essay on word processor

The Word Processing Process

What is Word Processing? Word Processing is using a computer to create, edit, and print documents. Of all computer applications, word processing is the most commonly used. To perform word processing, a computer, a special program called a word processor and a printer are required. A word processor enables the user to create a document, store it electronically on a USB or on a computer, display it on a screen, modify or format it by entering commands and characters from the keyboard, and print it on a printer. What Application Software is Available? Microsoft Word is the most widely used word processing software. Microsoft estimates that over 500,000,000 people use the Microsoft Office suite, which includes Word. Many other word processing …show more content…

In this essay, the author

Examples include: writing short stories résumé/CV creation letter writing card creation In education word processing is used in a variety of different ways in the production of assignments, notes, exams, and for practicing its uses! DESCRIBE A TYPICAL WORD PROCESSING APPLICATION IN TERMS OF THE FOLLOWING FEATURES: Word processing typically implies the presence of text manipulation functions that extend beyond a basic ability to enter and change text. For the purpose of this module when discussing and explaining word processing features the software Microsoft Office Word (*Word) will be used as the example. 1. TEXT MANIPULATION Describe how to change the appearance of a document by text manipulation Text manipulation usually refers to the ability to change words, sentences and paragraphs which have been typed. The manipulation can involve the changing of the characters (letters and symbols), adding line breaks, direction of the text and changing the case (CAPITAL letter or small letter) of the …show more content…

So much so, that all of these formatting tools have their own buttons (formatting will be discussed in detail in LO2 and LO3). 3. GRAPHICS Describe the uses of graphics in a word document Pictures, images or graphics are a very useful way of brightening up a document and making it more appealing and interesting for the end user. Graphics can be added to Word in a variety of ways, including inserting; Pictures, Clip Art, Shapes and SmartArt. When images are added to a document it is important to consider the graphic formatting options available, such as cropping, wrapping, styles, effects and position (graphics will be discussed in detail in LO2). Page 1 4. TABS Understand the uses of tabs e.g. decimal tabs etc. Tabs allow the setup of text on a page in the exact position it should appear in, by allowing the cursor to advance to the next stop or set position. This is achieved by setting up tabs and using the tab key (to the left of the Q key) on the keyboard, to jump from one position to the next, instead of having to use the space bar again and again and

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"Word processor" Essays and Research Papers

essay on word processor

Word Processor and Document

|The learner can... | |B1. Enter and combine text and other information accurately within word |B1.1 Identify what types of information are needed in documents | |processing documents |B1.2 Use appropriate techniques

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Features Of Word Processor

Contents Features of word processor 1 What is Word ? 2 Create a new document 2 Open a Document 2 Save a Document 2 Read documents 2 Features of word processor Word processors provide a variety of features to make entering‚ editing and formatting documents easy. One of the most basic features for entering text is word wrap. This feature automatically moves the insertion point to the next line once the current line is full. As you type‚ the words wrap around to the next line. There are numerous features

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essay on word processor

A word processor is a computer program used to write

A word processor is a computer program used to write‚ edit‚ print‚ and publish documents for school‚ work‚ or even use at home. A word processor in general can be used to create any type of document in plain text‚ rich text document‚ HTML‚ and XML documents. It also has many templates for use such as tables‚ and graphs for use with your papers and many other features. Microsoft Word is the word processor made by the Microsoft Incorporation‚ and usually comes in a package known as Microsoft Office

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Compound Words

qualities that will help you in your life and lead you to write and build the story of your life. Bengali (2nd Language) 1. Write down any incident of your childhood with illustration (within 150 words ) 2. Write down one paragraph about “Products full of nutrients” with illustrations (within 150 words ). Bengali (3rd Language) 1. Write an essay on Summer season with illustrations. Hindi (2nd Language) 1. Har Saal Mausam ka badalta mijaj varnan karo. Hindi (3rd Language) 1. Prakriti mein

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essay on word processor

Word Processing

WHAT’S NEW IN A MICROSOFT WORD Everyday task made fast and easy. Instead of checking the spelling in your entire documents at once let Word flag your spelling mistakes as you type with Spell it. You can make corrections at your leisure by viewing pop-up list suggested changes. Speed text editing by having Word automatically fix capitalization errors and common misspelling using the improve AutoCorrect feature. AutoCorrect learns your personal preferences for capitalization and spelling as you

Important Components of Word Processing Software.

Important components of word processing software. There are many useful tools in word processing software that can help one to achieve success in their career such as; font settings‚ highlighting‚ line spacing‚ spelling and grammar checking‚ and the ability to implement spreadsheets‚ tables and graphs. Word processors such as Microsoft Word have many typesetting features to help the user accomplish their goals. Features like different font sizes and the ability to change the color that a phrase

MS Word Quiz

this question: 0/1. Word ‚ Page: 97 Topic: None assigned Objective: None assigned 2 Score: 1 To copy an item already in the Clipboard task pane into your Word document‚ begin by Choose one answer. a. clicking the item in the Clipboard task pane. b. positioning the insertion point at the desired location. c. double-clicking the item in the Clipboard task pane. d. clicking the Paste All button in the Clipboard task pane. Correct Score for this question: 1/1. Word ‚ Page: 80 Topic: None

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The Most Useful Features of MS Word

Which 3 features of Microsoft Word would be most helpful in Simon’s experience as a student and as a worker? According to my opinion and what I read I would say that 3 primary functions for Simon would be the fact that he can save his work so that he could go back to it at any time he needed to look at it. The second one I would think it would be the fact that he would be able to do a spell check and grammar check would be another plus. And like the textbook states you can also insert pictures

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Itq Level 2 - Word Assessment

Word Processing Software Level 2 (Credit value 4) Assessment You should use this file to complete your Assessment. • The first thing you need to do is save a copy of this document‚ either onto your computer or a disk • Then work through your Assessment‚ remembering to save your work regularly • When you’ve finished‚ print out a copy to keep for reference • Then‚ go to and send your completed Assessment to your tutor via your My Study area – make sure

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essay on word processor

Word: Microsoft Office and Document B. Merge

Imprint 6. Matt wants to have places in his survey template where users can check “Yes” or No” about their senior week plans. Which tool would he use? A. Content Controls B. Macro C. Placeholder D. Textbox 7. How is the watermark removed from a Word 2010 document? A. Choose Remove Watermark from the Watermark drop-down box the Page Layout Ribbon B. Choose Cancel Watermark from the Watermark drop – down on the Insert Ribbon C. Choose Delete Watermark from the Watermark drop – down on the Page

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essay on word processor

processor essay

or Quad Core processors (on one single chip) instead of the traditional one core per chip. Now the total number of Cores can slot into a socket as before and a single heat sink and fan can keep everything to the right temperature. Types of processors : Intel Pentium Dual Core Processors The Intel Pentium processors with Intel dual-core technology deliver great desktop performance‚ low power enhancements‚ and multitasking for everyday computing. Intel Dual Core i3 Processors Intel Core i3

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Curriculum Meaning and Definition The word curriculum is derived form a Latin word “Correre” which was used an alternate of ‘path way’. Experts defining curriculum with reference to its origin call it a runway. This perception has probably introduced curriculum as a course which one runs to reach a goal‚ which in no case‚ fully explains the literal meaning curriculum. Definition “The experiences which are utilized by the school to attain the aims education “ Principles of Curriculum Development

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Word Processing Definitions 1.  Word Processing--a computerized method of writing‚ editing‚ saving‚ and printing text 2. Text--another name for alphabetical data that was entered 3. Character--any letter‚ number‚ or symbol typed on the keyboard 4. Data--information entered into the computer 5.  Word Wrap--letting the computer decide where to end each line (typing text without pushing return at the end of each line) | 6. Document--anything produced on a word processing program 7. Cursor--a

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The Uses of Microsoft Word

are the uses of Microsoft Word ? [->0] Popular Questions[->1]>Wiki Answers[->2]>Categories[->3]>Technology[->4]>Software and Applications (non-game)[->5]>Office Applications[->6]>Microsoft Word [->7]>What are the uses of Microsoft Word ? · Home While many homes have word processors on their computers‚ word processing in the home tends to be educational or business related‚ dealing with assignments or work being completed at home. Some use word processors for letter writing‚ résumé

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Ms Word Drill

MS Word Ex1 There’s a cliché about holding the future in the palm of your hand. But if you go to Lowe’s or Home Depot‚ you might actually be able to do it. In the pwer tool aisle‚ pick up a cordless drill or saw from DeWalt and there might well be a futuristic battery pack attached—a battery that promises greater power‚ longer life‚ better safety‚ and shorter recharge time than conventional batteries. The batery itself looks little diferent to the naked eye‚ or even under a microscope. The key

Introduction to Word Processing

Introduction to Word Processing Word Processing Background WRITER Writer is an open source/free software word processor that is a component of the software package. Writer is capable of opening and saving documents in a number of various formats‚ including Microsoft Word’s .doc‚ .rtf‚ .xhtml‚ and the Oasis Open Document format (or commonly called as ODF‚ its default format of version 2.0). As with format the suite‚ Writer can

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Using Word Processing Tools

Working in Microsoft Word as often as I do I thought I had a pretty good idea of the capabilities. This reading just through the first few chapters has proven me wrong. I am looking forward to opening up to learning things I have clearly overlooked. I think people often get comfortable in what they know‚ as I have‚ and get used to doing things the way they have learned or been shown often disregarding the fact that there might be a better or faster way. Then there is habit once learning a new

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How Microsoft Office Word, Excel, and PowerPoint are used to support various work environments?

Nicole Keener September 23‚ 2013 How Microsoft Office Word ‚ Excel‚ and PowerPoint are used to support various work environments? There are many uses for Microsoft Office in my classes; work‚ home and career. You can you Microsoft Office Word ‚ Excel in PowerPoint to make word documents‚ spreadsheets and slide shows for class‚ work and work. Microsoft Office Suite is the most widely recognized software program in the world of business. ”Demonstrate your mastery of business

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Digital Signal Processors

Sana ’a university Collage of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Digital Signal Processors Mohammed Mohammed Al-Sanabani | 503/2008 | Telecom | 4th Level Abstract During the past decade digital signal processors (DSPs) have hit critical mass for high-volume applications. Today‚ the entire digital wireless industry operates with DSP-enabled handsets and base stations. This paper gives a plain introduction to DSP devices. The discussion focuses on the digital electronics

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Word Frequency and the Generation Effect

WORD FREQUENCY AND THE GENERATION EFFECT ABSTRACT This report aimed to investigate the generation effect occurs for low frequency words . The experiment used a sample of 117 second year Research Method students from Birkbeck Univerity in within and between subject design. There were two independent variables‚ read and generate items and two dependant variables‚ low and high frequency. This data was analyzed with related sample t test to examine whether the generation effect occurs for

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Effects of Word Processors on Writing Ability Essay

Technological advancement has led to great impact on writing. Like in other areas, advancement in technology has influenced the way people write both positively and negatively. Writing emails, chatting using social networking websites and writing short text massages have become day to day activities. Today computer has become the basic tool for writing. Instead of using pen and paper or typesetting, today people prefer to type their work using word processors. Word processors are the technology that has great influence on my writing process. I prefer to use word processor software when writing instead of conventional ways. In the paper, I report impact of word processors on my writing process. Using word processors has transformed my writing to a higher level. When using traditional pen and paper, I had to care more on mechanics of writing than communicating my message. I paid undue attention to hand writing, spelling, sentence structure and other basic mechanics. By using word processors, I am able to concentrate more on writing rather than caring about my hand writing or trying to check up spelling in a dictionary. Word processors have allowed me to write at ease and improve on my critical thinking and writing. Before embracing word processors, writing seemed very complex. Before producing a final piece of writing, I had to go through many tedious steps including making an outline, writing a draft, editing and recopying the final draft. Using word processors has not only helped me to overcome mechanical difficulties in writing but also improve my attitude towards writing. Word processors have many advantages over conventional pen and paper or typesetting. The main advantage of using word processors is ability to edit work without having to recopy. Word processors make it easy to edit, enabling one to correct mistakes, add or remove ideas without having to rewrite a piece of work. Ability to rewrite my work without having to recopy motivates me to revise my work and therefore improve my writing skills. Unlike when using conventional ways, using word processor allows me to write quickly. Word processors have inbuilt support that make writing and editing to be considerably fast. Because of support provided by word processors, I do not worry much about style when using them but instead concentrate on communicating my message. Good writing is a process that can take many years to achieve. Practice and learning through mistakes are important to writing. Using word processors makes writing enjoyable to me and motivate me to practice the skill. Using word processors, I can retrieve pieces of writing written in the past and try to improve on them. In addition to revisiting my work, work processors makes it possible to share my work with other people who can advice me on how to improve. In spite of many positive contributions of word processor to my writing, they have shortfalls. Sometimes I am not able to spot my mistakes in writing when using word processors. In addition, dependence on some tools in word processor such as spelling checker inhibits ability to do so without help. Technology significantly influences writing. Word processors are the technology that has great influence on my writing process. Using word processors enables me to concentrate on communicating my message rather than worry about mechanical difficulties. Using the technology I can edit or improve my work much easily than in conventional ways. Technology has become part of our life and adopting technology in writing is in order.

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Assessing Writing

The influence of student experience with word processors on the quality of essays written for a direct writing assessment ☆.

Although prior research has identified general procedural and qualitative differences between word-processed and pen and paper writing, little attention has been directed toward identifying how these differences relate to the prior word processing experiences of individual students. Additionally, few researchers have addressed the issue of fairness when discussing the use of word processors in writing assessment. This study investigates this relationship by comparing essays composed with pen and paper for a direct writing assessment to those composed with a word processor by students having different levels of experience with using word processors for writing.

We observed differences between the two composition media similar to differences observed in previous studies of word-processed writing. That is, our results show that, overall, word-processed essays are neater and longer than were pen and paper essays. Word-processed essays also have a more formal tone and a weaker voice than their pen and paper counterparts. No composition medium differences were observed for the number of mechanical errors.

In terms of how word processor experience interacts with writing quality, we found that word processors use neither improved nor worsen the quality of essays produced by students who have medium to high levels of experience using computers for writing. On the other hand, the word processor essays produced by students with a low level of experience writing with computers were scored, on a six-point scale, almost an entire point lower than those produced with pen and paper by these same students. Groups with high and medium levels of experience with word processors wrote slightly more words with a word processor than with pen and paper. On the other hand, the group with a low level of experience with using computers for writing wrote over 100 words fewer on word processors than with pen and paper. As for the number of simple sentences, groups with high and medium levels of comfort and experience with computers for writing wrote fewer simple sentences with a word processor than with pen and paper, while the group with a low level of comfort and experience with computers for writing wrote more simple sentences with word processors than with pen and paper. There were no group by media interactions for the number of mechanical errors.

Local scoring guide: 10th Grade Writing Assessment

Technical manual: 10th grade writing assessment, direct writing assessment: a study of bias in scoring hand-written vs. word-processed papers, improving students' writing with microcomputers, language arts, case studies of student writers.

Word processing in the primary classroom

How computers can change the writing process, common measures, american school board journal, word processing and writing in elementary classrooms: a critical review of related literature, review of educational research, learning to write differently, writing processes and revising strategies: study of effects of computer based text editors on revising strategies for independent writers, college composition and communication, can the computer stimulate writers' inner dialogues, physical and cognitive factors in revising: insights from studies with computers, research in the teaching of english, the effects of word processing on written composition, journal of educational research, examining the comparability between paper- and computer-based versions of an integrated writing placement test.

Several studies have shown that a writer’s computer familiarity moderates the effect of test delivery mode. These include studies in K-12 contexts with children (e.g., Horkay et al. (2006)’s comparability study with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)), as well as with university students (e.g., Wolfe, Bolton, Feltovich, & Niday, 1996) and in adult functional writing contexts (e.g., Chen, White, McCloskey, Soroui, & Chun, 2011). Specifically, computer-based assessments seemed to underestimate the writing ability of examinees with little experience using computers.

The English Placement Test (EPT) is a process-oriented integrated writing placement test for newly-admitted international students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In order to meet student demand, since 2012 the EPT has been administered in both paper-pencil (on-campus) and computer-delivered (online) versions. Both versions feature a two-draft essay writing process and have identical testing procedures except that the online EPT does not have a peer review session, which is built into the on-campus test. This study examined the comparability of the on-campus and online versions, focusing on essay quality and examinee preference among 26 examinees who took both versions within a week, in counterbalanced order. Essay quality was measured in terms of linguistic (complexity, accuracy, fluency) and rhetorical features (integration of sources, progression of ideas, argument effectiveness). No meaningful differences in essay quality were observed between the two versions, although online essays were slightly longer. Post-test questionnaire responses revealed that a majority of test-takers preferred the online version for its convenience. We discussed the advantages and disadvantages of including peer review in writing placement tests, and we concluded by providing recommendations for evaluating comparability as a part of standard quality control practice in local tests.

The effects of writing mode and computer ability on L2 test-takers’ essay characteristics and scores

These studies suggest that test-takers with higher computer familiarity tend to perform better on CB writing tasks, while test-takers with lower computer familiarity tend to perform better on PB writing tasks (Wolfe & Manalo, 2005). For instance, Wolfe et al. (1996) found that, while writing mode did not make a difference for students with mid to high levels of experience writing in L1 on the computer, students with low level of comfort and experience with computers produced essays that were shorter, included simpler sentences and received lower scores when writing on the computer than they did when writing on paper (cf. Horkay et al., 2006; Russell & Haney, 1997). In L2 writing, Maycock and Green (2005) found that test-takers’ ability and experience in using computers did not have a significant impact on their scores on a CB version of the IELTS writing section.

This exploratory study examined the effects of writing mode (computer vs. paper) and computer ability on the scores and linguistic characteristics of essays written in response to a second-language (L2) writing test. Each of 97 test-takers, with two levels of English language proficiency (ELP; low vs. high) and two levels of keyboarding skills (low vs. high,) responded to two equivalent writing tasks, one on paper and one on the computer. Test-takers' written responses were then marked holistically and analysed in terms of various writing features. The findings indicated that writing mode had significant effects on measures of fluency, lexical complexity, cohesion, and content, but not writing scores. Keyboarding skills had significant, but small, effects on measures of fluency, local cohesion, and writing scores, while ELP had significant, large effects on writing scores and measures of fluency, accuracy, and lexical complexity. Overall, the findings suggest that writing mode and keyboarding skills do not seem to seriously affect performance on computer-based L2 writing tests perhaps because of the growing familiarity and proficiency of the target population with using computers to write in English.

Essay Composition across Media: A Quantitative Comparison of 8th Grade Student Essays Composed with Paper vs. Chromebooks

Many current standardized testing and teaching practices approach media for composition with the assumption that media do not influence the writing process in significant ways. This study seeks to determine whether emergent media used for student writing influence essay composition (in terms of quantifiable text indicators) and compares a set of eighth-grade student essays composed via Chromebooks ( n   =   139) to those written by hand ( n   =   319). Essays were collected from students across three (3) schools, and descriptive results corroborate previous findings that Chromebook essays were generally longer than handwritten essays. ANOVA hypothesis testing on Flesch-Kincaid reading ease and grade level scores yielded new knowledge with regard to writing complexity as they indicated that Chromebook essays exhibited a significantly higher grade-level of writing and greater reading difficulty. This suggests greater complexity in word usage and sentence composition among Chromebook essays when compared to handwritten essays and also suggests that the medium itself may have an effect upon the complexity of student writing.

Are TOEFL iBT<sup>®</sup> writing test scores related to keyboard type? A survey of keyboard-related practices at testing centers

For example, Horkay, Bennett, Allen, Kaplan, and Yan (2006) found that computer familiarity, as demonstrated by hands-on typing and editing exercises, can significantly predict students’ computer-based test (CBT) writing scores after controlling for their PBT writing scores. Wolfe, Bolton, Feltovich, and Bangert (1996) and Wolfe et al. (1996b) found that 10th-grade students with little or no experience using computers scored higher on the PBT writing test than on the CBT writing test while experienced computer users had no testing mode effects between PBT and CBT. Similarly, Russell (1999) found that, after controlling for reading performance, middle school students with low keyboarding skills were disadvantaged on a CBT writing test compared to a similar group who had the same level of keyboard skills but used paper and pencil to write.

The strength of a computer-based writing test, such as the TOEFL iBT ® Writing Test, lies in its capability to assess all examinees under the same conditions so that scores reflect the targeted writing abilities rather than differences in testing conditions, such as types of keyboards. The familiarity and proficiency examinees have with a specific type of keyboard could affect their efficiency in writing essays and introduce construct-irrelevant variance, although little research is available in the literature. To explore this, we surveyed 2214 TOEFL iBT testing centers in 134 countries on practices related to keyboard type and analyzed the centers’ responses and the TOEFL iBT scores of examinees from these centers. Results revealed that (a) most testing centers used the U.S. standard English keyboard (USKB) for the test, but a small proportion of centers used a country-specific keyboard (CSKB) after being converted to the USKB; (b) TOEFL iBT Writing scores appear to be significantly associated with the types of keyboard and overlay in only 10 countries, with trivial or small score differences associated with keyboard type. These findings suggest that the current practices related to keyboard type appear to have no or little practical effect on examinees’ TOEFL iBT Writing scores.

The effect of pen and paper or tablet computer on early writing - A pilot study

One consequence of the ongoing controversy on the implementation of digital tools in early writing instruction is a need to investigate the effect of different writing instruction tools such as pen(cil) and paper and tablet computers on early writing. The purpose of this pilot study is to develop a study design and a writing test to investigate the effect of writing instruction tool (tablet computer vs. pen and paper) and test format (digital vs. pen-and-paper) on early writing outcomes. For the writing test, our pilot study shows that pupils assessed by the digital test format wrote faster compared with those assessed by pen-and-paper format, independent of the writing instruction tool. Given the limitations of this pilot study in scope and its quasi-experimental nature, we provide some suggestions for the design of a larger scale study by taking into account the rapid development of the field of early writing instruction.

Issues in transitioning from the traditional blue-book to computer-based writing assessment

In fairness to these groups, computer-based writing assessment may be a valid measure of their writing performance. Conversely, research reveals that students who are not skilled with word processors are worse off when they are required to type their timed writing assessment (Wolfe et al., 1996). Hence, the decision to administer the test in only one mode can result in test bias and place either group at a disadvantage (Maulan, 2004; Chen et al., 2011).

With the increasing popularity of computers in learning and instruction, it is evident that students are no longer doing much pen-and-paper writing in the classroom. Since most academic work is done on computers, handwriting any piece of academic work is tacitly becoming foreign to students. As such, their placement writing assessments, too, should be administered on computers. However, the decision to transition from the traditional blue book to computer-based writing assessment requires a careful understanding of issues that affect students and raters and that college writing programs must be quipped to manage. This article discusses such critical issues necessary for making informed transitioning and suggests ways to ensure tests administered in both modes are comparable.

The effect of abnormality-prevalence expectation on naïve observer performance and visual search

To measure the effect of abnormality-prevalence expectation on naïve observer performance during lesion detection on chest radiographs.

A multi-reader, fixed-case receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) and eye-position analysis study to assess the effect of prevalence expectation on observer performance was conducted. Sixteen diagnostic radiography students (naïve observers) were divided into four prevalence expectation groups (four in each group) and each was asked to interpret thirty (15 abnormal) postero-anterior (PA) identical chest image sets twice to decide if pulmonary nodular lesions were present. Prior to each viewing they were told that the images contained a specific number of abnormal images: group 1: 9 & 15; group 2: 15 & 22; group 3: 9 & 22; group 4:15 & 15.

ROC-analysis demonstrated that no significant effect could be measured as a function of prevalence ( p  > 0.05). However, sensitivity analysis showed a significant change in Group 3 ( p  = 0.0237). Eye-positional analysis showed one significant change, which was found in Group 1 for mean fixation duration on a lesion ( p  = 0.0458).

Overall, the findings of this study showed evidence that the rudimentary performance of naïve observers is altered due to changing prevalence expectation rates.

Writing with Scrivener : A Hopeful Tale of Disappearing Tools, Flatulence, and Word Processing Redemption

There is no writing without technology. Although we are highly aware of writing's mediated nature when asked to learn new writing technologies either as individuals or as a society, we most often ignore these technologies, allowing them to disappear from our consciousness. Not paying attention to our tools can, however, have dangerous consequences. It becomes easy to forget the political, economic, and random forces that influence our choice of technology. Using personal narrative, I explore this tangled relationship between the disappearance of our tools, tool standardization, tool (dis)abilities, and tool design. I tell the story of my four-year-old son's journey to literacy and my discovery of a new type of writing software called Scrivener . Reading the story of Scrivener 's development empowered me: I came to see myself as an active participant in the creation of my writing technologies, and I learned to identify when the discomforts of technology should not be ignored. I use these narratives to argue for a posthumanist view of our relationship with technology, a view in which boundaries between humans and technology are blurred, and I offer suggestions on how to adopt a posthumanist perspective toward writing tools in our composition classrooms.

How invariant and accurate are domain ratings in writing assessment?

The use of evidence to guide policy and practice in education ( Cooper, Levin, & Campbell, 2009 ) has included an increased emphasis on constructed-response items, such as essays and portfolios. Because assessments that go beyond selected-response items and incorporate constructed-response items are rater-mediated ( Engelhard, 2002 , Engelhard, 2013 ), it is necessary to develop evidence-based indices of quality for the rating processes used to evaluate student performances. This study proposes a set of criteria for evaluating the quality of ratings based on the concepts of measurement invariance and accuracy within the context of a large-scale writing assessment. Two measurement models are used to explore indices of quality for raters and ratings: the first model provides evidence for the invariance of ratings, and the second model provides evidence for rater accuracy. Rating quality is examined within four writing domains from an analytic rubric. Further, this study explores the alignment between indices of rating quality based on these invariance and accuracy models within each of the four domains of writing. Major findings suggest that rating quality varies across analytic rubric domains, and that there is some correspondence between indices of rating quality based on the invariance and accuracy models. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

A von Willebrand factor fragment containing the D′D3 domains is sufficient to stabilize coagulation factor VIII in mice

Plasma factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) circulate together as a complex. We identify VWF fragments sufficient for FVIII stabilization in vivo and show that hepatic expression of the VWF D′D3 domains (S764-P1247), either as a monomer or a dimer, is sufficient to raise FVIII levels in Vwf −/− mice from a baseline of ∼5% to 10%, to ∼50% to 100%. These results demonstrate that a fragment containing only ∼20% of the VWF sequence is sufficient to support FVIII stability in vivo. Expression of the VWF D′D3 fragment fused at its C terminus to the Fc segment of immunoglobulin G1 results in markedly enhanced survival in the circulation (t 1/2 > 7 days), concomitant with elevated plasma FVIII levels (>25% at 7 days) in Vwf −/− mice. Although the VWF D′D3-Fc chimera also exhibits markedly prolonged survival when transfused into FVIII-deficient mice, the cotransfused FVIII is rapidly cleared. Kinetic binding studies show that VWF propeptide processing of VWF D′D3 fragments is required for optimal FVIII affinity. The reduced affinity of VWF D′D3 and VWF D′D3-Fc for FVIII suggests that the shortened FVIII survival in FVIII-deficient mice transfused with FVIII and VWF D′D3/D′D3-Fc is due to ineffective competition of these fragments with endogenous VWF for FVIII binding.

Comparing the accuracy of different scoring methods for identifying sixth graders at risk of failing a state writing assessment

Students who fail state writing tests may be subject to a number of negative consequences. Identifying students who are at risk of failure affords educators time to intervene and prevent such outcomes. Yet, little research has examined the classification accuracy of predictors used to identify at-risk students in the upper-elementary and middle-school grades. Hence, the current study compared multiple scoring methods with regards to their accuracy for identifying students at risk of failing a state writing test. In the fall of 2012, students composed a persuasive prompt in response to a computer-based benchmark writing test, and in the spring of 2013 they participated in the state writing assessment. Predictor measures included prior writing achievement, human holistic scoring, automated essay scoring via Project Essay Grade (PEG), total words written, compositional spelling, and sentence accuracy. Classification accuracy was measured using the area under the ROC curve. Results indicated that prior writing achievement and PEG Overall Score had the highest classification accuracy. A multivariate model combining these two measures resulted in only slight improvements over univariate prediction models. Study findings indicated that choice of scoring method affects classification accuracy, and automated essay scoring can be used to accurately identify at-risk students.

This research was funded by American College Testing.

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Effects of Word Processing Programs and Writing Software on Students’ Writing Ability


Mixed reactions have since emerged in researches conducted to identify the effects of word processing programs and computer writing software on students’ writing capabilities. Some studies have shown positive effects towards the use of computer word processing programs. On the other hand, others have indicated barely minimal difference in cases where the programs or software are used by students (Swan 4). This paper will in effect establish if word processing programs and computer skill can either sharpen or even weaken college student’s writing skills.

Today, computer word processing programs have eased the editing process of correcting spelling mistakes, grammatical mistakes and sentence punctuations. Some latest word processors are even able put in text citations on student research papers Similarly, computer writing software are able to correct the mistakes and check for plagiarism of researched work. The advantages that come with word processors and these computer writing software would therefore definitely outweigh the negative impacts on students’ writing capabilities.

Among the disadvantages of word processing programs and writing software that weaken students’ knowledge in writing are; first, the word processing increases the likelihood of certain spelling errors (Noel 106). Word processors causes unwanted modifications while spellchecking some errors leading to some misspelt words or confused words (Noel 106). In relation that, students often believe word processors are always correct in spelling hence leaning more erroneous spellings from them. This in turn leads to more students having a lot of spelling errors in their typed or written work.

Secondly, computers tempt to substitute a person’s writing for thinking. The whole essence of writing is to make sense to a particular audience with a particular intension (Grow 218). As Grow observes;

When they write with a computer, instead of rethinking their drafts for purpose, audience, content, strategy, and effectiveness, most untrained writers just keep editing the words they first wrote down (p.219).

This results college students handing in write-ups which do not make sense or with no proper flow of ideas.

Another disadvantage is that word processors in computers enhances more of collaborative writing (Grow 218). In a collaborative writing, different write may not have the same ideas about tone, punctuation or even rhythm of their sentences. In that case, a computer collaborative write up by college students often do not make much meaning due to variations on how different writers put down their point (Ling 25). The result is a write up with minimal flow of ideas from one writer to the other which limits students from expressing their writing skills in group work which require a collaborative writing.

One of the limiting factors about word processors is that it becomes very difficult for writers to get an overview of their work (Grow 220). This is because word processors barely display more than twenty four lines of words at an instant. This creates a no clear sense of directions hence writers end up with partially expressed ideas or recurrence of ideas.

While the use of word processors produces a well presented write ups, it limits the students’ ability to improve on their hand written work. The emergence of computer era has affected greatly students’ handwriting. Students today are used to typing their work on computers rather than putting them on pen and paper, the results is a poorly presented hand written work. (Ling 76). Hand writing is very important for student in putting across a hand written idea. Hence a write up not well written limits student writing capability.

On the other hand, the only mentionable disadvantage of computer writing softwares is that, existence of various softwares does not have a substandard grading system on students’ writing capability. The result to unbalance student self-evaluation. (Ling 76). Students often focus on the software evaluation for their writing forgetting that the software have their limitations as far as writing is concerned. The result is a student generation with minimal writing skills.

Using computers in class is beneficial since students who have mustered their computer keys are able to write their work pretty fast compared to a work which is being hand written by paper and pen (Hamel 1). The idea in this fact is buyable because in evaluating students writing skills, speed with accuracy is an element which is always considered. Thus a student is able to hand in a correct write up with minimal mistakes at a short time.

Another advantage about a computer is that each keystroke corresponds to a particular letter (Graham 6). Considering the fact that a computer displays letters dialed on the screen, it can therefore be credited with correct spellings of words. Therefore, a college student who definitely has undergone preliminary childhood education could easily notice a spelling mistake and correct it through a word program document. This is unlike the hand written job where one could easily do a lot of spelling mistakes. The result is improved writing skills due to mastery of good spellings (Ling 123).

Computer word processing guarantees student a write-up which is easy to revise, and add ideas or remove vague statements. (Graham 6). This often encourage writers to do more writing unlike hand written work where once a mistake is done then the whole document has to be rewritten. The ease with which writers can write different varieties of job with fewer discouragements improves writing skills.

Computer word processing improves students’ interactivity to the subject matter of the writing (Hamel 1). The fact that word processing program indicates when there is a problem with grammar, sentence structure and spelling mistakes by underlining where there is a problem, encourages the student to get more involved into the writing by doing his researches properly to avoid such mistakes. Mistakes corrected often stick in the mind of the student therefore improving his writing skills (Hamel 1).

Another benefit of word processing is an easy organization of work.(Hamel 1) Word processing software is connected to other electronic sources such as the grammar and plagiarism checkers which are online (Graham 7). The checkers dig deeper into the details of the work to include checks on flows of ideas in relation to other people’s work. The result is therefore a more organized work from students.

Relation to these, computer writing software have also greatly impacted on the way college students write today. According to Fang, a research conducted aimed to investigate the perception of a computer assisted writing program among EFL College learners indicated that;

Majority of students held favorable attitudes towards using MyAccess as a writing tool, but were less positive concerning its use as an essay grading tool. Evidence obtained from a multiple choice question in the survey showed that a majority of the students benefited by using the computer-mediated feedback to revise their essays. Moreover, interview data revealed that the computer-mediated feedback had a positive effect on writing skill development, particularly in suggesting changes for form rather than for content. Finally, eight of the nine interview participants suggested that MyAccess could be utilized in future writing (p.246).

From this research, it is clear that computer assisted programs have become more beneficial to learners writing development. Researchers currently emphasize the use of computer aided writing in learning of second language (Fang 247). This is because the editor function in this software improves vocabulary, word usage, sentences structuring and spelling (Fang 252). On the other hand, the tutor function on this program is as well useful correction of grammar (Fang 247). This is an indication that these softwares improve students writing capabilities.

Another advantage of this is that the automated grading system accompanied by this software helps students evaluate their writing development very easily on their own (Fang 252). The fact that a student can write and do self-evaluation by his score on writing, improves a student writing skills because he is able to constantly gauge his level of writing at any particular moment.

In summary, the advantages that come along with word processing program such as grammar correction, proper sentence structuring, and students’ interactivity among others outweigh the disadvantages that the program imposes on students’ writing development. On the other hand, writing software carries along more advantage of student self-evaluation that makes it more reliable on sharpening students’ writing capabilities.

Condit, N., Kidwell, L., & Kratcoski, A. Using digital tools to support children’s inquiry. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 3(2); (2007); pp.4-11.

Fang, Y. Perceptions of the Computer-Assisted Writing Program among EFL College Learners: Educational Technology ; Society, 13 (3), 2009; 246-252. Print.

Graham, Steve. The Power of Word Processing for the Student Writer. (2008). Rennaisance Reading, pp.4-12. Web. ;;.

Grow, Gerald. How Computers Cause Bad Writing. (2005)Vol. 39, No. 2. 217-220. ;;.

Hamel, Gregory. What Are the Benefits of Laptops in School?, 2015. Web. ;;.

Ling, Lim. Innovative Methods and Technologies for Electronic Discourse Analysis. IGI Global, 2013. Print.

Noel, Lindsay. Word Processors Negatively Affect Writing Quality: A Comparison with Transgenic Crops. International Journal of Computer Technology ; Applications, Vol 4 (1), 2013; 104-107. Print.

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essay on word processor

The Advantages And Benefits Of Word Processing

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