): Reflection on learning

  17. Here's A Complete Guide to Gibbs Reflective Cycle with Examples!

    Gibbs' reflective cycle is debatably the most used and famous reflection models in nursing. It leads you to various stages to make a sense from an experience. However, Gibbs reflective cycle was developed in 1988 by Graham Gibbs. The purpose of this reflective cycle was to give structure for the learning you have gained from an experience.

  18. Gibbs Reflective Cycle: The Benefits of Experiential Learning

    Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is a self-reflection and management tool that helps people think clearly and systematically about learning experiences. It encourages them to make sense of situations and work out how to do better next time. Who is Graham Gibbs? Graham Gibbs has had a distinguished career in the field of learning development.

  19. PDF Return to Social Work: Learning Materials

    The module introduces a number of well known reflective models including Gibbs (1988) who highlighted the role of feelings and Kolb (1984) whose work helped to identify different ... Module 3: Reflective self Return to social work: Learning materials Page 7 of 29 Your profile will be audited by professionals registered by the HCPC, who have ...

  20. Reflective Paper on Support Worker Intervention

    I will use Gibbs model of reflection to critically reflect and analyse my work experience with Mr Kingstone. Gibbs reflective model follows 6 steps, description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. An overall conclusion will be given to show how valuable Gibbs reflective tool was.

  21. Self Reflection Analysis In The Social Work Sector Social Work Essay

    In Gibbs (1988) model, he identified six key stages of reflection; Stage 1: Description of the event - A detailed description of the event you are reflecting on. Stage 2: Feelings and Thoughts (Self awareness) - Recalling and exploring those things that were going on inside your head. Stage 3: Evaluation- making a judgment about what has ...

  22. Gibbs Reflective Cycle Nursing

    Gibbs Reflective Cycle. 2022-01-21. The Gibbs reflective cycle model was introduced by Graham Gibbs, who is an American sociologist and psychologist. In 1988, he first quoted the model in his book named "learning by doing." According to the model, it is assumed that we learn a lot of things and lessons from our past experiences.

  23. PDF Adult Learning Theories

    • Work collaboratively with the learner to select me-thods, materials, and resources for instruction; and • Evaluate the quality of the learning experience and make adjustments, as needed, while assess-ing needs for further learning. Because adults need to know they are learning why something, effective teachers explain their reasons for

  24. PDF Participatory Action Research: An Overview

    down so that the work of the community centre would not be disrupted. We were always clear that the research would not disrupt the daily activities of the workers and young people. (Munford & Sanders, 2003, p. 273) The challenge is establishing a groundswell of support for action that is interpreted as changing practices for the better

  25. Tangia Elieff, Clinical Social Work/Therapist, Dublin, CA, 94568

    Tangia Elieff, Clinical Social Work/Therapist, Dublin, CA, 94568, (925) 270-4355, Are you tired of rehearsing hurts, living in your past, and worrying about your future? Do you feel unworthy ...

  26. Project Work Solutions of Gibbs Reflective Cycle: BUSI710

    Applying the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to my certification programs which I had undertook recently and I have made a summary of my learning. The Gibbs reflective cycle