Essay Education and Democracy: How We Need Both
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The Federal Government And Education System
Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution declares that the US Government is responsible to tax the people for the “general welfare of its citizens”. Under this clause, the Government has taken the responsibility of education; not to micro-manage the education system, but instead to increase the efficiency of it. In the past, states and local governments have maintained primary control of the education system, which has led to many problems. The differences in curriculum, quality, and administering as well as other aspects of public education are vastly different around the country, which has actually inhibited America’s ability to succeed. Many of these issues could be resolved with a shift in power in terms of who is controlling the country’s academic system. The Federal Government should have a significant amount of regulating responsibility in America’s education system, because it standardizes the quality of education across the country, presents an opportunity of equal education for all students, and regulates teachers.
Essay on To what Extent the Progressive Movement was Successful
The better the education a person has, the more successful they will be. Even having a basic education can bring you far. If people didn?t take education seriously, the country would not be the country we would be today. We would have corruption throughout the nation and our technology would be outdated. We would have not had any advances in medicines or cures to many of the diseases that are curable today. The stability in the government would not be balanced, and the economy would sink into depression. Everything considered the country would be in turmoil and misery.
Conflict Between Federal And State Governments
Indirectly, or directly, one can argue, public schools are controlled by the federal and state governments. Several issues have emerged, because of the conflict between federal and state requirements for education. “Under the Tenth Amendment, any authority not given specifically to the federal government is reserved to the states. Thus, the federal government has no authority to regulate education directly; that belongs to the states” (Underwood, n. d., p. 2). To get around this, the federal government controls the schools through funds for complying with certain initiatives, procedures, and policies (Underwood, n. d.). Ironically, both the state and federal levels of government hold the district liable for implementing different agendas and legal obligations. The federal government, however, can ensure that no citizen is denied their rights or privileges, even in a private institution, because of the Bill of Rights and other amendments. Failure to comply by these amendments or statutes can lead to the loss of federal funding and legal reproductions for schools.
Public Schooling And Public Education
With the many diverse characteristics of the Unites States, perhaps the most troubling is the rising gap in the distribution of wealth. As the wealth gap in the United States rises exponentially, the gap in the quality of public schooling rises with it. For a country that prides itself in prestigious outlets of education, the system of public schooling seems to be miserably failing. Public education, a system that some fight to destroy while others fight to preserve, is perhaps the only source of academic opportunity for many individuals living in this country. The fact that someone can live in a certain area and receive a higher quality of public education than someone else living in a different area in the same country—even in the same state—is a problem that should not trouble a ‘progressive’ democratic society. Unfortunately, areas of lower socioeconomic status receive much less funding than areas of higher socioeconomic status, where property taxes account for 45% of funding in public school districts. Naturally, the impoverished residents of poor neighborhoods pay a harsh price in this situation, sending their children to an underfunded school with little to no resources, where sometimes teachers must supply the classroom from their own pocket. As Rogerson and Fernandez note, “a system that allows the accidents of geography and birth to determine the quality of education received by an individual is inimical to the idea of equal opportunity in the marketplace”
Texas Education System
Education is a sensitive subject with a very divisive line. Many strongly believe in the system. Bill Gates stated, “It's hard to improve public education - that's clear.” Others oppose it just as strongly. Friedrich Nietzsche felt, “In large states public education will always be mediocre, for the same reason that in large kitchens the cooking is usually bad.” In Texas, this has always been a concerned issue for parents, teachers, and communities. It is not just a normal topic, but a major political topic, in which the state government has shown continuous efforts to compare and evaluate the standards in which students and teachers must follow. Proper education is now something that is decided for students and
The Nation Needs Fair School Funding
The education system has been the cornerstone of freedom and equity for economic success in The United States. However, the history of education has never been so crucial to the collective future of our nation and to the young people. The public schools must struggle to provide equality in educational system as never before. The demand for education has become necessary and growing to provide education for all students to comply with the rigorous academic standards on a global scale (Baker, B. D., Sciarra, D. G., Farrie, D. (2010, p. 1).
Waiting For Superman
For the past decade, our country’s education system has reached a flat line in results. Studies show that the United States is the number one country in education spending in order to improve our results, but standardized test scores have plateaued. During President George W. Bush’s term, he initiated a program titled “No Child Left Behind.” No offense to President Bush, however his educational initiative is the most ironic title due to its produced results. So far, no state in our country has reached one hundred percent proficiency in mathematics and language arts and the system has gotten deficient and is failing the millennial generations. Education is a key component to success in our fast-paced society and our system needs to change, for
Essay on Education Inequality in America
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Will Durant, a businessman and the founder of General Motors, once said, “Education is the transmission of civilization.” Unfortunately, education is still one of the most deliberated and controversial issues in the United States. Thus far, the privilege or right to receive education has not attained the level of equality throughout the nation; poor districts obtain less educational funding while rich districts obtain more, creating an immense gap between the quality of schools in poor and rich areas.
No Child Left Behind Act Of 2001 ( Esea )
George Eastman once said, “The progress of the world depends almost entirely upon education.” By its public school system, the United States of America exemplifies this. Federally denied to none and paid by all, United States citizens have the opportunity to attend public school, should they choose. Over the past fifty years, America’s education system has undergone multiple changes. It began with President Lyndon B. Johnson signing into action the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as an extension of his “War on Poverty” plan. ESEA funded primary and secondary education, encouraged equal access to schooling, established lofty standards and accountability - all done with the intention of closing the achievement gap
Problems in America Education
America is in the midst of one its greatest crises. This problem is affecting all fifty states and all levels of society. This current crisis is America’s failing education system. The United States has fallen behind many other developed nations when it comes to the quality of our children’s education. A good, strong education had been a crucial part of the American dream, so then why is that this problem is being ignored and allowed to continually worsen? School districts across the county are dealing with problems like lack of funding, low teacher salary, teachers unions, increasing class sizes, and failing test scores. A solution to these problems will not be easy. It will require the cooperation of federal, state, and local
Public Schools Should Be Funded Essay
The Federal government neither governs nor shoulders any official obligation to fund education (Johnson 2). For this reason, it normally contributes about 7% of the total education budget, the rest of which is raised by respective states. While the national institution does not clearly state the need for public schools, State constitutions require the provision of equal, adequate, and efficient public schools. Therefore, different states have developed different mechanisms for financing public schools such that the requirements on equality, adequacy, and efficiency are met.
Essay on Private Schools Will Not Fix the American Education System
The American public education system was founded on the radical notion that all members of society should have equal access to education. Also crucial was the notion that a basic common education was essential for a true democracy. This revolutionary system is now in indisputable trouble. Many worry about America’s ability to compete with foreign countries while others address the growing dichotomy between the quality of education in different economic areas. Recent rural shootings have only exasperated the problem, and caused many parents to entirely abandon the public system for a private alternative.
High Stakes Testing Research Paper
In its beginnings American public education was a rather revolutionary concept. This conception—which was cemented upon the notion that education should be free and compulsory to the masses—was scoffed at by many in the elite class however, this was the age of enlightenment thinkers and America’s founding fathers came to a significant conclusion; If America was to survive as a democratic nation its citizens would need to be more informed than ever before. Knowledge is power and if America were to compete with the rest of the world each generation would require even more knowledge than their predecessors. With this idea in mind many American public schools—in their beginnings—were exemplary
Politics And Its Impact On Society
Currently the education system in the United States is funded mostly on a state and local level, who always borne over 90% of the public elementary and secondary education finances (need cite). The original Department of Education was developed in 1867 to collect information on schools and teaching that would help the States establish effective school systems (need cite). Fast forward over one hundred years to 1980, when Congress established the Department of Education as a Cabinet level agency, and note that education standards and improvement continue to be of great importance to the government. It is important to note that the state and federal government play separate roles in the education of students, whereas the federal government has the means to
The Evolving Role of Government Education Essay
What are the roles of federal and state government when it comes to American education? The roles of education have evolved from historic liabilities to current liabilities. There are many laws and cases that have had an impact on American education that still has a strong influence on education today such as the debate between church and state, racial desegregation, and education finances. Other impacts as relevant are testing standards and special education programs that have arisen from influences of federal concerns. The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical and current roles that the federal and state government has on education. Other factors to include are individual cases
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Writing help, paraphrasing tool, democracy and education.
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As President Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, “democracy cannot succeed unless those who express their choice are prepared to choose wisely. The real safeguard of democracy, therefore, is education (Woolley & Gerhard, 1938). Education empowers the people who ultimately should be the ones who determine public policy. Democratic ideals can only be sustained if society learns to adapt to changes; whether they be political, social, technological, economical, or otherwise. Education equips society with the tools to adapt by knowing when and if the current government is being run efficiently and fairly. Moreover, a democracy is an ongoing process stimulated by the interaction and participation of citizens. Education lays the foundation for civic participation and ensures that a new generation of political players enter the stage. The role of education in democracy is instrumental; consequently education has been a spot light in political policy and legislation. Education itself has opened the doors for many minority groups, among them African Americans, women, and immigrants. Education is not always accessible equally but the correlation between those who do become educated are significantly benefited and can advocate towards educational reform. Education ensures that the common person can become an informed civic citizen and deny the powerful elite to force control ignorant spectators. Education lays the foundation for the future in democracy, it could teach individual thought or indoctrination. As such the role of the federal government in regards to education, the equal access of education, and the content of education, are all the key to the civic virtues needed to maintain a democratic republic run on the moral character and intellectual abilities of the citizens.
Generally education has been left to individual state governments. However, in 2010 the introduction of Common Core K-12 national curriculum seemed to change the power from the state level to the federal government. Critics, among them politicians, teacher unions, and educators, argue that this is an unnecessary federal interference that replaces local districts and the best interest of students with more politics and more administrative bureaucracy. In the Publius Journal of Federalism, an analysis was done on the states’ response to such a national movement towards education. Despite numerous attempts by states to repeal the national curriculum, the financial incentive provided by the federal government was successful in converting forty-two states, the District of Columbia, and four territories to adopt these federal standards in their respective states (Goelzhauser, 2017). Republicans and Democrats alike dislike Common Core. Republicans argue that education policy should be determined at the state and local level; while democrats argue that any educational curricula should not be coerced into any state for adoption. Nevertheless, schools nationwide have already begun changing their curriculum and students have been taking standardized testing.
Regardless of whether or not the implementation of a national curricula is a violation of the federal government’s power over states in educational policy, the right to education is undeniable. In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court declared that public education “”is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms”” (Brown v. Board of Education, 2015). The advancement of democracy depends largely in the equal treatment of all citizens, regardless of their racial or financial status. Even though education by itself cannot directly change the economic, political, or social structures of a country, education can contribute to democracy and democratic citizenship by offering equal opportunities to children of different socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. According to a 2014 press release by the United States Department of Education all students regardless of race, color, national origin or zip code deserve a high-quality education that includes resources such as academic and extracurricular programs, strong teaching, technology and instructional materials, and safe school facilities (U.S. Department of Education, 2014). In reality, many students across the nation, especially non-white students, are denied the quality of education desired in a democratic country, like the United States.
Students with a history of racial discrimination are much more likely to attend schools with less resources than caucasian students. Schools in minority dominated neighborhoods often have inadequate classrooms, less access to technological resources, and less means of entry to higher education. This lack of opportunity after leaving high school is a major impediment towards an equal democratic playing field. The Office for Civil Rights, an organization that advocates for the resource equity in the nation’s schools, found that the negative experiences of minority students in high school is the main driving factor between the gap in income and education, victimization by violence, lower occupational status, and lack of participation in electoral politics (Lange, 2017). As such it is critical that education is prioritised as one of the nations indicators of democratization.
Social mobility is key for a democratic society, and education is the only guarantee to have access to equal opportunities and respect. However, the U.S. has under enrollment of low-income students in four year institutions. In fact most 75% of students entering ‘top’ colleges and universities are from from the highest socioeconomic class. The selection of qualified youth is far greater than the number admitted and enrolled meaning that theoretically America’s top colleges could enroll more moderate- and low-income students without lowering their selection standards (Havemen, 2006). In the long run this impedes the ability of citizens to contribute and influence the govervening of the nation. This inequity in the provision of education also plays a large role in the amount of financial resources available to people, since a higher degree is often associated with a higher salary. Moreover, money goes a long way in politics; often influencing interest groups and playing a key role in the outcome of elections. In the long run this unequal balance of access to financial resources, destroys the ideals of democracy and the basic principle of inclusion. Equal access to education can change this unbalance by promoting socio-economic mobility and closing the gap between the lower class, the middle class and the top 10%, who own 77% of all the country’s wealth (Goelzhauser & Rose, 2017). Education can accomplish this by increasing the potential of citizens and their ability to perform in a well paying job.
Education keeps a country financially stable and innovative. With technology making many jobs obsolete, it is more important than ever to provide the public with an education that will prepare the young for the jobs of the future. The U.S. reaps the benefit of education as qualified individuals are employed, start paying taxes, and stimulate the economy. Without an educated public the U.S. would need to outsource jobs. A set of learnt skills is invaluable to USA’s wealth of human capital. This is reflected in the abundance of judges, legislators, Senators, and all other governmental positions that require a college education. Knowledge, another source of human capital, also ensures that people can make better decisions. When politicians talk about national issues concerning the country, an educated citizen is more likely to vote than one who isn’t. Even if both the uneducated and educated where to vote at the same rate, those with an education will have a higher chance of reaping the benefits of their vote as they understand the issues being discussed. Moreover, education ensures that a new generation of American citizens know and understand the principles of how to participate in democracy. In the process of education, political ideologies are developed, whether those be democratic or otherwise, is in the hands of educational practices nationally.
Every government is elected from the citizens themselves. However, citizens must be educated to enjoy the freedoms and liberties of a democratic republic. Knowledgeable citizens have the ability to comprehend legislation and keep the three branches of government accountable. Public education prevents corruption and abuse by the government. Public education can also double as civic education. The understanding of one’s civic role allows everyone to look after their constitutional rights. A study published by the National Bureau of Economic Research found that education increases citizens’ attention to public affairs and it has positive social externalities (Milligan, Moretti, & Oreopoulos, 2003). In other words, the civic engagement of one person may actually benefit a whole community. The proper civic skills allow people to exercise the First Amendment and communicate their grievances against the government to politicians. The same study also found that a higher educational attainment in a community resulted in less violent forms of protest. In addition, more education means that citizens can follow a political debate and when a new legislation is being proposed they have the resources to find out whether it is truly in their best interest or not. All in all, public education lays the foundation for civic education and increases political participation.
Voting, arguably one of the most important civic duties of any citizen, has been found to be directly correlated to a person’s educational attainment. Generally voter turnout is higher among college graduates than those with only a high school diploma. This is due to the fact that education leads to an interest in political action and sparks the natural instinct to analyze (Lange, 2007). A bigger problem is the low rates of voter registration among the pool of voter eligible citizens. Data supplied by the U.S. Bureau suggest that those with a post-secondary education are two times more likely to vote (Milligan, Moretti, & Oreopoulos, 2003). However, increasing voting without increasing education would result in uninformed voting that could have negative consequences in the election outcomes. As such, education is important not only increase civic participation in the ballots, but to ensure that the citizens’ votes reflect informed decisions.
To promote a more effective and democratic system in the United States, people should strive to become active an educated citizens. Active Citizenship describes citizens who are knowledgeable on issues concerning their local, state, or even national community. They are regular voters and are educated enough to understand their constitutional rights and how to protect them. Political ideologies and participation often reflect family political involvement; consequently, taking the initiative to become civically active citizens starts at home. Conversations concerning social and political issues should not be shunned; instead they should be discussed in an open and encouraging environment for students to discuss and ask questions. To inspire active citizenship the nation also needs to increase civic education through general education. At a young age, citizens should start community engagement in schools. Education equips anyone, regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender, with the skills and resources to be politically active. Without it social, racial, and financial equality is near impossible. Anyone can participate in a democracy, but their influence only reflects their effort.
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Essay On Role Of Education In Democracy
Relationship between Democracy and Education - 1624 Words Essay
The Role of Education in Democracy Research Paper
The role of Education in Democracy can be traced back to the period during and after the World War I (WWI). At the start of the war, many people gave their support to the declaration of war, but still, a significant number opposed the war as a viable solution to contentious issues. Propaganda was the tool of choice for many governments in a bid to win public support for the war. Public Information Committees led by top government official were set up to carry out the propaganda war. Much of the propaganda was aimed at creating emotional effects on the citizens rather than win factual support. The Information committee was able to manipulate the media by limiting the information accessed by the general public. This way, the public didn’t have much choice, but to believe the propaganda from the Public information committee. Propaganda is in itself an aspect of education where the Public Information Committee provided some knowledge on the certain issues surrounding the war in order to win public support. This form of education raises the question of which is the best educational model that citizen should adopt and develop the underlying capacities in order to become a functional citizen, who contributes to the political sustainability of a nation. According to Edward Bernay, through his book, Propaganda , the traditional education, propagated through old ideas, would help in creating democratic stability of a nation as each citizen would only learn only sufficient knowledge, which will make him or her not to form diverse opinions that are a threat to the stability of democracy. This idea is also supported by Walter Lippmann in his work Image of Democracy. However, the idea of traditional education seems to be out of favor with John Dewey, through his work titled Experience . In His work, Dewey argues that Progressive Education is the education model that can guarantee democratic stability as the citizens of a nation will be equipped with the ability to judge leaders and their justifications on policies that they introduce and implement. The idea of progressive education is also supported by Mill, in the power Elite and also by Condit in the Rhetorical Limits of Polysemy. Given such divergent view which seems varied, a combination of both model of education would be necessary for stability in democracy.
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IvyPanda . "The Role of Education in Democracy." October 28, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-role-of-education-in-democracy/.
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Short Essay on Educational Democracy
The school should have a social structure on the democratic model. The essence of a democratic system lies in the sharing of power and responsibility with others.
Responsibility and authority can be shared in a number of ways within the school system. It is in the school where the seeds of a democratic system must be sown. The school can create a real sense of appreciation for democratic norms by adopting them in its day-to-day life. Social and educational democracy should act as the roots of political democracy.
Educational democracy can be effectively implemented in many ways. Though matters like general educational policy and prescription of rules and regulations are matters for the staff, students must be given freedom to choose courses of their choice. Whenever the interests of the institution and the students are to be protected the wisdom and the experience of the teachers who represent the adult generation can be exploited fully.
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The best way of implementing educational democracy is by setting up committees of equal cooperation, where the staff and students meet as equals for the purpose in hand. This committee has both student and staff representatives. These committees can make decisions within certain definite limits and these decisions are generally not reversed, unless the head of the institution using his special powers of veto wishes to do so.
There are a number of avenues where pupils can take the maximum initiative and staff interference can be minimum. Pupil control does not mean absolute control but the decisions of the pupils have the dominant influence and are rarely challenged.
The organisation of school games, out of school activities and clubs can be cited as examples of areas where pupil control can be at the maximum. The staff can associate themselves with these activities but only in an advisory capacity and not in a controlling capacity.
Many schools in recent time have conducted a very successful experiment in educational democracy known as the School Councils. The school council, really, represents all or most age groups in the school Elections are held to this organisation by the method of secret ballot and the staff representative who will sit on the council are selected by the head of the institution. The school council, itself, frames its own rules and regulations and discusses matters of importance to the school in a totally democratic setting.
Educational democracy inculcates in the young pupil a desire for sharing responsibility. School children are allowed to participate in the work and organisation of the school and this introit inculcates in the young the right attitude towards freedom and responsibility. Responsibility is not a value that can be learnt after one grows old or all of a sudden.
Feeling responsible and exhibiting a desire to participate in the group activities are the two essential elements of a democratic system. The young must be given a definite role to play in the group. Until a child is given a role to play in the group, he does not feel significant and unless he feels significant, he does not feel responsibility. Assigning responsibility to pupils not only makes them immediately answerable to the society.
Giving responsibility to the pupils is also training for leadership. Give the opportunity it is surprising how the pupils organise themselves and leader emerge. The seriousness and commitment with which children engage in these activities and the hard work which they carry out with things that interest them can also be observed when more individual freedom is given to them.
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Education and Democracy
Democracy by definition runs by the governing of the people, the majority rule. In order for America to flourish on what it is founded upon, the mass, too, must also be of the educated class. In Democracy and Education, John Dewey describes the interaction of education and democracy as two proportional factors. He argues that education is essential factor to democracy, just as democracy is an essential factor to education; therefore education must also present situations where students can implement school into real life situations. High school, however, has done little to fit the high school criteria to situations dealing with the social aspects of life and human interactions. Education should allow itself to present real life situations to the thinking minds, however, schools disregard this and tend to follow the mechanical teaching of the three R’s: reading ‘riting, and ’rithmatic. While high schools do provide a light review of subjects of the liberal arts, it is not enough to introduce us to problems relevant to the problems of living together with the short four year time pe...
In this essay, the author
- Analyzes how john dewey's democracy and education describes the interaction of education and democracy as two proportional factors. education must present situations where students can implement school into real life situations.
- Argues that education should allow itself to present real life situations to the thinking minds, but schools disregard this and follow the mechanical teaching of the three r's: reading, riting, and rithmatic.
- Argues that high school students lack the skills needed for well-paying jobs, or if they do go on to college, need remedial classes in english and math.
- Opines that high school curriculum does not provide the basic education needed to mold students into critical thinkers and doesn't focus on human interaction.
- Opines that education holds a few spots in every election and has always been an important part of every candidate’s platform. parents are lost in the sea of different reform ideas to vote for.
- Opines that the government is the largest source of education in america, and that home schooling and private schools are alternatives to public schools.
- Argues that a healthy supply of education could be achieved if government relinquished its control.
- Proposes that the government should withdraw from education and allow parents to enjoy the healthy supply of a free market.
- Explains that the average cost of a private school education currently provided by the limited supply of private schools isn't higher than that of the government.
- Proposes a progressive tax credit incentive program out of the excess funds formerly used to pay for the public schools.
- Opines that the debate over education reform will continue forever as long as the government is allowed to keep such an unfair monopoly.
- Explains that a public university is so named because the benefits of higher education not only better the individual student, but better society as well.
- Analyzes how the shared value higher education creates for all is the ‘engine of social change’ described on page 9 of lagemann and lewis’ what is college for.
- Explains that taxes are used to support a public school, while private schools are not supported by the government. public institutions are fast-paced, large and focused.
- Argues that civic education is one of the main purposes of higher education, in that it prepares students to become competent citizens, domestically and globally.
- Explains how science became separated from morals and civics, and philosophy was pushed out of the scientific atmosphere.
- Opines that while public universities exist to promote the common good and improve all citizens' lives, many people feel that the benefits of public higher education have been decreasing.
- Compares dewey and mansbridge's views on how citizens should live as citizens to achieve equality.
- Analyzes how john dewey's creative democracy challenges the idea of democracy as a concept that individuals within our society should live by.
- Analyzes how dewey expands on this idea by stating that an important component of this way of life is being able to accept the capacity of every person to lead his own life free from coercion and the imposition by others.
- Explains that communicating different ideas brings different perspectives on certain situations to the table. evaluating evidence/experiences is being able to work past disagreement and budge and understand we won’t always win.
- Explains that in order for amicable cooperation to be possible, we must consider the proper conditions and promote these 3 ideas.
- Analyzes how jane mansbridge's "using power/fighting power" states that when conflict remains after good deliberation, a democracy has two choices: to remain at the status quo or to act, by coercing some to get along with others.
- Explains that at some level of scale and interdependence, coercion becomes as important as persuasion whenever a polity should try to further the interests of each of its members roughly equally.
- Explains that mansbridge believes that coercion occurs when the proper conditions for amicable cooperation are non-existent.
- Explains that discrete insular minorities are repeat losers in the legislative context because those who are in positioned of authority are oppressive towards them and deny them equality. the naacp legal and defense and education fund is an example.
- Explains how the national guard was sent by the federal government to enforce the implementation of desegregation through the use of coercion.
- Argues that dewey's idea of amicable cooperation is the ideal situation in which we as a society should live by but it is virtually impossible due to the multitude of issues we face.
- Opines that education is a vital part of democratic institutions, but democracy requires critical inquiry, civic participation, and commitment to the common good.
- Analyzes how the welfare reform act changes the focus of welfare reform from building basic and job skills to an approach that emphasizes quick job placement.
- Explains how the national institute for literacy's equipped for the future (eff) project is developing standards grouped around three major adult roles.
- Argues that adult education programs should not focus on either work force education or literacy development. goodwill literacy initiative (gli) in pittsburgh is an example of a program that combines both.
- Cites auchter, baldwin, and fluke on the newest new federalism for welfare to work initiatives: a review of research, practice and policy.
- Argues that autonomy should be interpreted as an educational concept, dependent on many educative institutions, including but not limited to government.
- Analyzes the tendency of the metaphor of autonomy as self-government to depict paradigm exercises as less enlightening to the autonomous person than such exercises can be.
- Proposes a correlative re-thinking of the role of blame and punishment in morality and law, in light of changed views about autonomy.
- Argues that the revision in the concept of autonomy requires a revision of the legitimate authority to educate (if any such authority applies) of various institutions and society.
- Analyzes how robert bellah and his co-authors discuss institutions in the united states of america.
- Explains that autonomy is conceived as an educational notion, primarily ethical and political education. self-education is rendered possible or facilitated by the acts of other individuals and society.
- Explains that writers on autonomy stress the ideas of law, government, and the like. the word "autonomy" is derived from the greek stems for "self" and "law" or "rule."
- Argues that autonomy can be conceived as self-government, but only if that is understood as compatible with self education through diverse institutions.
- Argues that a multi-institutional, educational account of autonomy is to correct this view.
- Cites robert n. bellah, richard madsen, william m. sullivan, ann swidler, steven tipton, ethics and the limits of philosophy, harvard university press, cambridge, 1985.
- Explains that views on autonomy may be distinguished according to the degree and manner in which they incorporate reference to institutions into an account of what autonomy is.
- Analyzes joel feinberg's position on autonomy as the sovereign authority to govern oneself, which is puzzling for many reasons.
- Analyzes how james payne argues that the problem with the public education system is the bases of a democratic government and the want to please everyone.
- Analyzes how payne's article examines the issues ensued from the people who run the public school systems and the tax payers who pay for it, while drawing parallels to mainstream democracy.
- Analyzes how payne addresses america's unwavering want to interfere, in both public schools and other governments.
- Explains that the public school system is just a smaller version of the american government.
- Analyzes payne's example of a common disruption issue: if students are obedient and polite, education cannot proceed efficiently without strict discipline.
- Argues that payne is questioning the country's ability to survive as a whole and become the great nation we once were.
- Explains that mary wollstonecraft is the first female philosopher that has been spoken about in this course. she fought for women's rights and equal opportunity for all women in society.
- Explains that wollstonecraft supports the idea of boys and girls attending school together, rather than attending separate schools. she proposed a government-funded school that was coeducation, containing both sexes.
- Explains that despite her support of coeducational schools, the plan also included the children being streamed and separated into vocational schools upon turning nine years of age.
- Opines that single-sex education is not beneficial to a child's education.
- Explains that horace mann was a lawyer, politician, and educator who emphasized integrating all races and social classes, rather than teaching them separately.
- Opines that mann believed that schools should cultivate hard-working and diligent students, but they do not make it a priority for them to be competent in government and have the necessary skills to excel in that field.
- Opines that the republican party believes the role of federal government must be limited. the party is in favor of home schooling and calls for enforcement of laws to protect the family’s privacy.
- Opines that education is a top democratic priority. the party believes that every failing school in america should be turned around or shut down and then re-opened with new and better leadership.
- Argues that the libertarian party believes that in our current school system, poor kids end up at the worst schools. wealthy parents can afford to send their children to better or safer schools while poor parents have no choice.
- Argues that the republican party wants to reform and toughen the current immigration system in order to emphasize family. they also support increasing the number of h-1b visas to ensure that workers with more high-tech skills are placed into specialized positions.
- Opines that democrats are in support of reforming the ins to provide better services and increase resources for english language courses. they believe that family reunification should continue to be the most important aspect of our current immigration system.
- Opines that the green party is opposed to those who raise up ethnic and racial hatreds for political gain. policies should promote fairness, non-discrimination, and family unification.
- Opines that civil rights could be the most questionable platform in all parties. the republican party is in strong support of the traditional definition of marriage.
- Explains that the democratic party views profiling as a violation of the basic american principle of innocent until proven guilty.
- Explains that the libertarian party is an extreme because they want to repeal all laws against homosexuality and pornography. they strongly support the rights of american indians.
- Explains that the american educational system has undergone much transition in response to our changing society. the segregation of races, religions, social classes, and politics has created numerous problems in the education system.
- Explains that religion played a major role on the educational system in the sense that all types of religious groups were represented, but they were challenged with how they could be loyal to their religions beliefs.
- Explains that politics and business influence have been a long-term problem for the establishment of free and fair education opportunities.
- Analyzes how joel spring's book, american education, uses several examples of the politics and economics surrounding education.
- Explains that the american education system has continued to evolve with some new curricular modifications. in 1992, the 'children of the rainbow' curriculum was introduced in new york, which required elementary schools to teach tolerance towards gays and lesbians.
- Explains that the head start program provides early childhood education to economically disadvantaged children, allowing them to compete on equal terms with other children. equal opportunity is a goal which continues to be addressed.
- Opines that the no child left behind act is the most significant development in the american educational system. president bush believes that education should prepare children for jobs and provide them with necessary life skills.
- Explains that educators are faced with social, political, and economic challenges of the 21st century. the wealthier cities have higher-class public schools and private schools.
- Explains that teachers must be educated in many languages. the no child left behind act and the english language acquisition act of 2001 both propose bilingual education.
- Explains that the individuals with disabilities education act emphasized the need for children with disabilities to be put into regular classes, rather than being segregated into?special needs? classes.
- Opines that multicultural education in schools is a 21st century goal because multicultural, ethnocentric, bicultural, and bilingual education will become increasingly important with the global economy and internationalization of the labor force.
- Explains that racism is often thought of as whites oppressing people of color, but this definition has brought up many problems. racial differences lead to violence in school systems.
- Explains the rise in violent acts in schools since the early 1990's, citing the columbine high school incident, where 2 students killed 12 students, 1 teacher, and 23 students wounded.
- Explains that columbine was the most serious terrorist act on a school in history, though there continue to be other acts of violence within the educational system.
- Explains that violent crimes occur in school in part due to the accessibility among adolescents to weapons, and the media's portrayal of violence.
- Opines that after reading joel spring's book, and reflecting on some of the issues facing our schools, it is apparent that our educational system requires much attention among our nation?s leaders.
- Opines that all children can learn they have a right to be educated and be safe in the environment in which they learning.
- Opines that every child or person can learn. mental development is a must in order to grow emotionally. learning doesn't necessarily mean that it has to be academic.
- Opines that schools today have become the ones teaching children respect and morals. they believe that every child can learn something.
- Opines that it is our duty to educate every child in america, including those that are undocumented, have special needs or even homeless, and pregnant.
- Opines that security in schools should not be one of the challenges facing students today. after the columbine high school shootings, many things changed.
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- Philosophical Concepts
Democracy and Education in Dewey’s Thinking
Updated 22 September 2021
Subject Philosophical Concepts , Scientific Method
Category Philosophy , Science
Topic Pragmatism , Theory
The key goal of John Dewey’s educational theory was to emphasize the importance of incorporating a realistic approach into the teaching and evaluation process. This will ensure that students not only had a theoretical understanding of the subject, but also had the capacity to put it into practice. John Dewey was an educational philosopher who placed a strong emphasis on pragmatism in the classroom. He argued that it should be included in the educational curriculum. Dewey believed that children’s minds evolved when they grew up, similar to Darwin’s theory of human evolution. He stressed a learning approach that accounted for the student’s constantly evolving and increasing brain potential from this viewpoint. Dewey has argued that the students ought to be exposed to both theory and practical elements of the same subject in order to reinforce the student’s understanding.
From the previous generations, especially in the public-school learning, there was a rigid pattern of learning followed to the latter. This rigid learning regime has involved putting many students in a single classroom with a single teacher emphasizing on children’s ability to memorize things they had learned in class rather than an understanding the concepts they learned. This approach underutilizes the students’ brain and makes them more of robots than flexible thinkers. Thus, a flexible pattern of learning that allows for application of the concepts taught in class as a means of strengthening the learning process and helping the student’s brain develop and evolve effectively is emphasized.
John Dewey supported the idea that one was to go school not only because he or she was supposed to as an obligation. He suggested it rather because it is fun being in school. This meant that learning was to be made interesting through seeing and believing. This implied an experimental outlook, which would prepare the learners for the future (Rud).
Learning in educational institutions was to be democratic, as it brings the aspect of the learner’s idea into the classroom that should be recognized by the teacher in the classroom. This grows learner’s ability to think critically outside the box away from lessons learned in class. The diversity of ideas allows a broad spectrum of learning. This creates an avenue for one to learn from their peers through group work, as opposed to individual learning that does not bring sense during the learning process, as there is no diversity in the learning process, but rather oneness that is limited to the new ideas from other people.
Finally, according to Dewey, there was no distinction between academic and vocational learning. Furthermore, they were to be used concurrently in the learning process for vocational learning provides hands-on experience. At the same time, academic learning adds the theoretical information to the learner’s knowledge base. Additionally, this would prepare the students in both humanistic and scientific fields (Hansen).
It is prudent that in the learning process, emphasis should not only be in the theoretical context of the curriculum, but also include the practical aspect of it. The education system should not be rigid and more focused on inculcating the context from books, but rather equally focus on practical aspects as well. The teachers have to be dynamic and give room for variant perspectives in line with creativity during learning. I concur with Dewey approach in advocating for pragmatism in education.
Hansen, David T. “Reading Democracy and Education.” 2006. http://www.sunypress.edu/pdf/61353.pdf. 05 June 2017.
Rud, Anthony G. “John Dewey: America’s philosopher of democracy and his importance to education.” Youtube, uploaded by Washington State University, 04 February 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMh1LYuZ3B4.
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Vital Role of Education in a Democratic Society
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The role of education in a democratic society, like our current society in the United States, is to impart citizens with the knowledge necessary to make important decisions in their communities when the time to do so arises. In democratic societies where the education provided to citizens is lacking, some serious problems can come about. Uneducated, misinformed citizens voting on important decisions that determine the institutional and moral fabric of their communities is arguably the worst thing that could befall a democratic society.
And so, education exists to prevent this very predicament from happening. But this leaves the questions, what should that education consist of, and at what point should a citizen be considered “well-educated”? When examining the writings of social critics and philosophers such as bell hooks and John Dewey, one can find answers to these questions, as well as great insight as to why this is the role of education in democratic societies, and how to implement strategies to enhance the quality of democratic society via proper education.
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Democracy, of course, exists within such communities at different levels, but probably the most important form of democracy in our country is democracy at a central or federal level, as this is where the most important decisions are made, which affect all areas of life in smaller-scale communities. Voting in primary and congressional elections is also, not coincidentally, the most popular and exciting way to exercise our democracy in the United States. Every two years, American citizens are given the opportunity to choose their preferred leaders by casting votes based on their opinions, regardless of whether or not those opinions are well formulated or even justifiable.
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Many would argue that, in numerous cases, American citizens do not practice much forethought before casting a vote. For example, people may choose to vote for a particular candidate simply because their piers voted for that candidate, or because doing so supports their families’ political ideologies. I believe that it is absolutely vital that people break away from this paradigm of dependent thinking and become educated in such a way that they can take a Socratic stance towards the opinions that they are exposed to in their immediate communities and ultimately form their own opinions on issues of all kinds. bell hooks, quoting the words of Martin Luther King, Jr. refers to this model of independent thinking as “developing a world perspective”.
She explains in Teaching to Transgress that “what we are witnessing in our everyday life is not an eagerness on the part of neighbors and strangers to develop a world perspective but a return to a narrow nationalism, isolationisms, and xenophobia” (hooks, 28). In other words, people are growing increasingly comfortable in their biases and are therefore losing the willingness to think for themselves. hooks goes on to explain that these people and groups are becoming comfortable with their biases because their biases are reinforced by the media. For this reason, I believe that if we are to begin educating our citizens so that they become independent thinkers, a great place to start would be with reforming the media and the kinds of things presented therein. John Dewey writes in Democracy and Education that being a dependent thinker is simply a matter of being human.
Children and adults alike turn to the media, much like they turn to family members and friends, to find role models who they can relate to. They move on to effectively shape their lives after the values conveyed to them by these role models. Dewey calls this phenomenon the “imitative instinct” and says that, “The imitative instinct is so strong that the young devote themselves to conforming to the patterns set by others and reproducing them in their own scheme of behavior” (Dewey, 22). If the opinions of the masses depend so heavily on the role models of individuals, then I believe it is necessary to reform the media such that role models exhibit the right kind of behavior, namely, expression, acceptance, and acknowledgement of a range of different opinions on a number of issues.
If media-based role models adopt more appropriate ideologies, I believe that real world role models, such as teachers, politicians, parents and so on will do the same and encourage younger generations to adopt similar values. Citizens need to be able to approach things critically, especially things that can have lasting profound effects on how large populations in democratic societies go about living their lives. The possibility to do this, especially for incoming generations, is waning because of the misinformation and closed-minded opinions portrayed in ever popular mass media. Therefore, it is necessary to change the nature of mass media so that notions of acceptance and multiculturalism can permeate entire cultures. If this change takes place, I believe the systematic social decline being witnessed today would be reversed very quickly, and democratic societies would be able to act collectively and care for one another, not just on the smaller scale of interest groups or social cliques, but on a national or even global scale.
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The Sixth: An Essay in Education and Democracy
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Developments in educational systems are inextricably linked with the social and political evolution of nations. Nowhere is this more clearly to be seen than in the history of the English sixth form. Originally published in 1982, this book, whose authors had been associated with a number of research projects into 16-19 education, traces the tradition of the sixth form from its origins in the public schools of the nineteenth century through to controversies at the time, over sixth form and tertiary colleges and the extension of 16-19 education to embrace youth opportunities programmes and other semi-vocational courses. It shows that ‘the sixth’ has not only been a significant element in its own right in the adjustment of English society to the challenge of democratic ideals, but has also played a key role in the evolution of secondary education from the endowed school of the nineteenth century, through the municipal grammar schools set up after the 1902 Education Act, to the comprehensive secondary schools of today. In fact, the fate and future of comprehensive schooling becomes fully understandable only through a study of the sixth form tradition which has shaped the activities of educationists and policy-makers over the last hundred years. The authors conclude that educational policy-making is both facilitated and constrained by the existence of enduring traditions stemming from the past: in fact, the work of policy-making lies precisely in the constructive reinterpretation of that inheritance. This book describes and clarifies the nature of the tradition of sixth form education which has been handed down to us, and its relation to democratic values and institutions.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements. 1. Education, Democracy and the Sixth Form 2. Origins of an Educational Ideal 3. Secondary Education and the Middle Class 4. A National Institution 5. A State Responsibility 6. The Grammar School Tradition 7. The Category Expands 8. The Golden Age 9. The Forces of Change 10. Colleges and Comprehensives 11. A Clash of Ideologies 12. Understanding the Past and Choosing the Future. Statistical Appendix. Name Index. Subject Index.
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