Plato the Philosopher Essay
Plato 's levels of reality.
Plato, arguably one of the most famous philosophers in history is known for his dialogues and theory of Forms. The theory of Forms argues that ideas (non-physical forms) are more real than tangible objects or what our senses perceive. According to Plato, there is the visible realm and intelligible realm. Reality could be divided into three different levels; the level of appearances, the real level, and the ideal level which he explains through the analogy of the ‘Divided Line’ in The Republic.
Plato's Theory of Human Knowledge Essay
Plato's theory of The Forms argued that everything in the natural world is representative of the ideal of that form. For example, a table is representative of the ideal form Table. The form is the perfect ideal on which the physical table is modeled. These forms do not exist in the natural world, as they are perfect, and there is nothing perfect in the natural world. Rather the forms exist in the invisible realm,
Plato : The Worldview Of Plato's Worldview
Plato is remembered as one of the worlds best known philosophers who along with his writings are widely studied. Plato was a student of the great Greek philosopher Socrates and later went on to be the teacher of Aristotle. Plato’s writings such as “The Republic”, “Apology” and “Symposium” reveal a great amount of insight on what was central to his worldview. He was a true philosopher as he was constantly searching for wisdom and believed questioning every aspect of life would lead him to the knowledge he sought. He was disgusted with the common occurrence of Greeks not thinking for themselves but simply accepting the popular opinion also known as doxa. Plato believed that we ought to search for and meditate on the ideal versions of beauty, justice, wisdom, and other concepts which he referred to as the forms. His hostility towards doxa, theory of the forms, and perspective on reality were the central ideas that shaped Plato’s worldview and led him to be the great philosopher who is still revered today.
Essay On The Republic Of Plato
"Unless," I said, "the philosophers rule as kings or those now called kings and chiefs genuinely and adequately philosophize, and political power and philosophy coincide in the same place, while the many natures now making their way to either apart from the other are by necessity excluded, there is no rest from ills for the cities, my dear Glaucon, nor I think for human kind, nor will the regime we have now described in speech ever come forth from nature, insofar as possible, and see the light of the sun."(THE REPUBLIC OF PLATO By Allan B- 473d - 473e)
Platos Meno Essay
The dialogue opens up with Meno asking what virtue is and whether it could be taught. Socrates asks Meno for a general definition of virtue, since as Socrates points out, we cannot figure out if virtue can be taught if we do not have a clear idea what it is. Socrates is looking for a general, or formal definition of virtue, not just examples or instances of it. Socrates wants to know what all the examples of virtue have in common. He wants to know the essence of virtue. Meno initially offers a list of virtues, but Socrates rejects this as a sufficient account. Meno also states that there are different virtues for everyone. The virtue of a man is to order a state and the virtue of a woman is to order a household. I believe that virtue can
Explain the Criticisms of Plato's Theory of the Forms.
Plato's theory of forms, also called his theory of ideas, states that there is another world, separate from the material world that we live in called the "eternal world of forms". This world, to Plato, is more real than the one we live in. His theory is shown in his Allegory of the Cave (from The Republic, Book VII), where the prisoners only live in what they think is a real world, but really it is a shadow of reality. According to Plato, to the prisoners in the allegory and to humanity in the material world "truth would be literally nothing but shadows" and he believes us to be as ignorant as the people in the cave. Plato followed the belief that in order for something to be real it has to be permanent, and as everything in the world we
Platos Republic Essay
Plato's Republic Critics of The Republic, Plato's contribution to the history of political theory, have formed two distinct opinions on the reasoning behind the work. The first group believes that The Republic is truly a model for a political society, while the other strongly objects to that, stating it as being far too fantastic
plato & aristotle Essay
In these sessions, I have gained a better understanding of Aristotle and Plato’s ideas and theories. Particularly, I have a specific interest in Aristotle and the notion of the two extremes and to aim towards the “gray or middle of the road”. I also have an interest in Plato’s theory regarding the just and unjust and the repercussions of their actions.
The Allegory Of The Cave By Plato And Rene Descartes
Plato, being a Socratic apprentice, followed and transcribed the experiences Socrates had in his teachings and search of understanding. In Plato’s first work, The Allegory of the Cave, Socrates forms the understanding between appearance vs. reality and the deceptions we are subject to by the use of forms. In the cave, the prisoners’ experiences are limited to what their senses can tell them, the shadows on the walls, and their shackles; these appearances are all that they have to form their ideas. When one of the prisoners begins to question his reality he makes his way out of the cave and into the day light. This prisoners understanding of his reality has now expanded, thus the theory of forms; when he returns to the cave to spread the news, the others do not believe him. They have been deceived by their reality and what
Forms and Causes: Philosophies of Aristotle and Plato Essay
- 5 Works Cited
Plato, in addition to being a philosopher, wrestled at the Olympic level, is one of the classical Greek authors, mathematicians and the founder of The Academy, the first higher learning institute in the west. In short, Plato is one of the great thinkers in history and his contributions to philosophy, ethics and politics are many and varied. One of Plato’s main philosophical ideas is based on the idea that the world
Essay on Socrates and Plato
Plato attempted to demonstrate that there was proof of a “divine goodness” by several illustrations. Such illustrations include his famous “Divided Line”, “The Simile of the Sun”, and “The Allegory of the Cave”. In these expressions, he aims to pick apart the foundation of knowledge and where it comes from. He believed that human souls could ultimately reach the highest level of reality and have a total understanding of all things. In other words, the soul who had reached the highest level of understanding no longer needed to question or perceive things, because he would recognize and comprehend “pure knowledge” or “pure goodness”. (Soccio)
Plato's Republic Essay
“the having and doing of one’s own and what belongs to one would be agreed to
Plato’s Theory of Forms
“Everything which exist in this world and all things that we see around us are not as they appear to us” this is the core idea behind plato’s theory of forms.From this idea only he moves towards explaining his world of forms or ideas.
Essay about Plato
Plato was interested in how we can apply a single word or concept to many words or things. For example how can the word house be used for all the individual dwellings that are houses? Plato answered that various things can be called by the same name because they have something in common. He called this common factor the thing’s form or idea. Plato insisted that the forms differ greatly from the ordinary things that we see around us. Ordinary things change but their forms do not. A particular triangle may be altered in size or shape but the form of a triangle can never change. Plato concluded that forms exist neither in space or time. They can be known not only by the intellect but also by the senses. Because of their stability and perfection, the forms have greater reality than ordinary objects observed by the senses. Thus true knowledge is knowledge of the forms.
The Form Of Truth : Plato 's Theory Of Knowledge
Plato argued that true knowledge was not obtained through the knowledge of the physical world around us, but from these unchanging ideas. Plato’s theory of knowledge is well explained through his discussion of the Divided Line; a line divided into two unequal parts. One section represents the visible order and the other intelligible order, relating to opinion and knowledge, respectively. The stages of cognition flow upwards: imagining, belief, thinking, and intelligence. The visible, changing world of opinion begins with the awareness of images through perception. Awareness of images can include
Plato’s Philosophy Research Paper
Plato’s theory, allegory of the cave and reasons to mistrust majority, plato class system, motivation of plato’s philosophy, works cited.
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Born around 427 BC in Athens, Plato was an ancient Greek philosopher. His father (Ariston) and his mother (Perictione) were members of a noble society of Athens. Despite the fact that he travelled to Italy on several occasions, most of his life was spent in Athens. Being born of a noble family, although much literature does not exist about his early life, Plato acquired the finest education as reflected in his collection of philosophical works reflecting the tragedy and politics of his time.
While Socrates was his teacher, Aristotle was his student. Plato’s writings explore themes such as equality and beauty coupled with a discussion of aesthetics, cosmology, political philosophy, language philosophy, and political philosophy. He was the founder of one of the oldest philosophy academy in Athens in the western world.
Plato lived in the synthesis age. He had an acquaintance with Socrates (his teacher) between 469 and399 B.C.E. Socrates altered the life of Plato. In this perspective, Kahn reckons, “the power that Socrates methods and arguments had over the minds of the youth of Athens gripped Plato as firmly as it did many others, and he became a close associate of Socrates” (67). Following the death of his father, Plato’s mother married Pericles’ friend.
This move made him connected to both democracy and oligarchy systems of politics. After the Peloponnesian war came to a halt, his uncle and mother persuaded Plato to join the Athens oligarchic rules. However, he objected. He preferred becoming a student of Socrates. In the Socrates academy, he developed his principles of being an opponent to relativisms coupled with Sophist’s skepticisms.
He dwelled on values as opposed to physical science. While describing the works of Socrates, Aristotle paid immense credits to Socrates’ emphasis on moral questions coupled with his precise definitions of issues. A careful scrutiny of Plato’s works evidences that he absorbed these lessons from the Socrates’ class.
The philosophical positions held by Plato made him neither a friend to thirty tyrants (404-403 BC) nor to Athenian democracy upon its restoration. He deployed critical interrogation methodology to alienate them. As Kahn informs, in the 399 BC, Plato was “brought to trial with capital crimes of religious impiety and corruption of youth where he was convicted and sentenced to death” (22). One of his friends offered to have him freed through payment of a fine as opposed to the imposition of the death penalty.
Referring to this experience, Kahn writes, “Plato tells us in the Seventh Letter after Socrates’ death that he became disenchanted with all existing political regimes and felt that the only salvation of politics would require that either true or genuine philosophers attain political powers or the rulers of states by some dispensation of providence become genuine philosophers” (39).
He founded his school around 387 BC in Athens. In effect, the school served as a higher education institute specializing in philosophy, astronomy, physical science, and mathematics. In this school, Plato delivered lectures. Unfortunately, the lectures were never published.
Dion, Dionysious II’s uncle, invited Plato to Dionysius school thus securing him a voyage to Sicily. He was trapped in the Syracuse until 360 BC. After several misunderstandings between Dion and Dionysius II’, Dion entered Syracuse in 357 B.C.E. The move culminated to the overthrow of Dionysius.
In the seventh letter of Plato, he recounts his roles in the death of Dion although, “the deepest truths may not be communicated” (Kahn 34). When Plato traveled back to Athens, he continued being the president of his academy until his demise in 347 BC. He died at the age of 80 years.
Plato postulated that people live in an imperfect state. This position was opposed to the position held by Athenians who held that their polis was perfect with regard to cultural and military achievements. His skepticism can perhaps be traced from his role model, Socrates, who taught him to be skeptical about a society, which pays no attention to inclusion of people with political expertise in the running of states.
In the Republic , Plato proposes an ideal state having the capacity to deal with the imperfection in the real state such as corruption. Plato theorizes the realization of the ideal state as encompassing three waves aimed at eroding corruption coupled with bringing about new principles and ideals.
The first wave consists of the ruling class, which, rather than being composed of the perceived most intelligent people, it constituted “only philosophers-kings” (Jackson 93). Plato defined philosophers as people “who have a great love of knowledge believing that knowledge was the key to a successful ruler” (Jackson 93). Kings ought to be philosophers while philosophers ought to become kings.
The second wave in the Plato theory for ideal states entangles the guardians who are principally a mix of women and men. Unfortunately, at his time, women were not permitted to engage in political processes. This argument meant that Plato was not only knowledgeable on political issues surrounding the ancient Greek history but also on modernization standards.
Opposed to the prescription of roles for engaging in battles among people belonging to the guardian class, Plato saw such roles as irrelevant in his theory of ideal states since the manner of operation of the third wave gave no room for conflicts.
In the third wave, guardians would have no wealth, would share all they had, had no private property, lived together communally, envy would disappear in theory, and issues of class rankings disappeared. This argument means that disagreements would not arise on issues such as who should have what since all people would have the same things. A perfect society would thus be created.
The allegory of the cave can serve in revealing some of the key reasons to mistrust the views of the majority. The allegory of the cave presents a description of a complex philosophical world. Plato “described symbolically the predicament in which mankind finds itself and proposes a way of salvation” (Kreis 1). The salvation advocated by Plato is influenced by the theory of freedom of mind that was advanced by his teacher, Socrates. According to Plato, the manner in which the world is revealed to us is not a real copy of it.
Unfortunately, majority of people live in the unreal copy, which is characterized by various class systems. Since the world presented to us is not real, it inappropriate to trust the majority of the people living in it with their minds trapped by unreasonable norms of various class systems.
This argument is evidenced by Plato’s theory that is advanced through the allegory of caves in which he held, “the universe ultimately is good, his conviction that enlightened individuals have an obligation to the rest of society, and that a good society must be the one in which the truly wise are the rulers” (Kreis 1).
Philosophically, the wise are the people who have freedom of thought and people who do not open their own minds to prejudice in search of what is real and accurate beyond any reasonable doubt. This argument drives at the first reason why people should not trust the majority.
Believing the majority implies contending on a universally acceptable way of thought, which is not acceptable since the world is not real. Hence, everything presented to us by it is open to doubt. The unrealistic nature of the world is perhaps evident by consideration of descriptions of it in the allegory of caves.
In the allegory of the caves, Plato provides an analogy of how people live in the unreal world by describing a situation in which people live around a cave situated underground. An opening is located at the top of the cave. A shadow is casted due to burning fires. The people living in the cave are chained thus making them only be able to see the wall.
Hence, they are not able to turn around. Since people in the cave cannot only see the wall, in case an object passes by the fire, a shadow is cast on the wall. People are not able to see the real object. Hence, the only thing that they comprehend to exist is the shadow of the object (Plato 747). Luckily, one the people in the caves gets off his chains and manages to wander around in the exterior of the cave (Plato 748).
What he sees flabbergasts him. When he reports to the rest of people still chained in the cave about what he saw outside the cave, they (majority) think that he is mad. They indeed plot to murder him (Plato 749). This evidences that the majority has a deeply ingrained fear to come into terms with reality. This primitiveness of the true nature of majority of the people serves to advance and promote ignorance. Thus, it is dogmatic for a rational thinking being to trust the majority.
In the Republic , tantamount to the allegory of caves, Socrates is the central character. However, Republic is “less a dialogue than a long discussion by Socrates of justice and what it means to the individual and city state (independent states)” (Kahn 51).
According to Plato, class systems comprised three elements. These are guardians, rulers, and workers. These state classes are analogous to the three elements of the soul: rational, impulsive irrational, and less rational. Each of the elements of the state classes has different roles in society. Rulers do not comprise ruler’s families.
Rather, the class is made up of people who stand out in the society as the most intellectual and gifted. Just as rational component of the soul is the chief decision maker based on reason, the rulers are charged with the roles of giving direction to the rest of the class states. Surprisingly, this class is composed of the fewest number of people in the population.
The class that compares with the less rational components of the soul is the guardians. In the Plato class systems, guardians are charged with the roles of maintaining order in the society and handling governments’ practical matters such as engagement in battles. While the guardians would make certain decisions in the execution of their roles in the class systems, their actions are in the better part dependent on the decisions made by the rational element of the state (rulers).
The main roles of the workers are engagement in labor to ensure that the whole runs in a smooth manner. This last class of people in class systems comprises the majority. Compared to the elements of the soul, the class is analogous to the impulsive irrational (Kahn 57). Hence, the larger the numbers of people in class systems, the more their roles are less driven by their own rationality.
Borrowing from the argument that people should choose to act in a manner that justifies one’s rationality at arriving at a decision to act in particular ways, trusting majority is detrimental to one’s capacity to think rationally. This assertion justifies the actions adopted by the majority of the people in the allegory of the cave to kill the person who had information about the reality of the world.
Various issues including experience motivate the development of philosophies of various people. This section argues that Plato’s philosophy is relative to his culture and experience. This argument is evidenced by the vivid descriptions of people living in caves in confusion. In his era, people lived in a society where they never questioned the authority.
They did what was required of them without thinking through the appropriateness of what they did. Yet, those who objected to comply were treated as enemies, and were subjected to punishment. This experience is reflected in Plato’s allegory of caves when he informs that, when one of the people tied in chains in the caves got an opportunity to learn about what the real world was like, the other people planned to kill him.
Considering his personal experience in political systems, it is evident that his allegory of caves reflects the ignorance of ruling class state to incorporate the knowledgeable in the governance of the states. Indeed, philosophers who Plato perceives have incredible knowledge and are able to view issues from true and real dimensions were treated with dismay. In this context, Jackson reckons, “Athenians saw Plato’s kind as rogues and useless individuals who thought themselves as better than the rest of the society” (81).
This argument underlies the reason why Plato maintains that kings need to be philosophers and philosophers need to become kings in the Republic . This way, kings would have an understanding of how philosophy would aid in helping them to develop an ideal state: free from conflicts.
Plato’s philosophies reflect various arguments on the manner in which material distribution should be done to realize an ideal society. His theory on the political society is a depiction of historical materialistic conceptions evident in his society.
In this perspective, Jackson notes that, since Plato was born in a strict social class, his works reflect ideas of Karl Marx that the “nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production” (99). The argument is evidenced by his argument in the Republic that ideal states would have to be docile as a matter of condition defining when they were born and how they were raised.
According to him, the nature of people in the ideal states would have to be defined by their surroundings- the society. Indeed, he wonders, “How can any society that has such a strict social code and classes ever be successful?” (Kahn 77). This interrogative is a depiction of well thought ideas about how societies are supposed to be constituted based on Plato’s cultural experience.
The advocating for people to think rationally and independent from the ill conception of people in the society reflects the contempt held by Plato for a society that delinked his departure of ways of thought based on rational judgment. Now, it is important to retaliate that this same society executed his teacher- Socrates- for his failure to submit his mind and power of reason to prejudice.
As argued before, Plato was born in an era when compliance was vital to fit in a society. This compliance impaired rationality of people. Hence, people could not perceive the reality. This experience is reflected abundantly in the allegory of caves. Readers of the allegory of caves know too well that puppeteers behind the prisoners used wooden and iron objects, which liked reality in the form of shadows.
In the context of Plato’s cultural experience, this development is critical since what is insinuated as reality from the time he was born was now exposed to doubt since it could be “completely false based on our imperfect interpretations of reality and goodness” (Kahn 78). The point of argument here is that people use names to describe physical representation of what can only be grasped by the mind since appearance may be deceptive. Hence, the things defined in Plato’s society and political systems as right may not be right or good.
Drawing from the above argument, in the development of an ideal society, the problem is to define what is good because what one may perceive as good may indeed be an imitation of the reality. Hence, rulers create their own meaning of what is good. With the flawed definition of good, a challenge of doing ‘good’ emerges.
Deeply ingrained knowledge is required to come up with what is good for the society. Concerning Plato, only philosophers are able to think freely and evaluate various issues far from just in the context of face value. This argument explains perhaps why he says in the Republic that philosophers need to become kings.
Otherwise, ‘good’ would just remain being a word but not a representation of what is appropriate for the whole society. This argument is congruent with the position held by Jackson, “in a society like Athens where society came first, it would not matter if citizens thought they did well because, if they did not do well for the polis, then that “good” did not matter” (101). Based on this assertion, the allegory of caves reflects a society (Athens) whose reality is constructed by other people beyond the reach of the majority.
Only few people who are able to escape from the chains can understand the reality. Unfortunately, the ignorant people who are not able to unveil their reality threaten the lives of those few witty people. Such people who have escaped the wrath of ignorance represent people like Plato and Socrates, his teacher.
Jackson, Roy. Plato: A Beginner’s Guide . London: Hoder and Stroughton, 2001. Print.
Kahn, Charles. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.
Kreis, Steven. Plato republic, Book VI: the allegory of the cave . London: Routledge, 2000. Print.
Plato. Republic VII. Collected Dialogues of Plato. Ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns . Princeton: Princeton University Publishers, 1982. Print.
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The differences between the principles of plato aristotle.
Plato and Aristotle are without a doubt two of the world’s greatest philosophers. Plato, a Greek philosopher and a student of Socrates, was born around 424-423 BC in Athens to a wealthy Athenian family and his death was around 347-348 BC. Following in the footsteps of Socrates, Plato wrote his works as dialogues. His notable works include Apology, Symposium and Republic. His notable ideas were Idealist in nature, in that he believed in order and harmony, goodness and selflessness, everlasting […]
Aristotle Vs. Plato
Throughout life, one will encounter many different people some with similar views and others with contrasting perspectives on reality. This topic and discussion on life and reality continues to rise debate since ancient times. Some of history’s most influential philosophers that attempt to describe life and reality are Aristotle and Plato. A student may choose to accept the teachings of a mentor or reject, question, and modify what is taught. Aristotle was a student of Plato’s and chose to reject […]
Kant and Aristotle on Happiness
Human happiness has been a topic of discussion for thousands of years. The discussion focuses on how to reach true happiness, and the relevance of happiness to decision making. Over time, philosophers have mulled over human happiness, with Aristotle and Kant taking opposing stances. Aristotle believes happiness is the goal of human activity. Kant argues that the purpose of human activity is to uphold universal law without taking happiness into consideration. Acting out of respect for duty leads to a […]
How does Socrates Vision of Athenian Democracy Differ from that of Pericles
Both Pericles’ Funeral Oration from Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War and Plato’s Apology of Socrates describe the Athenian democracy and society, however, they are very opposite views. According to Pericles, the written as well as unwritten laws of democracy, such as the administration being in hands of many citizens who are also the judges and jurors in public matters and in control of the law – which must be obeyed by all and where public service is the most […]
“Allegory of the Cave” by Plato
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is found in his Republic, in which Socrates explains the journey of a soul from the dark into the light (from ignorance to truth) and the issues it may present for those who become enlightened to the level of philosophy. In Plato’s Apology, the presentation and reception of the old charges, new charges, and Socrates’ sentencing create a parallel with, respectively, the shadows, puppets, and enlightened prisoner in the Allegory of the Cave of Plato’s […]
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Virtue on Aristotle
As mentioned above, Eudaimonia is defined as a supreme good, which becomes the ultimate goal of everyone pursues. What is the ultimate goal? It is the final purpose and will not be the way to achieve other purposes. For example, we can say that earning money is the purpose of working. So how about the purpose of making money? Some will say that making money is to obtain a better life. However, Eudaimonia is different. People do not pursue it […]
Aristotle Politics: the Relationship between Personal Ethics and Public Politics
Within every state, the typical goal of every citizen is to have an efficient system of government that gives priority to its citizens regardless of their position or class within the community. Individuals who owe allegiance to a given state may show diversity, but the core of their focus is working towards having a better life and improving the state of their community. In Politics by Aristotle, one of the most prominant themes is the relationship between personal ethics and […]
Aristotle’s Function Argument
Aristotle believes that if one wants to live well, one should organize their life by reference to the very best thing that humans can obtain in action?”something he calls “the human good. He portrays that a good life should point towards eudaimonia, which may also be interpreted as happiness. However, unlike our modern understanding of happiness as a mental state, eudaimonia carries more weight in regard to living a full and wealthy life. Due to this we may better interpret […]
In this essay we will be looking at Aristotle’s Ethics most importantly book v of his Nichomachean Ethics, which is concern with Justice. As a virtue theorist Aristotle believes that the best form of life is to cultivate virtue. There are different virtues and the way Aristotle defines virtue as the means between excess and efficiency. Aristotle begins by giving us varieties of justice, ” All men mean by justice that kind of state which makes people disposed to do […]
A Legal Construct of Government the Constitution
Anarchy. Self-government. Aristocracy. Tyranny. Democracy. In every society there lie a social contract amongst peoples on how to conduct themselves and daily business, or rather, the rule-of-the-land. This social contract is declared and enforced by both legal authorities (i.e. government) as well as through the participation of its citizens. This paradigm has come to be known as ‘law’. So if ‘law’ is the construct of societal-cooperation within a particular society, what is it that which conducts governmental powers, interaction, and […]
Human Nature Person
Aristotle was taught by Plato who was taught by Socrates. In a sense they all their had own specific way of thinking of human nature but they also had a way of relating to each other. Plato believed in the Theory of Forms while Aristotle believed in metaphysics and Socrates believed in the key to happiness. With each theory that they believed in, I agree with different aspects. Socrates was the start of it all. He believed that happiness was […]
Human Nature and Ethics Nietzsche and Plato Compared
This paper serves as an examination of the similarities and differences in the views of two philosophers, Plato and Nietzsche, relating top human nature and ethics as expressed in Plato’s The Republic and Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil. Nietzsche writes this volume as the end of his life approaches and uses it as an instrument to record his life’s work. He uses aphorisms to make each point and concludes with a poem which extolls the virtue of friendship as an […]
Humanities Hubris Regarding Nature
The representation in news media and environmental literature mislead the viewer, or reader, into thinking humans cause more significant damage to the environment than the environment causes on humanity. Also, there is a need for more responsible and accurate news reports, articles, and environmental literature that focus on the effect the environment has on humanity. The literature that follows explains how the environment affects human societies and provides evidence that humanity has little authority over environmental patterns. The belief that […]
The Opposing Views on Common Human Reason between Plato and Kant
From picking what to wear in the morning, to making decisions on who to vote for this upcoming November, we are making countless number of decisions every day. We may, at times, face dilemmas. Ultimately, we believe that the decisions we make best benefits ourselves and, possibly, the future. Nevertheless, there is no denying that what one thinks is the rightful choice may be another’s wrongful one. When it comes to, for example, political or ethical decisions for the people, […]
The Movie “The Matrix” and Plato
In the movie The Matrix we discover a character by the title of Neo and his battle adjusting to the truth to reality. This story is closely similar to an antiquated Greek content composed by Plato called “The Purposeful anecdote of the Cave.” Presently both stories are diverse but the thoughts are essentially the same. Both Stories have key focuses that can be analyzed and related to one another nearly precisely. There’s no question that The Matrix was based off […]
The Matrix Philosophy
How can we know that we are awake? That this is real? Surely many of us who have seen the film has these types of questions. Many of us have had the sensation of not acting with total freedom, many of us have thought that our acts are predetermined (or very influenced), or that we live an eternal constant return; even, that we are being manipulated and controlled and that we are inside a dream. Matrix responds to all these […]
Socrates and Aristotle
Everyone views democracy differently; some people think it’s not the best way to run a government and others feel that it’s the only way. Both Socrates and Aristotle have strong views on democracy. In Book Six of The Republic Plato describes a conversation between Socrates and another character called Adeimantus. Socrates compares democracy to a ship. He asks him if they were going on trip by sea who would he want in charge; the shipowner who is bigger and stronger […]
“Allegory of the Cave”
Explain, analyze, and interpret Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” from Book VII of Republic (p.193-198; 514a-519b). Plato was an ancient Athenian Philosopher who studied under fellow philosopher Socrates. He would later become one of the most influential philosophers of all time. One of Plato’s most notable works and most famous allegory was the “Allegory of the Cave”. Plato uses the “Allegory of the Cave” as a tool to show us, readers, his views on society and true knowledge. Plato’s “Allegory of […]
“The Allegory of the Cave”
“The Allegory of the Cave” is a short story from one of Plato’s books, The Republic. After discovering and learning about “The Allegory of the Cave”, it is safe to say for sure that “Allegory of the cave” is one of the most well-known works of Plato. Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” definitely has a context of education in it. Moreover, his work contains Plato’s view of education and philosophical education. In Plato’s book The Republic, Socrates is the main […]
Plato: the Good Life
Plato describes that the ‘good life’ consists of knowing the Form of Good. According to Plato, the material world, as it seems to us, is not the real world but it is only a shadow or an imitation of the real world. In his theory of forms, Plato makes a distinction between objects that are real and concepts that exist in our minds. He believed that there is another eternal world which is more real than the world which we […]
Platos Cave by Robert Motherwell
The piece of art that I visited is called In Plato’s Cave, which was done by Robert Motherwell, and can be found in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. In fact, the painting I saw is only one from a series of paintings all with the same name. Motherwell lived from 1915-1991 and painted In Plato’s Cave in 1973. The connection to this course is direct and hard to miss: In Plato’s Cave is a reference to his Allegory of the […]
The Matrix: Readings from Plato and Descartes
These readings focus on how the world is viewed as individuals and the relationship with the reality verses illusions. Each of these stories are related to a utopia world. The reason is utopia is a place that is imagined, or a state of items or things are perfect. Each of these are readings are based on different situations that are like dreams and are compared to the real world. The Matrix is about a computer hacker named Neo. Neo is […]
Varieties of Knowledge in Plato and Aristotle
Have you ever wondered how someone depicts the truth from a lie? Or maybe even wondered how do we know what we know? Two philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, sought out to help us understand the why we do what we do and how do we know what we know. Both philosophers’ debate in the knowledge at birth, the mechanism to find the truth, and concepts of reality. Despite Aristotle being taught by Plato they had different theories and views. Plato’s […]
Essay about the Allegory of the Cave
Imagine a world of shadows. Three prisoners are faced to the wall and can’t move. They have been there since birth and don’t know anything about the outside world. In Plato’s opinion, these would be the common people, the masses. Behind them is a fire, and they only see the shadows, meaning that the masses aren’t very knowledgeable. One prisoner escapes and comes back to tell the others about the real world, but the others don’t believe him. These would […]
Allegory of the Cave Analysis
Define allegory in your own words. Explain the main elements of the allegory in the excerpt from the Republic. An allegory is a story, or a parable, based on human experience meant to act as a moral guide. The allegory from Plato’s Republic is a cautionary tale that expresses how human life can be expressed as a duality. There is the darkness of unknowing for those that are forced to (or choose) to remain in the cave. Then there is the […]
Plato Analysis Paper
“Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” represented a vision he had that humans were shacked in chains in front of a fire that gave the illusion that the shadows of items were actually in front of them. This is where these humans lived their childhood “fixed in the same place.” (Republic, 514) The shadows that the so called “slaves” seen were all they knew and they would mistake it for reality. Plato would agree that humans mistake their smallest perceptions as […]
Philosophy in Plato’s ‘Allegory of the Cave’
Philosophy is a cosmology, a crisis, and a critique. A cosmology is the assumption one makes about the universe, their worldview, what is subjective, and what is objective. A crisis is made up of the moral choices one makes, what is right or wrong, choosing between life or death, and is based judgement. Critique analyzes how one structures their argument, further expanding the problems presented. Philosophy is the love for wisdom as it is the purpose for forming critical thoughts. […]
Socrates in Plato’s ‘Allegory of the Cave’
Plato was an ancient Athenian Philosopher who studied under fellow philosopher Socrates. He would later become one of the most influential philosophers of all time. One of Plato’s most notable works and most famous allegory was the “Allegory of the Cave”. Plato uses the “Allegory of the Cave” as a tool to show us, readers, his views on society and true knowledge. Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” could be a critique to Athenian Society and or society in general. Many […]
Essay about Plato’s Allegory of the Cave
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave presents an extended metaphor drawing upon philosophical issues such as epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, enlightenment, education, religion, and politics. As we journey through Plato’s story we come to understand the representations behind it. The basic premise here is showing us the relation between education and truth. True knowledge is hidden and humans are easily misinterpreting information presented when under certain conditions that don’t allow them to expand their perspective or question the nature of reality and […]
Concepts of Knowledge in ‘Allegory of the Cave’
Plato’s extended metaphor, “The Allegory of the Cave” focuses on the theme of reality and knowledge to demonstrate that reality is not a definitive concept. Plato brings attention to the people’s increasing ignorance and lack of concern. The true nature of reality is not perceived due to our lack in education. This hinderance prevents us from adequately reflecting on our surroundings. He argues that humans do not understand the complexities of the world and deem what we see true without […]
Essay about Plato According to David Foster’s This Is Water we revolve ourselves around certain beliefs that we think are a matter of fact. We do not even think for once that they can be questioned too. In this way our brain creates a circuit making us unaware that we are imprisoned by our beliefs. The concern of certainty is a legitimate worry for philosophers because many things that we are certain of turns out to be totally opposite, wrong, and deceptive. When eventually it is dawned upon us that our beliefs were wrong or they can be counter questioned, our self-centered behavior gets hurt. Ultimately it produces chaos inside us. We should need to understand that change is the most powerful law of nature. And we cannot be certain about even certain things. Worry of Plato and Descartes on the unexamined everyday world: Plato has acknowledged with the quote that “ An unexamined life is not worth living” by Socrates during his trials. Their worry is justified because when we examine anything we try to understand it. Examined life leads you to live a transparent life. When you start examining you come to know what you are living. Socrates was the philosopher and philosophy means to question everything. If we will stop examining everything, the philosophy would simply be fallen down or completely vanished. They were worried that if the examining would be stopped, there would be no attraction to live for. According to Descartes, if a belief has even the slightest tint of doubt, reject it. This thought is called radical skepticism where every belief is counter questioned and challenged. He concluded this experiment in a statement that physical senses cannot be relied upon as they have deceived him earlier. This phenomenon is known as sensory deception. This led him to think that every believer can be doubted that is perceived by five senses. He also explained that it is difficult to differentiate between waking life and dream states. So we cannot say that whether we are in the awake state, living in reality or asleep, living a dream. This he named as dream hypothesis. He also postulated the evil demon hypothesis. He stated that all external realities may be just an illusion framed by the evil demon trying to deceive the man. Moreover, he said that previous memories can be merely imaginations and not strong realities. These all statements and theories made him doubt the theory of the existence of anything. Plato presented the allegory of the cave. He postulated a story. He said there are few prisoners present in the depths of a cave. The cave is all dark. The prisoners are sitting behind a wall. A fire is lit behind the prisoners which cast shadows of them on the wall. Few prisoners among them are puppeteers who make puppets on the wall from the light of the fire. They make noises while making puppets on the wall. According to their perception, truth is nothing more than shadows. In other words, prisoners are unaware of this illusion and consider these shadows a reality. One day a prisoner unchained himself and went to move around the cave. At night he saw stars and in the day he saw light. It was then dawned upon him that the true source of light is the sun. then he realizes that his previous life in the cave was just an illusion. He depicts prisoners as people with false beliefs about reality. They gave their hold to senses which eventually manipulated the reality. After getting to know about their experiments in detail, both of them thought that senses are illusory. Our senses can be manipulated easily and they can interfere with our perception of reality. Moreover, the evil demon hypothesis of Descartes is relevant to prisoners whose perception is distorted by puppeteers. For both of them the intellect is the only means for getting insight into true knowledge. Senses are deceptive. I think their projects differ at one point. Descartes provides the initial point to modern sciences by just not relying on five senses whereas Plato told us about the way of life, how to spend it logically and the essence of seeking true knowledge. Moreover, Plato’s theory represented the conclusive point whereas Descartes’s theory opened the gates of further investigation. The preferred method to think about the possibility of illusion or deception is the escape from the cave. This approach is more applicable and practical because those who acquire it can come back to the cave and teach others who are still unaware of the reality. I would try to increase the people in logical reasoning and to break the circles of false consciousness. The darkness in the cave can be overcome by true knowledge and intellect. In this way this goal can be practical. Wisdom and knowledge come through seeking and questioning. It is enlightened on you when you move out of your cave and start observing your surroundings closely. In this cave analogy of Plato, cave and its darkness abbreviate unawareness and light and its source abbreviates awareness and truth. Moreover, we should note that intellect is not served to us in a decorated plate but we have to go and strive for it. To educate others after getting yourself enlightened is the best possible way to take others out of the cave and the darkness. We should try to look beyond physical appearances as they can cause delusion. (Palmer, 2017)
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Plato - Philosopher King
9 Pages 2247 Words
Much of Plato’s reasoning for philosopher-rulers centres around his belief that society should be rational and just. It would be important to note that ‘justice’ as referred to by Plato in his work and by other philosophers at the time, does not directly compare with the modern meaning. ‘Justice’ as it was then, was more what today we would call ‘righteousness’ or ‘goodness’. The aims of this essay are to examine the reasons behind Plato’s beliefs and the extent to which they are justifiable for the modern day as well as for ancient Greece. Much of Plato’s work is written in the form of dialogues, with Socrates, Plato’s tutor, cast as the main character. It is sometimes not clear, “where Socrates finishes and Plato begins”. However, concerning the subject of philosopher-rulers, I believe this distinction is not necessary. References to Socrates, especially regarding Republic, can be taken as Plato’s beliefs expressed through the character of Socrates and not the man himself. It is also important to note at this time, that the poleis (singular polis), or city-states, were nothing like the modern day ‘city’. The closest modern comparison would be the nation-state and not the city. This essay will first see Republic as a discussion of justice. Plato’s conclusion of justice led him to differentiate individuals’ souls into three parts that he relates directly to the polis. This will be examined along with some of the criticisms offered. Following from this, Plato’s ‘theory of forms’, its basis and conclusions as well as its distinction from Aristotle’s views, will be discussed. Once Plato’s theoretical basis is laid down, the structure he applies to his state will also be considered. This uses the ‘three-parted soul’ as a framework, the polis being split into three ‘tiers’ with philosopher-rulers at the top. Reasoning, practicality and criticisms of this are all discussed. The...
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Essays on Plato
Review of the allegory of the cave, by plato, plato’s theories of human fulfilment, the human nature and psychology from plato's perspective, socrates' idea of the soul in the platonic dialogue, gender equality from plato's perspective, the principles of plato, my attitude towards plato’s republic and the idea of state’s justice, analysis of the concept of justice from plato’s point of view, plato’s views on the concept of human knowledge, plato's account on rhetoric in the gorgias, a discussion of whether plato was a feminist, criticism of plato's theory of forms, analysis of plato's concept of the forms, metaphysics and theorists: plato, aristotle, plato and rene descartes' philosophical inspirations used by the wachowskis in the matrix movie, refutation of polemarch’s definition of justice in plato’s "republic", logistikon, thymoeides, and epithymetikon: tripartite soul theory example, the allegory of the cave: relationship between human senses and virtual environments, debatable notions in plato’s theory of forms, "good" and "god" concept comparison, the idea of critical thinking in plato's apology, relativist justice in the last day of socrates, antigone and the eumenides, plato's biography, love and wisdom in plato’s symposium, a poetry critique in the republic by plato, the first book of plato’s republic review, the allegory of the cave: plato's concept of creating an ideal state, socratic method of elenchus in plato's five dialogs, plato & the truman show: a discussion on truth in the modern age, plato's democracy as the 4th best constitution, feeling stressed about your essay.
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