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About this Interactive
The Persuasion Map is an interactive graphic organizer that enables students to map out their arguments for a persuasive essay or debate. Students begin by determining their goal or thesis. They then identify three reasons to support their argument, and three facts or examples to validate each reason. The map graphic in the upper right-hand corner allows students to move around the map, instead of having to work in a linear fashion. The finished map can be saved, e-mailed, or printed.
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The Essay Map is an interactive graphic organizer that enables students to organize and outline their ideas for an informational, definitional, or descriptive essay.
This Strategy Guide describes the processes involved in composing and producing audio files that are published online as podcasts.
This strategy guide explains the writing process and offers practical methods for applying it in your classroom to help students become proficient writers.
Through a classroom game and resource handouts, students learn about the techniques used in persuasive oral arguments and apply them to independent persuasive writing activities.
Students analyze rhetorical strategies in online editorials, building knowledge of strategies and awareness of local and national issues. This lesson teaches students connections between subject, writer, and audience and how rhetorical strategies are used in everyday writing.
Students examine books, selected from the American Library Association Challenged/Banned Books list, and write persuasive pieces expressing their views about what should be done with the books at their school.
Students will research a local issue, and then write letters to two different audiences, asking readers to take a related action or adopt a specific position on the issue.
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ChatGPT and cheating: 5 ways to change how students are graded
Professor of Education Governance and Policy Analysis, Brock University
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Pro Vice-Chancellor of Te Wānanga Toi Tangata Division of Education; Professor of Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation, University of Waikato
Louis Volante receives funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC).
Don A. Klinger receives funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and the New Zealand Qualifications Authority.
Christopher DeLuca does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.
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Universities and schools have entered a new phase in how they need to address academic integrity as our society navigates a second era of digital technologies , which include publicly available generative artificial intelligence (AI) like ChatGPT. Such platforms allow students to generate novel text for written assignments .
While many worry these advanced AI technologies are ushering in a new age of plagiarism and cheating , these technologies also introduce opportunities for educators to rethink assessment practices and engage students in deeper and more meaningful learning that can promote critical thinking skills.
We believe the emergence of ChatGPT creates an opportunity for schools and post-secondary institutions to reform traditional approaches to assessing students that rely heavily on testing and written tasks focused on students’ recall, remembering and basic synthesis of content.
Cheating and ChatGPT
Estimates of cheating vary widely across national contexts and sectors .
Sarah Elaine Eaton, an expert who studies academic integrity, cautions cheating may be under-reported : she has estimated that at Canadian universities, 70,000 students buy cheating services every year.
How the recent launch of ChatGPT by OpenAI will impact cheating in both compulsory and higher education settings is unknown, but how this evolves may depend on whether or not institutions retain or reform traditional assessment practices.
Evading plagiarism detection software?
The ability of popular plagiarism detection tools to identify cheating using ChatGPT to generate assignments remains a challenge.
A recent study , not yet peer reviewed, found that 50 essays generated using ChatGPT produced sophisticated texts that were able to evade the traditional plagiarism check software.
Given that ChatGPT reached an estimated 100 million monthly active users in January, just two months after its launch, it is understandable why some have argued AI applications such as ChatGPT will spur enormous changes in contemporary schooling.
Policy responses to AI and ChatGPT
Not surprisingly, there are opposing views on how to respond to ChatGPT and other AI language models.
Some argue educators should embrace AI as a valuable technological tool, provided applications are cited correctly .
Others believe more resources and training are required so educators are better able to catch instances of cheating.
Still others, such as New York City’s Department of Education, have resorted to blocking AI applications such as ChatGPT from devices and networks .
The figure below depicts three critical elements of a forward-thinking assessment system. Although each element could be elaborated, our focus is in offering educators a series of strategies that will allow them to maintain academic standards and promote authentic learning and assessment in the face of current and future AI applications.
Teachers and university professors have relied heavily on “one and done” essay assignments for decades. Essentially, a student is assigned or asked to pick a generic essay topic from a list and submit their final assignment on a specific date.
Such assignments are particularly susceptible to new AI applications, as well as contract cheating — whereby a student buys a completed essay. Educators now need to rethink such assignments. Here are some strategies.
1. Consider ways to incorporate AI in valid assessment.
It’s not useful or practical for institutions to outright ban AI and applications like ChatGPT.
AI has already been incorporated into some university classrooms . We believe AI technologies must be selectively integrated so that students are able to reflect on appropriate uses and connect their reflections to learning competencies.
For example, Paul Fyfe, an English professor who teaches about how humans interact with data describes a “pedagogical experiment” in which he required students to take content from text-generating AI software and weave this content into their final essay.
Students were then asked to confront the availability of AI as a writing tool and reflect on the ethical use and evaluation of language modes.
2. Engage students in setting learning goals.
Ensuring students understand how they will be graded is key to any good assessment system.
Inviting students to collaboratively establish learning goals and criteria for the task, with consideration for the role of AI software, would help students to evaluate and judge appropriate contexts in which AI can work as a learning tool.
Read more: Unlike with academics and reporters, you can't check when ChatGPT's telling the truth
3. Require students to submit drafts for feedback.
Although students should still complete essay assignments, research into academic integrity policy in response to generative AI suggests students should be required to submit drafts of their work for review and feedback. Apart from helping to detect plagiarism, this kind of “formative assessment” practice is positive for guiding student learning .
Feedback can be offered by the teacher or by students themselves. Peer- and self-feedback can serve to critically evaluate work in progress (or work generated by AI software).
4. Grade subcomponents of the task.
Students could receive a grade for each subcomponent — including their involvement in feedback processes. They would also be evaluated in relation to how well they incorporated and attended to the specific feedback provided.
The assignment becomes bigger than a final essay, it becomes a product of learning, where students’ ideas are evaluated from development to final submission.
5. Move to more authentic assessments or include performance elements.
Good assessment practice involves an educator observing student learning across multiple contexts.
For example, educators can invite students to present their work, discuss an essay in a conference format or share a video articulation or an artistic representation. The aim here is to encourage students to share their learning through an alternative format. An important question to ask is whether or not you need the essay component at all? Is there a more authentic way to effectively assess student learning?
Authentic assessments are those that relate content to context. When students are asked to do this, they must apply knowledge in more practical settings, often making AI tools less helpful.
For help in rethinking assessment practices towards more authentic and alternative approaches, educators can consider taking the free course, Transforming Assessment: Strategies for Higher Education .
Improve benefits for students
Collectively, these suggestions may be more time-consuming, particularly in larger undergraduate classes.
But they do provide greater learning and synergy between forms of assessment that benefit students: formative assessment to guide teaching and learning, and “summative assessment,” primarily used for grading and evaluation purposes.
AI is here and here to stay, and we must embrace it as part of our learning environment. Incorporating AI into how we assess student learning will yield more reliable assessment processes and valid and valued assessment outcomes.
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Sometimes a good example of what you are trying to achieve is worth a 1000 words of advice! When you are asked to write an essay, try to find some samples (models) of similar writing and learn to observe the craft of the writer. You can use the samples as a basis for working out how to write in the correct style.
About sample essays
Most books on essay writing will supply you with a number of model essays—collect some of these as they are great teachers! No matter what the topic is, you will see similarities between your writing tasks and these model essays. This is because many features of writing are common across subject areas. In some subjects (e.g. Law, Economics, Psychology and others), it is very useful to find subject -specific essay models as you can use these to work out the ‘peculiarities’ of writing for that subject area.
Read an academic essay
The following five paragraph essay has paragraph labels to show the parts of an academic essay. (Note: This essay does not contain authentic references and has been written specifically to use for this teaching task.)
Body paragraph 1
Body paragraph 2
Using assignment essays for assessment supports student learning better than the traditional examination system. It is considered that course-work assignment essays can lessen the extreme stress experienced by some students over ‘sudden-death’ end of semester examinations:
If we insist that all students write about everything they have learned in their study courses at the same time and in the same place (e.g. in examinations), we are not giving all of our students equal opportunities. Some students are not daunted by the exam experience while others suffer ‘exam nerves’ and perform at the lowest level of their capabilities. (Wonderland University, 2006, p. 4)
Additionally, Jones et al. (2004, pp. 36-37) propose that assignment essays can be used to assess student learning mid-course and so provide them with helpful feedback before they are subjected to the exam experience. Exams only provide students with a mark rather than specific feedback on their progress. Therefore, setting assignment essays for a substantial part of student assessment is a much fairer approach than one-off examination testing.
Body paragraph 3
Bloggs, J. (2003). Linking teaching, learning and succeeding in higher education . London: Bookworld.
Jinx, J.M. (2004). Student essay writing. Journal of Research in University Education, 9 (2), 114-125.
Jones, J., Smith, P.L., Brown, K., Zong J., Thompson, K., & Fung, P.A. (2004). Helpline: Essays and the university student . Tokyo: Courtyard Printers.
Sankey, J.M., & Liger, T.U. (2003). Learning to write essays [CD-ROM]. Sydney: Wonderland University.
Taylor, G. (1989). The student’s writing guide for the arts and social sciences . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wonderland University. (2006). Attributes of a university graduate . doi:10.1098/063-112
Yang, S., & Baker, O.E. (2005). Essay writing and the tertiary student . Melbourne: Diamond Press.
Zapper, Y. (2006). Learning essay writing. In F.T. Fax & Y. Phoney (Eds.), Learning Experiences at University (pp. 55-70). Calcutta: Academic Scholar Press.
Analyse an academic essay
Most students really appreciate seeing a finished product. If you are to really benefit from model essays, you need to learn how to read the ‘techniques of the writer’. The following exercise helps you to get started with developing your ‘read the writer’ skills.
1. The introduction paragraph
2. Body paragraph 1
3. Body paragraph 2
4. Body paragraph 3
5. The conclusion paragraph
6. The reference list
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- Assessment Tools: Types, Examples & Importance
As individuals, we constantly evaluate our decisions and options to know how well they meet specific goals, hence assessment. However, in formal contexts like schools and the workplace, assessments happen on a larger scale, and you need particular tools to pull them off.
In this article, you’ll learn about different assessment tools that will help you evaluate performance in various contexts. We’d give an overview of each method, its pros and cons, and specific features to look out for as you decide.
What is an Assessment Tool?
An assessment tool is a technique or method of evaluating information to determine how much a person knows and whether this knowledge aligns with the bigger picture of a theory or framework.
Assessment methods differ based on context and purpose. For example, personality tests use your responses to discover character traits, and financial assessments measure how much you know about concepts like saving and investments.
Regardless of the context, all assessment tools depend on a set of well-thought-out questions to gather insights and arrive at informed conclusions by i nterpreting these insights.
Read: Motivation Assessment: Definitions, Types, Tools + [Questionnaire Examples]
Characteristics of an Assessment Tool
The right assessment tool produces the same results over time. So there’s a consistency, or accuracy in these results. Here, you should consider whether the test can replicate results whenever it is used.
For example, if the students perform the same tasks simultaneously, then such assessment passes as reliable.
The validity of an assessment boils down to how well it measures the different criteria being tested. In other words, it is the idea that the test measures what it intends to measure.
This means your assessment method should be relevant to the specific context. For example, if you’re testing physical strength, you shouldn’t send out a written test. Instead, your tests should include physical exercises like pushups and weightlifting.
A good assessment tool is equitable, which means it doesn’t favor or disfavor any participant. Fair assessments imply that students are tested using methods and procedures most appropriate to them. Every participant must be familiar with the test context so they can put up an acceptable performance.
Standardization means applying consistency to your testing methods. For example, if you’re sending out a questionnaire, it should have the same set of questions for all participants, and all the answers should be graded using the same criteria.
Other characteristics of assessment tools include:
- A good assessment tool should provide a window for high-quality feedback.
- It is feasible and accounts for equivalence.
- It should motivate participants to be involved in the testing.
- It should be transparent, non-discriminatory, and match expectations.
Types of Assessment Tools
Educational assessment tool .
An educational assessment tool is used for evaluating students’ performance and their level of knowledge in a particular subject. Educational assessment tools can be used during the learning process or on an ongoing basis.
For example, in formative assessmen t, the teacher deploys different methods to track a student’s performance as learning progresses. This allows the instructor to identify and fix knowledge gaps as they move from one learning phase to another. But in summative assessment, the teacher waits till the end to measure the student’s performance using a rubric of expected learning outcomes.
Expectedly, different assessment tools work for different types of educational assessment . So, while quizzes and straw polls are suitable for formative evaluation, end-of-term examinations with close-ended questions are better-suited for summative assessments .
Examples of Educational Assessment Tools
1. ASSISTments : This is a free online platform that teachers can use to assign Maths tests to students, whether during the learning process or outside the classroom. ASSISTments allow instructors to provide immediate feedback as students turn in their tests.
2. Formplus : Teachers can use Formplus to create surveys, questionnaires, and polls for classroom assessments. Students can participate in these assessments even without an internet connection, and teachers can analyze responses immediately.
3. Google Classroom Question Tool : Google classroom allows you to create and share questions with your students right in the app. Teachers can each student’s answer separately or set up a discussion with different groups.
4. Quizizz Tool : If you’re conducting fact-based tests, then the Quizizz tool is a great option. In Quizizz, you can set up self-graded tests, which helps you save time on assessments.
Pros of Educational Assessment Tools
- Educational assessment tools help teachers to track and evaluate progress throughout the learning process.
- They provide enough data for improving the overall teaching and learning experiences.
Cons of Educational Assessment Tools
- Educational assessment tools can cause anxiety or affect students’ motivation, mainly when they do not perform as well as they wanted.
- It is not always an accurate reflection of how much progress the students have made.
Research Assessment Tool
A research assessment tool is used to measure the impact of a systematic investigation based on specific criteria. These criteria could be the research results, level of participation from research subjects, and other similar metrics.
For example, after a systematic investigation, you can send out an internal survey to gather feedback from key players in the process. A research assessment tool can also help you determine the extent to which the research outcomes solve the identified problem.
Examples of Research Assessment Tools
1. Formplus : Formplus can be used to create post-research surveys for your reports and dissertations. You can send out private forms to your team members for feedback, analyze responses, and identify ways to improve future investigations.
2. AAC&U Value Rubrics : This assessment tool allows you to measure key learning outcomes, including critical thinking, inquiry, and analysis, communication, literature comprehension, as part of your research evaluation process.
3. Research Reports : Apart from providing details of the research process, a research report offers an opportunity to evaluate the entire process to know what worked and what didn’t. It allows the researcher to identify any gaps in the research for further investigation.
Pros of Research Assessment Tools
- Research assessment tools help you to identify gaps in your process.
- They allow you to determine the extent to which your systematic investigation solves the problem.
Cons of Research Assessment Tools
- Research assessment tools are subjective and easily affected by bias.
- It is time-consuming.
Project Assessment Tool
A project assessment tool is a method of evaluating the success of your project. These tools can be used in different contexts, such as launching a new product, introducing an additional feature in an existing product, and launching a new branch of your business.
Before choosing a project assessment tool or method of evaluation, you should consider different factors like the project scale, how much money you’ve invested into it, and if you have the resources to pull it off. For example, a simple project might not require a complex evaluation with complex assessment tools.
You should also define the project’s success parameters. If success is quantitative, you need a tool that can measure numerical data like the number of people who signed up for an event. If success is qualitative, then the assessment tool should evaluate the participants’ perceptions and impressions of the project.
Examples of Project Assessment Tools
1. Surveys : Tools like Formplus allow you to send out surveys, questionnaires, and polls for opinion sampling and feedback. Before launching your project, you can send out a baseline survey, and after the project, you can administer a post-event survey. This allows you to compare project outcomes with the issues raised in the baseline survey.
2. Observation : Participant and non-participant observation methods can be used to gather first-hand feedback from participants after your project launch.
3. Case Studies : A case study is an in-depth exploration of a subject matter related to real-life occurrences.
Pros of Project Assessment Tools
- Project assessment tools help you identify when the goals of a project have been achieved.
- It helps you to measure the ROI of your project.
Con of Project Assessment Tools
Hr assessment tool.
An HR assessment tool evaluates employees’ workplace performance to help organizations provide the best support for their teams. At the same time, these tools help employers develop strategies that improve the human resource system and make it more effective.
Tools like Adface, Berke, and Athena Quotient can identify the most suitable candidates for roles during the recruitment process. HR assessments cut across psychometric testing, personality tests, and 360-degree feedback.
Examples of HR Assessment Tools
1. 360 Degree Feedback : Here, the HR manager collects feedback from everyone affiliated with an employee. These include the people who work with the employee, team managers, and peers. You can use Formplus to create surveys for 360-degree feedback.
2. Assessment Center : This method requires employees to perform tasks in groups, together with their managers, assessors, and other team members.
3. HR Accounting: Here, the HR manager examines how much money is spent on training, research, and employee development against their level of productivity and whether the training and development programs have resulted in a higher yield for the company.
Pros of HR Assessment Tools
- These tools help you to monitor labor law compliance and other administrative functions.
- HR assessment tools can review employee compensation packages to ensure that workers are paid their worth.
- These tools help you map out training and development strategies for staff.
Cons of HR Assessment Tools
- These tools require significant effort and coordination.
- The data sets may be complex to analyze.
Importance of Assessment Tools
- In educational research, assessment tools help instructors evaluate students’ knowledge and make informed decisions that improve their learning experience.
- Assessment tools help participants measure their progress towards specific outcomes and modify their behavior to meet those goals.
- They provide an opportunity for valuable feedback that improves the lives of the participants.
- An assessment tool is a lens for understanding learning, identifying invisible barriers, and helping instructors to improve their approach to evaluation.
- They clarify the expectations for participants in different contexts.
Why Should You Use Formplus as an Assessment Tool?
Formplus supports multiple data gathering functionalities, including creating quizzes and exams for assessments. Quizzes come in handy for formative assessments where you have to evaluate the participants’ knowledge of the subject matter as they learn.
You have access to different field options to help you create a suitable quiz. Checkboxes and radio fields come in handy, plus you can add image options to make the quiz more interactive. As participants send in their responses, you can review them and provide feedback.
Formplus allows you to collect data from participants in offline mode. All Formplus forms are automatically available offline which means respondents can fill and submit responses when they have poor or no access to the internet.
For example, in the classroom, students can complete quizzes and surveys without access to the internet. Any responses received in offline mode are uploaded on our secure servers or your preferred cloud storage system when there’s an internet connection.
As a research tool, Formplus is an effective way to create surveys for systematic investigation. In some way, assessments are forms of research since they involve collecting and analyzing data to arrive at results. Formplus can help you build different surveys and other research tools for data collection.
After creating your survey on Formplus, you’ll have different sharing options for survey distribution. Asides from sharing it on social media using the direct share buttons, you can share your survey via QR code or send out email invitations to preselected participants.
With calculation fields, participants can perform simple arithmetic processes in your Formplus forms. Calculation fields come in handy during Mathematical assessments—students can add and subtract variables to arrive at the correct answers.
They also process payments on product order forms, event registrations, online bookings, expense reimbursements, online donation forms and calculate date ranges for appointment bookings.
The most important thing you should consider when choosing your assessment tool is context. Although specific tools overlap, you still need to tailor them to suit particular, suitable use cases. For example, surveys for educational research are quite different from the ones used for 360-degree feedback.
Once you tie the tool to the context, you can choose the right questions to help you to gather valuable data. Most importantly, the results from assessments should inform improvements, whether at school, at work, or for your projects.
Conduct reliable and valid assessments in 90 seconds with Formplus
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FOR STUDENTS : ALL THE INGREDIENTS OF A GOOD ESSAY
Essay: Assessment tools and methods
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- Subject area(s): Education essays
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Assessment is a tool used in the classroom every day. It is used to measure a student’s mastery of a skill or knowledge of a given subject. It is also what demonstrates to the teacher what the students have learned. Educators use that information to determine if they need to re-teach to a specific student, group, or the entire class. They can also use that information to determine the rate of their teaching. Assessments are important because, as teachers, we need to know what difficulties our students have and what needs to be refined for them. While I do believe in assessment and feel that it is one of the key components of teaching, I am more concerned with a child’s process of learning rather than the overall product that comes from it. This is where grades come in for me. Grades determine the students’ level of mastery on a subject, nothing more. Grades should not be the exclusive indicators that a student has learned the information that is presented to them. It is the things a student learns along the way that truly matter and sometimes cannot be measured. Prior to teaching a unit, I believe it is useful to incorporate surveys and diagnostic assessments to determine what your students understand before instruction. Observation, combined with anecdotal records, is essential, especially in the early grades. By observing and keeping track of these observations, teachers are able to tell a lot about their students. For example, they can see how they interact socially with other peers as well as how well they carry out a given task. I am inclined to be an early elementary teacher, in grades K-3. The first years of school are my ideal age group. The early childhood stage is a time when children develop the most. They are developing physically, cognitively, and psychologically. Due to this, I feel it would be more beneficial to assign performance tasks rather than tests. By having students carry out performance tasks, students can demonstrate they have learned what has been taught and also show they are learning real life skills that will help them throughout their daily lives. To achieve this, I plan to develop and conduct both formative and summative assessments on a regular basis. Formative assessments are ongoing assessments such as records of students’ performance, observations, checklists, and rating scales. These are ongoing records that are used by teachers to improve instructional strategies in the classroom and direct instruction. According to our textbook, these assessments monitor students’ progress during instruction and learning activities that include feedback and opportunities to improve. Some informal assessments may be in the form of regular classroom activities such as class work, journals, essays, play-based assessment or student participation. I plan to utilize them to determine where students are at the time of learning. The results will indicate the pace of my instruction and I can modify the way I present the information. Informal assessments include a teacher’s. Summative assessments are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the academic programs taught. They can be used to determine whether or not students have mastered specific skills or grasped certain concepts. During this semester I learned that summative assessments are administered at the end of teaching a lesson or a unit as an indicator of what the students know and are able to do after the instruction is completed. These assessments will vary in form such as quizzes, tests, presentations, essays, and growth portfolios. I like to incorporate a variety of assessments in my instruction because it gives students an opportunity to demonstrate what they know as a result of the lesson, not based on the type of assessment. While one child may not be good at tests they might be good at presentations and vice versa. This diverse outlook on assessment is what enables my students to be the successful learners. As a teacher, I have some control over the types of assessments, formative and summative, that I administer to my students. However, there are other types of formal assessments that are data driven and based on statistics. These assessments include norm-referenced tests and criterion referenced tests used by the District, State, and/or Nationwide. Formal assessments can be given to students to test their performance against other children in their age group and grade level. They may also be given to identify a student’s strengths and weaknesses in comparison to peers. These large scales tests may have some benefits, but in my perfect world, they would not exist. These tests are presented in one way and does not allow for students to demonstrate their mastery or understanding but only their ability to ‘fit a mold’. During the teachers’ panel, both guest speakers admitted that, at present, the classroom revolves around assessments. Everything students do in the classroom today ultimately leads to progressive assessments and final evaluative assessments. It saddens me that school has become this assessment ‘bubble’. I believe that we are surrounded by assessment and since it is a crucial part of our education system, we need assessment in the classroom but do it in a way that is strictly meant to monitor student’s progress and whether we are effectively teaching or not. The panel also talked briefly about grading. Often, teachers have a hard time agreeing on what practices are ethical when it comes to determining a grade. It is a general consensus that grades are a powerful symbol and have the capacity to impact students in a positive or negative way since they can represent different things for different people. The use of rubrics and checklists are important to me. These checklists and rubrics should be shared with the students constantly and discussed at length so that students are aware of what they will be graded on and what each aspect of their grade is based upon. Grades, as I stated earlier, should be limited to the level of knowledge within the subject that has already been taught, not about the students ability to read the instructions. I also believe there should be different grades for different things, for example, in a grade for a language arts performance, I should not include points for non-related items. On a college course syllabus we have a section that includes all of the elements needed for a final grade with a total worth for each section. Each of these elements has a rubric of its own that composes the overall final grade for that assignment. This method of grading is what I would like to incorporate for my students, making the necessary modifications based on their age group, grade level, school policy, and district policy. I believe that academic skills are a separate grade from social, emotional, and community skills. If students know what to expect, a grade will not come as a surprise to them. Students will be able to know what is required of them to get a passing score or a mastery score. I also believe in giving students an opportunity to redo an assignment if they believe they can do better. With the redo, however, they will also include an explanation as to why they believed they could do better the second time around. I will not take points away with a redo because the goal is not to penalize students for making an effort to succeed but rather to help them see where they could improve and noticing said improvement. If I assess what I teach, my grade results should be valid. If my results are reliable, and they indicate that the class did poorly on one exam, the assessment indicates that there is something that my students didn’t understand and, therefore, something I didn’t effectively teach. In this instance, I should re-examine my grading policy and adjust it to reflect what the students were able to do, not what I was not able to teach. My philosophy is not only that assessment is vital for the classroom, but using the results appropriately is crucial to the continuing of effective teaching. It is my goal to make assessment and grading a positive element to my classroom for both my students and me. I want to give many opportunities for my students to do well and achieve mastery as well as become the best student they can be. Students should not just be measured by the end result. Learning is a process and I believe that it is in this process that true learning occurs. Aside from being graded on the basic facts, students need to be measured on how well they apply their knowledge. Assessment will be a huge part of my classroom; however, I will hold more importance for a student’s performance and progress rather than a factual test. Down the road, these students will need the skills learned during their early years. A multiple choice question isn’t what is going to help them in the long run. However, the process they used to learn and decide upon the answer will.
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5 Best Online Assessment Tools for Teachers
Formative or summative: what’s the difference, 1. socrative - quizzes and questions with real-time grading, 2. google forms - easy to use and coppa/ferpa compliant, 3. mentimeter - pre-built education templates, 4. poll everywhere - used by 300,000 teachers, 5. kahoot - game-based assessment tool, more online assessment tools for teachers.
- AnswerGarden - Real-time polling and brainstorming tool
- Backchannel Chat - Teacher-moderated Twitter-type assessment tool for education
- Chatzy - Lets students chime in with questions or opinions during a lecture
- Coggle - Mind-mapping tool that lets you get a handle on student thinking
- eSurvey Creator - Make student surveys and questionnaires fast
- Flipgrid - Let students make quick videos that respond to teacher prompts
- Formative - Give live assignments, grade them, and give immediate feedback
- Lino - A sticky-note-based virtual blackboard that lets students chime in
- Naiku - Make quizzes that students can take on mobile devices
- Pear Deck - Create interactive presentations students can take part in via smartphones
- Plickers - Collect formative assessment data in real time with no need for student devices
- The Queue - Free educational chat tool that’s similar to Twitter and facilitates remote class discussion
- Quizalize - Create homework and quizzes quickly, with a fast-grading feature
- Quizlet - Develop tests, quizzes, flashcards, and study games for mobile
- Remind - Send quick texts to students and parents to check for understanding
- Sparkpost - Adobe app that lets teachers create exit tickets with visuals and graphics
- SurveyPlanet - Create quick surveys to get a grasp on student knowledge
- Typeform - Create polls with graphical elements
- VoiceThread - Create discussions around documents, videos, and other materials
- Zoho Survey - Make mobile-ready student surveys and get real-time results
Assessments are for more than grades
In conclusion, related content you might enjoy:.
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About the Author
Tom Gerencer is a contributing writer for HP® Tech Takes. Tom is an ASJA journalist, career expert at Zety.com and a regular contributor to Boys' Life and Scouting magazines. His work is featured in The Boston Globe, Costco Connection, FastCompany, and many more.
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HIGHER ED TEACHING STRATEGIES FROM MAGNA PUBLICATIONS
- Educational Assessment
The Importance of Educational Assessment: Tools and Techniques for Assessing Your Students
- June 23, 2022
- Faculty Focus
In this educational assessment guide, we’ll answer questions such as:
What is the purpose of educational assessment? What are the benefits of assessments? What are the main types of assessment? What is the difference between evaluation and assessment?
Formative assessment can be any assessment that first and foremost promotes students’ learning. Many refer to this type of assessment as assessment “for” learning. In contrast, summative assessment, or assessment “of” learning, looks at grades or scores that give a final judgment or evaluation of proficiency. Assessment “for” learning is usually more informal and includes aspects of teaching. It is formative because it gathers evidence that helps teachers better meet the learning needs of students as well as empowering students to be change agents in their achievement. A host of studies have shown that when formative assessment is implemented effectively, it can greatly enhance, or even double, the speed of student learning. This guide provides specific examples of educational assessment tools, why assessment is important in gauging student comprehension, and how you can implement assessment techniques into your own course.
The importance of educational assessment
Educational assessment is one of the most talked about topics in higher education today. Despite the admirable goal of improving student learning, the trend toward greater accountability through increased academic testing carries with it a diverse range of educational assessment tools, methodologies, perspectives, and stakeholders.
If today’s mandates for educational testing has you searching for answers, take a dive into the following articles and products that cover topics such as forms of assessment, cognitive demand levels, formative and summative assessments, alternative assessment methods, and evaluative assessment.
- Assessment for Learning: It Just Makes Sense
- Four Reasons Assessment Doesn’t Work and What We Can Do About It
- Re-envisioning Online Course Revision
- Educational Assessment: A Different Kind of Feedback
Teaching Professor articles ( requires paid subscription )
- The Link Between Self-assessment and Examination Performance
- Does Self- and Peer Assessment Improve Learning in Groups?
- What Fitness Bands Can Teach Us about Classroom Assessment
Each 20-Minute Mentor is $19 for individual, on-demand, one-week access, and each Magna Online Seminar is $39 for individual, on-demand, one-week access.
2 0-Minute Mentor: How Can I Build a Mindset for Assessment in an Academic Department?
20-Minute Mentor: How Can I Analyze Department Data and Move Towards Closing the Assessment Loop?
Types of educational assessment
While most faculty stick with the tried-and-true quiz and paper assessment strategies for their online courses, the wide range of technologies available today offers a variety of assessment options beyond the traditional forms. But what do students think of these different forms? And more importantly, what types of educational assessment work best for your course and your students?
A few educational assessments that we will cover:
- A learning assessment technique (LAT) is a three-part integrated structure that helps teachers to first identify significant learning goals, then to implement effectively the kinds of learning activities that help achieve those goals, and finally—and perhaps most importantly—to analyze and report on the learning outcomes that have been achieved from those learning activities.
- Word Clouds. Word clouds are images composed of words associated with concepts, questions, or reactions sought by an instructor; they are fast, engaging, and can provide an emotional connection for students. Think of the powerful insights a facilitator gains by simply asking students to report a single word describing how they feel about their progress on a project? choice?”). Wordle and TagCloud are two popular choices for creating word clouds.
- Focused Listing. Focused listing can be used before, during, or after a lesson. This method helps you to gauge student learning.
- Elevator Pitch. As a review activity, ask students to summarize main ideas or key topics in fewer than 60 seconds. A fun variation of this approach is to have students present to a classmate acting as a well-known personality or theorist who works in your discipline.
Browse the articles and products below to find what educational assessments will work best for your course!
- This Semester, Don’t Forget Participation Feedback!
- Assessments by Design: Rethinking Assessment for Learner Variability
- Reimagining Classroom Community, Assessment, and Our Own Self-care
- Which Assessment Strategies Do Students Prefer?
- Using Interview to Assess and Mentor Students
- Using Screencasts for Formative and Summative Assessment
- Formative Assessment: The Secret Sauce of Blended Success
- Students as Formative Assessment Partners
- Formative Assessment Techniques for Online Learning
- Writing Questions about the Reading: A Formative Assessment Technique
- Three Learning Assessment Techniques to Gauge Student Learning
- Informal Assessment Activities for Blended and Online Courses
- Five Classroom Assessment Techniques for the Online Classroom
Using Authentic Assessment to Assess Student Learning
Magna Online Seminar: Incorporating 360-Degree Assessment into Your Classroom
Magna Online Seminar: Assessment Strategies for Mastery Learning in Large Session Classes
Magna Online Seminar: Assessment Strategies for the Flipped Classroom
Educational assessment tools
Most conventional assessment strategies provide limited opportunities for instructors to realign teaching methods and revisit topics that students have not understood well. Teachers can communicate with students individually, but time constraints may prevent multiple individual conversations. Some students in the classroom are reluctant to ask questions and admit confusion. Find out how to overcome these difficulties with specific educational assessment tools. Below are just a few assessment tools that you’ll find within the articles and products.
- Continuous and Rapid Testing (CaRT): Improves communication between teachers and students
- C.A.P Model : Offers students diverse possibilities to express their understandings of course content, though the explicit aim of the creative component was to center non-dominant cultural ways of knowing, being, and making sense of the world
- Pre-formative assessment: This refers to assessments given while students are learning new material independently, before any group interaction has taken place
- An Anti-racist Form of Assessment: The CAP Model: Creative. Academic. Practical.
- Grading Exams: How Gradescope Revealed Deeper Insights into Our Teaching
- Now More Than Ever: Why Collaborative Grading Works, Even Online
- Leveraging Bloom’s Taxonomy to Elevate Discussion Boards in Online Courses
- Keeping Students Engaged: How to Rethink Your Assessments Amidst the Shift to Online Learning
- But What If They Cheat? Giving Non-proctored Online Assessments
Teaching Professor articles ( paid subscription )
- Four Strategies for Effective Assessment in a Flipped Learning Environment
- Continuous and Rapid Testing (CaRT): A Simple Tool for Assessment and Communication
- Self-Grading: The Ultimate Self-Assessment
Magna Online Seminar: Effective Writing Assessment in the Online Classroom
20-Minute Mentor: How Can I Use Classroom Assessment Techniques ( CATs) Online?
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What is automated essay scoring?
- Nathan Thompson, PhD
- April 25, 2022
Home | Artificial Intelligence | What is automated essay scoring?
Automated essay scoring is an important application of machine learning and artificial intelligence to the field of psychometrics and assessment. In fact, it’s been around far longer than “machine learning” and “artificial intelligence” have been buzzwords in the general public! The field of psychometrics has been doing such groundbreaking work for decades.
So how does it work, and how can you apply it?
The first and most critical thing to know is that there is not an algorithm that “reads” the student essays. Instead, you need to train an algorithm. That is, if you are a teacher and don’t want to grade your essays, you can’t just throw them in an essay scoring system. You have to actually grade the essays (or at least a large sample of them) and then use that data to fit a machine learning algorithm. Data scientists use the term train the model , which sounds complicated, but if you have ever done simple linear regression, you have experience with training models.
There are three steps for automated essay scoring:
- Establish your data set (collate student essays and grade them)
- Determine the features (predictor variables that you want to pick up on)
- Train the machine learning model.
Here’s an extremely oversimplified example:
- You have a set of 100 student essays, which you have scored on a scale of 0 to 5 points
- The essay is on Napoleon Bonaparte, and you want students to know certain facts, so you want to give them “credit” in the model if they use words like: Corsica, Consul, Josephine, Emperor, Waterloo, Austerlitz, St. Helena. You might also add other Features such as Word Count, number of grammar errors, number of spelling errors, etc.
- You create a map of which students used each of these words, as 0/1 indicator variables. You can then fit a multiple regression with 7 predictor variables (did they use each of the 7 words) and the 5 point scale as your criterion variable. You can then use this model to predict each student’s score from just their essay text.
Obviously, this example is too simple to be of use, but the same general idea is done with massive, complex studies. The establishment of the core features (predictive variables) can be much more complex, and models are going to be much more complex than multiple regression (neural networks, random forests, support vector machines).
Here’s an example of the very start of a data matrix for features, from an actual student essay. Imagine that you also have data on the final scores, 0 to 5 points. You can see how this is then a regression situation.
How do you score the essay?
If they are on paper, then automated essay scoring won’t work unless you have an extremely good software for character recognition that converts it to a digital database of text. Most likely, you have delivered the exam as an online assessment and already have the database. If so, your platform should include functionality to manage the scoring process, including multiple custom rubrics. An example of our FastTest platform is to the right.
Some rubrics you might use:
- Supporting arguments
- Vocabulary / word choice
How do you pick the Features?
This is one of the key research problems. In some cases, it might be something similar to the Napoleon example. Suppose you had a complex item on Accounting, where examinees review reports and spreadsheets and need to summarize a few key points. You might pull out a few key terms as features (mortgage amortization) or numbers (2.375%) and consider them to be Features. I saw a presentation at Innovations In Testing 2022 that did exactly this. Think of them as where you are giving the students “points” for using those keywords, though because you are using complex machine learning models, it is not simply giving them a single unit point. It’s contributing towards a regression-like model with a positive slope.
In other cases, you might not know. Maybe it is an item on an English test being delivered to English language learners, and you ask them to write about what country they want to visit someday. You have no idea what they will write about. But what you can do is tell the algorithm to find the words or terms that are used most often, and try to predict the scores with that. Maybe words like “jetlag” or “edification” show up in students that tend to get high scores, while words like “clubbing” or “someday” tend to be used by students with lower scores. The AI might also pick up on spelling errors. I worked as an essay scorer in grad school, and I can’t tell you how many times I saw kids use “ludacris” (name of an American rap artist) instead of “ludicrous” when trying to describe an argument. They had literally never seen the word used or spelled correctly. Maybe the AI model finds to give that a negative weight. That’s the next section!
How do you train a model?
Well, if you are familiar with data science, you know there are TONS of models, and many of them have a bunch of parameterization options. This is where more research is required. What model works the best on your particular essay, and doesn’t take 5 days to run on your data set? That’s for you to figure out. There is a trade-off between simplicity and accuracy. Complex models might be accurate but take days to run. A simpler model might take 2 hours but with a 5% drop in accuracy. It’s up to you to evaluate.
If you have experience with Python and R, you know that there are many packages which provide this analysis out of the box – it is a matter of selecting a model that works.
How well does automated essay scoring work?
Well, as psychometricians love to say, “it depends.” You need to do the model fitting research for each prompt and rubric. It will work better for some than others. The general consensus in research is that AES algorithms work as well as a second human, and therefore serve very well in that role. But you shouldn’t use them as the only score; of course, that’s impossible in many cases.
Here’s a graph from some research we did on our algorithm, showing the correlation of human to AES. The three lines are for the proportion of sample used in the training set; we saw decent results from only 10% in this case! Some of the models correlated above 0.80 with humans, even though this is a small data set. We found that the Cubist model took a fraction of the time needed by complex models like Neural Net or Random Forest; in this case it might be sufficiently powerful.
How can I implement automated essay scoring without writing code from scratch?
There are several products on the market. Some are standalone, some are integrated with a human-based essay scoring platform. ASC’s platform for automated essay scoring is SmartMarq; click here to learn more . It is currently in a standalone approach like you see below, making it extremely easy to use. It is also in the process of being integrated into our online assessment platform, alongside human scoring, to provide an efficient and easy way of obtaining a second or third rater for QA purposes.
Want to learn more? Contact us to request a demonstration .
Nathan Thompson, PhD, is CEO and Co-Founder of Assessment Systems Corporation (ASC). He is a psychometrician, software developer, author, and researcher, and evangelist for AI and automation. His mission is to elevate the profession of psychometrics by using software to automate psychometric work like item review, job analysis, and Angoff studies, so we can focus on more innovative work. His core goal is to improve assessment throughout the world.
Nate was originally trained as a psychometrician, with an honors degree at Luther College with a triple major of Math/Psych/Latin, and then a PhD in Psychometrics at the University of Minnesota. He then worked multiple roles in the testing industry, including item writer, test development manager, essay test marker, consulting psychometrician, software developer, project manager, and business leader. He is also cofounder and Membership Director at the International Association for Computerized Adaptive Testing (iacat.org). He’s published 100+ papers and presentations, but his favorite remains https://scholarworks.umass.edu/pare/vol16/iss1/1/.
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Free Essay: Assessment Tools for Nausea and Vomiting
Many cancer patients often experience nausea and vomiting as common postoperative symptoms as well as responses to post-chemotherapeutic treatments. While this is considered a predictable patterns in many of these patients as with Betty, nausea, and vomiting can become a concern as they can lead to complications such as dehydration, weight loss, anorexia, electrolyte imbalances as well as the general deterioration of the patient's health (Ahmad, Alafafsheh & Ahmad, 2016). Patients who have active careers can also be disturbed and become uncomfortable while at work. Medically, the patient might abandon treatment for fear of continued symptoms.
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A variety of assessment and assessment tools have hence been developed to determine the probability of the patient to suffer from nausea and vomiting, as well as gauge the various parameters surrounding this complication. The Rhodes Index for nausea, vomiting, and retching (INVR) is an assessment tool that was developed by McDaniel and Rhodes in 1999. This tool consists of eight items, and these are the Likert scale (5-point), measurements of frequency, severity, duration, and distress the patient goes through, as well as capturing nausea, vomiting and retching (NVR). This tool has split-half reliability of 0.90, a correlational coefficient of 0.87, and a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.98 (Ahmad, Alafafsheh & Ahmad, 2016). It works within the first 12 hours. However, this tool has flaws more so regarding its lack of linkage with the time of chemotherapy. With this defect, it is difficult to assess whether nausea and vomiting are acute, delayed on anticipatory.
The Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) is another assessment strategy applied in the clinical situation through its tool MAT. It's used once per cycle, within 24 hours of chemotherapy, for acute nausea, and between 24 hours and four days after chemotherapy for delayed nausea and vomiting. It has an internal consistency of 0.77 - 0.82.
Healthcare Team Members Helping Betty
Colorectal carcinoma patients usually demand intensive care from various healthcare personnel to help them undergo multiple operations, treatments, dietary adjustments, and pain. Betty had a number of personnel attending to her, including the general practitioner (GP) who arranged for all the test that needed to be taken, her doctor Dr. Glasson who undertook all the tests required for her diagnosis, as well as revealed the results to Betty and her husband, Bob. The doctor also offered counsel by highlighting the high odds that Betty had to recover due to an early diagnosis. Other people included the general surgeon and nurses.
Other medical personnel are often involved in the patient's journey from diagnosis to recovery. A medical oncologist is a member of the multidisciplinary teams, and is responsible for offering the cancer patients with systematic and comprehensive approaches to treatments as well as utilize evidence-based criteria compounded with cost-effective and safe treatment options as a way of ensuring quality of life and the recovery of the patients (Popescu, Schaefer, Califano & Eckert, 2013). The training of medical oncologists enables them to be in a position to comprehensively manage cancer patients, deliver treatments, and manage side-effect treatments. They are hence involved in research, diagnosis, rehabilitation, treatment, prevention, and palliative care of the patients. Cancer care coordinators (CCC) are another group of healthcare providers. They are a group of nurses who coordinate to provide the patient with consistent care from their diagnosis throughout the journey to recovery. The CCC works to improve timeliness in care, patient satisfaction, and increase equity (Collinson, Foster, Stapleton & Blakely, 2013). They lias with the different members who support the patient, among them the family members to ensure positive outcomes in treatment. They can either be clinical care coordinators of colorectal care coordinators.
Key Health Promotion and Prevention Strategies That Are In Place in Australia to Address Cancer as a Public Health Issue.
Australia, like the rest of the world, face a threat from the ever-growing cancer population. In 2014, for instance, about 128,000 Australians were diagnosed with cancer, and this makes 350 diagnoses per day. The situation was predicted only to get worse, as, by 2020, the numbers were anticipated to be 150,000 (Cancer Australia, 2014). The increase in cancer cases is outgrowing population growth, and this hence led to the Australian government to come up with a strategic plan termed as cancer control. This plan is that focuses on the reduction of cancer incidence and mortality and hence improve the quality of life for the thousands of Australians living with cancer. Cancer control utilizes evidence-based strategies to conduct effective and efficient screening programs that are population-based, development of better diagnostic measures, and earlier detection of cancer. Early detection is linked with survival.
Risk factors for cancer can be categorized as either behavioral, biomedical, or environmental. Smoking tobacco, obesity, overweight, physical inactivity, dietary risks, alcohol abuse, and exposure to the sun have been identified as a few of the many modifiable risk factors. Public education is hence, a critical aspect of the Australian government in a move to reduce the incidence and mortality of cancer.
Ahmad M., Alafafsheh A. & Ahmad M. (2016). Tool Development to Assess Nausea and Vomiting Among Patients Receiving Chemotherapy. International Journal of Cancer and Oncology. 3(1). Pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.15436/2377-0902.16.031 Cancer Australia Strategic Plan 2014-2019 (2014). Cancer Australia. https://canceraustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/cancer-australias-strategic-plan-2014-2019/pdf/2014_strategic_plan.pdf Collinson L., Foster R. H., Stapleton M. & Blakely T. (2013). Cancer care coordinators: What are they and what will they cost? The New Zealand medical journal 126(1381). Pp.75-86. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258036481_Cancer_care_coordinators_What_are_they_and_what_will_they_cost Popescu R. A., Schaefer R., Califano R. & Eckert R. (2013). The current and future role of the medical oncologist in professional care for cancer patients: A position paper by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). Annals of Oncology 25(1). Pp. 9-15. DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdt522
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Assessment Tools: Introduction
For assessing qualitative student work such as essays, projects, reports, or presentations, we recommend the use of rubrics. They serve well to denote clearly the specific expectations for an assignment and for student performance. They can be used for grading, for providing feedback to students, and for informing and encouraging students to think about their own learning.
Rubrics are not the only tool, however, for collecting data for assessment of student learning outcomes. Depending on the outcomes to be assessed and on resources available (time and goodwill especially), other methods and tools may serve well:
While not a tool for data collection, a good curriculum map can serve to focus assessment, and the improvements that follow, where it will be most useful, informative, or effective.
The candid reflections or ideas from a small group of students or participants can provide unanticipated insights valuable for guiding the direction and methods for assessments.
Portfolios can provide a window into the process of student learning, whether across a semester-long project or a four-year tenure at the university, that can be assessed (usually by using a rubric).
While time-consuming, structured interviews are useful when you want to ask specific questions, but also want to leave room for unplanned-for topics or ideas to emerge.
Whether a program-based survey of current majors or recent alumni or an analysis of SERU survey results, well-crafted survey questions can yield important information about student perceptions and experiences.
Conducting an assessment takes time, thought, attention, planning, and often collaboration. Each assessment tool, whether a short survey or detailed rubric, will be useful only insofar as it both addresses the outcomes well and is feasible to use.
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Formal assessment tools
As the leader of your school district’s assessment and evaluation team, you have been asked to share information about two formal assessment tools with parents, teachers, administrators, and the larger community.
Identify 2 formal assessment tools used in a school district of your choice. Select assessments relevant to your current placement and/or your doctoral studies. For example, secondary teachers might consider the ACT, SAT, and/or state-mandated proficiency tests.
Create a 12- to 16-slide presentation providing an analysis of each assessment. Your presentation should:
· Summarize the intended goal of each assessment tool.
· Describe the underlying assumption inherent to each of the assessment tools.
· Explain the function of assessments in the district.
· Explain how each assessment aligns with district and/or state standards.
· Summarize whether the assessments measure what they are designed to measure.
As the leader of a school district’s assessment and evaluation team, two formal assessment tools that I would share with parents, teachers, administrators, and the larger community are teacher observations and student surveys. Teacher observations involve an evaluator observing a teacher in their classroom to assess their instructional practices (Dimmick & Boyer, 2019). The goal of these observations is to identify areas where improvements can be made while also recognizing areas of strength.
Student surveys are another important formal assessment tool commonly used in schools. These surveys provide students with an opportunity to anonymously express their opinions on various aspects of school life such as safety or academic rigor (Clark et al., 2018). The primary goal of this type of survey is to gain insight into how students perceive their learning environment so that educators can take actionable steps towards improvement if needed.
Overall, both teacher observations and student surveys are essential assessments for any effective school district. While each one provides valuable information about instruction quality or student perspective respectively, when used together they serve as powerful tools for improving educational outcomes at all levels.
Foundation: Minority ladies efficiently experience financial weaknesses, which place them even with more prominent hindrances in achieving ideal wellbeing. Roughly 44 million ladies in the United States, about 33% of all ladies in America, self-recognize as ladies of a minority racial or ethnic gathering. However, minority ladies toll more regrettable than non-Hispanic white ladies over an expansive scope of measures, with the absolute biggest variations being that of HPV-related cervical malignant growth mortality. Objective: The goal is to underline the hindrances of consideration in connection to cervical disease screening and HPV immunization, just as look at examples in obstructions like statistic, social, and wellbeing conviction factors among minority women.Methods: The information accumulation survey and procedure depended on article audit factors that were related with HPV antibody adequacy, commencement, and arrangement culmination among pre-adult and youthful grown-up ladies of various racial, ethnic, and financial gatherings in the United States. Results: Selected qualities of the included investigations fought that an expected 12,000 ladies are determined to have cervical malignant growth every year in the United States, and 4500,000 ladies overall create cervical disease every year. Higher rates of cervical disease are found in US areas with huge minority and devastated populaces. End: It is basic for clinicians to advance minority ladies screening and early recognition. Further mediation models need to reflect multifactorial determinants of screening use.
While there have been walks in HPV and cervical disease anticipation endeavors, numerous minority ladies in all cases still experience huge boundaries to mind. For instance, ladies from country and poor networks will in general have wellbeing absence of education concerning their very own self-care, which additionally incorporates their doubt for the medicinal services framework. Moreover, numerous minority ladies essentially need money related access to mind. Financial detriments (for example race, class, sexual orientation, instruction, occupation, and so on.) are the fundamental issues. Despite the fact that numerous wellbeing endeavors are made by wellbeing experts, and wellbeing repercussions like enlightening innovations and deterrent consideration methodologies have been accomplished, there is a constant financial and racial irregularity with both the finding and treatment of cervical disease, particularly the strains legitimately impacted by HPV.
Our particular points are to initially distinguish Health care hindrances and difficulties to cervical malignancy screening and HPV inoculation inside the number of inhabitants in minority ladies. We additionally need to reveal minority ladies, social insurance supplier and medicinal services framework chance elements for cervical disease screening and HPV inoculation, just as, human services difficulties and openings in improving cervical malignancy screening rates among minority ladies. In conclusion, we need to pinpoint the medical attendants’ jobs in averting cervical disease in underserved racial or potentially ethnic populaces.
In June 2017,we looked four electronic bibliographic databases (Google researcher, Medline, Pubmed and Cinahl) utilizing the hunt terms ‘HPV’ ‘cervical malignancy’ ‘pap smear’ ‘minority ladies’ ‘ethnic ladies’ and ‘wellbeing differences’. The majority of the investigations distinguished amid the database look were surveyed for significance to the audit dependent on the data gave in the title, conceptual, and portrayal of watchwords and terms. A full report was recovered for all investigations that met the incorporation criteria.
The information accumulation audit and procedure depended on article survey factors that were related with HPV antibody worthiness, commencement, and arrangement finishing among youthful and youthful grown-up ladies of various racial, ethnic, and financial gatherings in the United States.
We surveyed important companion looked into and proof based subjective writing so as to distinguish current inoculation patterns, rates and factors related with HPV and cervical malignancy. Study discoveries an identified with race (dark, Latina, Asian), and financial burdens were condensed.
Understanding flow immunization patterns and the boundaries to arrangement commencement and fruition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prescribes that 11 to multi year old teenagers get two dosages of the HPV antibody so as to secure against themselves against tumors that are brought about by HPV. The HPV immunization arrangement can be given to young ladies starting at age 9 years of age, yet numerous guardians trust this age is unreasonably youthful for an explicitly transmitted ailment inoculation. Moreover, it is prescribed by the CDC that young ladies and ladies age 13 through 26 years old who have not yet been inoculated or finished the antibody arrangement to be given the HPV immunization quickly to give HPV-malignant growth related assurance.
In comprehension HPV inoculation parameters, it is fundamental that we also perceive holes in learning and every one of the misinterpretations encompassing HPV immunization and cervical disease. At the point when the immunization is offered before HPV introduction, it is profoundly successful in keeping contamination from two high-chance genotypes (HPV-16/HPV-18) of HPV, which causes roughly 70 percent of cervical malignant growths, and two generally safe (HPV-6/HPV-11) genotypes that are in charge of more than 90 percent of every single genital mole.
As we surveyed the fittingness of our criteria advantages, we concentrated on Black/African-American, Latina and non-white pre-adult ladies age 12-26, minority high schooler ladies detailed having sex, juvenile ladies who have finished pubescence, and low salary and medicinal services uneducated young ladies, who are excessively uninsured or have restricted access.
The methodological quality is huge to our investigation. It was composed and nitty gritty arranged. It displayed proof that there is a requirement for expanding HPV immunization among youthful minority ladies. The inability to accomplish evenhanded immunization has exacerbated wellbeing variations in HPV and cervical disease occurrence and mortality. Research recommends that low-pay and minority ladies are distraught because of the distinction in cervical disease screening, practices and convictions, just as social insurance get to hindrances and foundational chance components.
We utilized the ‘Exploration and Quality Scoring Method’ by Sackett and Haynes, the Jadad scale, and the things distributed by Cho and Bero to rate the nature of each investigation (Table 1). The scope of absolute quality scores was from 0 to 9. Concentrates that extended from 0 to 5 were viewed as low quality, though thinks about that ran from 6-9 were viewed as high caliber. Two raters freely coded factors utilizing Microsoft Excel. Inconsistencies were distinguished and settled among our colleagues.
Table 1. Concentrate quality appraisals
Race/ethnicity and low financial status are known indicators recently organize analysis of cervical disease and are vital indicators of malignant growth mortality.
In the United States, roughly 12,000 ladies create cervical malignancy and 44000 kick the bucket of the malady every year, with higher frequency and death rates announced in low-salary minority populaces.
HPV immunization has been appeared to diminish the commonness of high-hazard HPV contamination among youngster ladies and along these lines, can possibly diminish the dangers of cervical malignant growth among inoculated young ladies.
As indicated by going before reconnaissance and subjective investigations, it is shown that a decrease in the yearly rate of high-grade cervical malignant growth, from 834 for each 100,000 of every 2008 to 688 for each 100,000 out of 2014, among ladies matured 21 to 24 years, which mirrors the effect of HPV immunization. In any case, decreases were not critical in zones with high extents of minority ladies (i.e blacks, Latinas) or potentially individuals living in low-salary zones.
The hunt yielded almost 500 potential article titles for survey, yet under 70 were applicable to our interests. What’s more, of that 70, around 20 were dated inside the most recent 10 years. In like manner, under 20 appeared to be increasingly normal for our examination advantages and gave sufficient data to our exploration question.
Depiction of Studies
Chosen qualities of the included examinations fought that an expected 12,000 ladies are determined to have cervical malignant growth every year in the United States, and 4500,000 ladies overall create cervical disease every year. In the United States, cervical malignancy frequency is almost twice as high in provinces with destitution levels > 20% contrasted and those with neediness levels <10%, and cervical disease rate and mortality are 25% and 95% higher, separately, among dark ladies and 53% and 41% higher for Latina ladies contrasted and that of white ladies. Rates of cervical malignancy are conversely relative to screening and treatment access, and poor and minority ladies face more hindrances to medicinal services get to. Along these lines, higher rates of cervical disease are found in US districts with huge minority and devastated populaces.
It is pivotal to comprehend current inoculation patterns and hindrances to the HPV immunization arrangement inception, so as to impact viable methodologies to improve HPV antibody fruition and to diminish inconsistencies in cervical malignant growth.
All investigations evaluated writing audit expects to recognize obstructions and facilitators of impartial take-up of HPV inoculation and cervical malignant growth counteractive action among low-salary and ethnic minority young ladies. Result measures uncovered that around 44 million ladies in the United States, about 33% of all ladies in America, self-recognize as ladies of a minority racial or ethnic gathering. Therefore, it is basic that we improve HPV inoculation rates generally speaking, yet additionally center around high-hazard populaces to keep an expansion in HPV and cervical malignancy inconsistencies.
Evaluation techniques and reasonings fluctuated between studies.
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AI bot ChatGPT writes smart essays — should professors worry?
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Between overwork, underpayment and the pressure to publish, academics have plenty to worry about. Now there’s a fresh concern: ChatGPT , an artificial intelligence (AI) powered chatbot that creates surprisingly intelligent-sounding text in response to user prompts, including homework assignments and exam-style questions. The replies are so lucid, well-researched and decently referenced that some academics are calling the bot the death knell for conventional forms of educational assessment. How worried should professors and lecturers be?
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Learning Assessment Tools Learning is the change in behavior through different experiences. This means that if one experience different subjects over a period of measureable time one should be able to have change in behavior. Different styles of learning influence the period needed for change to be acquired. These lead to different learners including; intuitive, visual, verbal, active learners. These forms of learning when combined create an all rounded learning experience. The variance of approach to learning allows different forms of learning to be gained depending on the students. This can also be backed by the fitness to purpose; how many teachers for instance are suited to handle certain subjects. The number of students willing to be taught is also a determining factor. After going through the behavioral change it is vital to establish the change and assess it, this is usually done through examinations. This is in order to establish what has been learnt and what is certain and what needs revaluation. Assignments methodology of evaluation can also establish what has been learnt. The validity of the learning process is measured by the applicability of the learner over a period of time in the subject taught. The learner should be able to apply themselves in solving problems meant to test the quality and knowhow of the education taught. The learning process should be able to leave an active research development ideology in the learners’ view. This would enable independent learning and further understanding by the student and of the learning process. The best learning style is one that will increase the learners’ ability to self apply their knowledge and develop a curious nature to improve their learning technique on the earlier taught subject. Critical reflection is vital t both the learning process and the learner as it gives a view of the quality of...
Assessment tools paper.
...Assessment Tools Paper Student Name Liberty University EDUC 307 Date Look over the format of this sample paper. Note the comments along the left side of the paper that point out some of the expectations of the assignment. Look over the format of this sample paper. Note the comments along the left side of the paper that point out some of the expectations of the assignment. Abstract Assessment tools are used in classrooms, by teachers, to help them learn the many student differences. It is important for teachers to discover the different interests, ability/intellectual levels, achievement levels, and personality types of students so that they can effectively instruct students accordingly. Some assessment tools (tests) that have been found to help teachers discover these differences are Student Interest Survey for Career Clusters, Brigance Early Childhood Screen II K & 1, Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, TerraNova/Cat 6 Test, and Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory. Interests 1. The Student Interest Survey for Career Clusters is a survey that is used for those exploring careers, or can be used by students for educational purposes only. The survey assesses students on their interests by having them answer questions by circling any and all of the given choices that best describe the student. This survey is fairly extensive, as the same 3 questions are asked 16 different times, but the list of answer......
Words: 1763 - Pages: 8
Using Monte Carlo Tool for Risk Assessment
...Using Monte Carlo Tool for Risk Assessment CMGT/442 March 21, 2016 Craig McCormick Using Monte Carlo Tool for Risk Assessment A project can have many variables that can prevent it from completion. No one variable can effect a project more than a project’s risks. The key to having a successful completion of a project is through a risk assessment. It is the project manager’s job to identify potential risks within a project. Identifying these uncertainties will help to minimize the risks and their impact on the project. The Monte Carlo tool can be an asset for a project manager and risk assessment process. What is Monte Carlo? Monte Carlo is a simulation of mathematical technique that analyzes risk for decision making. The simulation uses different choices of action and gives a variety of probabilities and possible outcomes based on those actions. These possible outcomes are given in the most extreme situations, as well as with minor decisions. Additionally, the Monte Carlo simulation provides possible consequences of conservative decisions. Overall, “Monte Carlo analysis involves determining the impact of the identified risks by running simulations to identify the range of possible outcomes for a number of scenarios.” (Marom, 2010) How Monte Carlo Works Project risks are one of the big unknowns when it comes to risk assessment. Monte Carlo attempts to change these unknowns by using probability distributions. Probability distributions show that each risk variable...
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...Running head: ASSESSMENT TOOLS 1 Assessment Tools Paper Liberty University EDUC 307 June 1, 2016 Abstract The beauty in teaching is watching the brains of your scholars grow with knowledge. As educators we frequently use various tools to assess the gains that our scholars make. In order to successfully instruct intentional lessons, it is important to collect data about scholar interests, ability/intellectual levels, achievement levels, and personality types. Through the use of assessment tools like the Common Core Measures of Academic Progress (Common Core MAP), The State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR), The Student Interest Survey for Career Clusters, The Brigance Early Childhood Screens III, The Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory, and The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Personality Indicator. Interests 1. The Student Interest Survey for Career Clusters assesses scholars interest through the use of a survey where scholars are expected to circle up to seven activities in each of sixteen boxes that describe what they like to do. This is an extensive survey that asks the same three questions in each of the sixteen boxes, however the list of answer choices provided varies each time. This survey takes around fifteen minutes to complete via paper and pencil. This survey is available in both English and Spanish and can be viewed and printed online.......
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...Assessment Tool Analysis Paper Jean Watson’s theory of human caring focused on establishing a caring relationship with patients. She believed in treating them as holistic (mind, body and spirit) being. To further secure our understanding and relationship with our patients we can use our assessment tool analysis to better know them. Becks depression inventory, dysfunctional attitude scale and social support questionnaire are the assessments that I have chosen to look deeper at the depressed population and community function. These tools should take me deeper on how this population might have gotten to where they are and why they are a vulnerable population. Created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, the Beck Depression Inventory is an assessment tool design to determine the presence and the severity of symptoms of depression. Composed of 21 multiple choice questions it aims to assess the symptoms and attitudes specifically seen on depressed patients. To interpret Becks Depression inventory, the score have to be tallied and added. According to ( ) a person that scored 1-10 are considered normal, 11-16 has mild mood disturbance, 17-20 borderline clinical depression, 21-30 moderate depression, 31-40 severe depression, and anything over 40 is considered to have extreme depression. This tool can be use in many of our vulnerable population, but we are going to concentrate on the teens and young adults to explore the correlation between depression and obesity. According to the Centers for......
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Assessment Tool Analysis
...Assessment Tool Analysis Paper Assessment tools are created to help nurses provide competent nursing care for each unique patient. Assessment is an essential part from the nursing process throughout which nurses collect details about the patient and family to create a care plan. “Assessment involves collecting information about person’s circumstances and needs, and making sense of that information in order to decide what support, treatment or care to provide” (Slater & McCormack, 2005). In order for nurses to make sound clinical decisions, the nurse needs the information gathered from assessment. This paper will analysis three assessment tools used in healthcare, they are the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Coping Resources Inventory for Stress Scale. These assessment tools can be used and applied to a wide range of ages and vulnerable populations. Having a better understanding on how the patient perceives themselves, the nurse is able to develop a plan of care to address the body, mind, and spirit. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale The first assessment tool is the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). This test measures many different areas of the personality such as approval, achievement, perfectionism, entitlement, omnipotence, and autonomy (DeGraaf, Roelofs, & Huibers, 2009). The main measure is of dysfunctional attitude which is a sign of depression. As a nurse this is a valuable tool to help find depressive symptoms in a patient. By......
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...Assessment tools are useful for nursing care as they can act as a guideline while trying to assess patients. Finding the right assessment tool to match the nursing care going to be given is important. All assessment tools may not match the type of care going to be given. It is important to evaluate the assessment tool not only to match the care, but also to make sure the tool is thorough and useful. The three assessment tools discussed in this essay are an admission assessment by Pamela Craig, a nursing needs assessment tool by the Department of Health Social Services and Public Safety, and a physical assessment tool by F.A. Davis. The admission assessment by Pamela Craig was designed through evaluation of the previous admission assessment tool in which Pamela Craig redesigned it to fix the flaws of the old one. The tool begins with baseline vitals upon admission, with the inclusion of how the patient was brought to the facility and from where. The tool includes allergies, with a section specific to latex allergies. It includes who the information is obtained from, in case the information is not able to be obtained from the patient. There is a place for family history information, as well as history of past diagnoses for the patient. There is a section for nutrition that includes questions about weight loss, nausea and vomiting, enteral feeding, and changes in appetite. The physical assessment part of the assessment tool covers each system. There are boxes to check within......
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Heritage Assessment Tool
...Heritage Assessment The heritage Assessment Tool is a questioner design to assist individual to determine his or her ethnic, religious and cultural background in relationship with health, illness and diseases. Heritage and culture are different just like individual fingerprint. When looking at someone’s heritage and tradition, it consists of methods used to maintain health, protect health, and restore health. These concepts deal with person’s physical, mental and spiritual belief. Every individual has their own heritage, and this is very different among different cultures. ( Spector 2009). Heritage assessment tool in combination with questions relating to health and illness belief and practices was helpful in helping individuals remember events in their childhood and also the influence of culture and belief relating to health and illness practices. To summarize heritage assessment tools, people have diverse beliefs about health, Illness, disease, birth and death, which are directed by culture. Heritage assessment is an important step towards building understanding of cultural competency. It is a phenomenon that recognizes diversity, both in linguistic and cultural adeptness by the health care provider. A person’s culture, beliefs, heritage, and language have a substantial impact on both the patient and the health care provider within the health care system (Spector 2009). The question in heritage......
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...Assessment Tool Analysis Dorcas NUR/440 March 26, 2012 Vicki Clithero Assessment Tool Analysis Assessment is an important aspect of nursing care; it is the first phase of the nursing process. Assessment involves gathering information or data about and related to the patient. Data collected include physiological, psychological, environmental, sociocultural, economical, spiritual, developmental history of the patient. Data may be objective or subjective. Objective data refer to the measurable and observable signs, e.g. the patient’s facial expression, gait, pulse rate, heart rate, blood pressure, color, warmth, etc. Subjective data are obtained from the patient; and they are the patient’s account of his or her feelings, needs, and strength. Data are obtained by physical examination and by interviewing the patient, family, friends, and other health care providers. Assessment tools are used during the assessment phase of the nursing process to identify areas of actual or potential problems that need further exploring; they are developed to pinpoint areas of health issues with the aim of promoting, improving, and maintaining the health of the individual. The three assessment tools chosen for this paper are: Social Support Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale. Social Support Questionnaire Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) is an assessment tool that measures individual evaluation of social support that may be available to them in......
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...August 31, 2012 Heritage Assessment Tool: Evaluation of different Cultures and Individual Views of Health The Heritage Assessment Tool can be used as as a reliable tool to assess, health maintenance, protection and restoration of individual cultural beliefs. This evaluation helps meet the needs of different patient populations to provide quality holistic care. The purpose of this paper is to explore the Hispanic, Native American, Chinese, and the author’s own personal cultural beliefs from perspectives of health traditions, maintenance, promotion and restoration of health. The objectives are to identify different families and the own common health traditions based of the cultural heritage. Evaluate and discuss how the families ascribe to traditions and practices. The evaluation of these different cultures reveal similarities and differences in traditions that may help provide holistic optimal health delivery. The definition of cultural awareness is an individual’s awareness of their understanding between themselves and other backgrounds, attitudes to health and specific cultural values (Cultural awareness, n.d). Cultural competence refers to knowledge and skills that must be obtained to care for culturally different backgrounds (Spector, 2008). The Heritage Assessment Tool (HAT) , is a check list used by professionals to gain knowledge of patients culture and beliefs prior to initiating care (Spector 2000). In combination with questions that relate to...
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...Heritage Tool Assessment Grand Canyon University Culture and Cultural Competency in Health Promotion Heritage Tool Assessment There are challenges with cultural diversities and competencies in the United States, as we have grown into a melting pot of many different cultures and ethnicities. Nurses make a positive difference in a patient’s life every day by providing high quality healthcare. But now, in the 21st century, nurses are providing that quality within an increasingly multicultural society. Doctor Madeline Leininger, founder of the field of transcultural nursing, says that when providing culturally competent patient care, it must be customized to fit the patient’s own cultural values, beliefs, traditions, practices and lifestyle. ((Leininger, & McFarland, 2006). The heritage assessment tool helped me to identify that families with diverse cultures have different perceptions on wellness and disease. Using this assessment tool, can help the healthcare provider determine how to care for their patient based on their cultural needs, it will also help identify the approach that needs to be made in teaching, health maintenance, health protection and health restoration as the provider can use the results as a baseline for treatment. The basis of this paper is to familiarize myself with the Native American, African American, and Hispanic cultures. The heritage assessment tool helped me to determine the needs of the whole person based on their beliefs and practices. As......
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Assessment Tools Analysis
...Assessment Tools Analysis Cindy Hall NUR/440 August 15, 2011 Dee Martinez Assessment Tools Analysis Assessing physical measures of patients can often be a difficult task. However, there are several assessment tools available to health care professionals to guide them in providing the best patient care possible. Along with proper assessment tools, Watson’s theory of human caring plays an important role in the integration of the mind, body, and spirit dimensions of each patient. This paper will state three assessment tools that evaluate a patient’s physical measures, describe each tool and the population for which it may be useful, and state data about each tool. Such data may include cost, length, ease in using the tool, for what population it is best designed, and the validity of the information. A description of how each tool enhances the assessment phase of the nursing process and affects the quality of health care delivered by the nurse will be discussed. Each of these tools will be applied to a chosen vulnerable population researched from the Vulnerable Population and Self-awareness paper. The vulnerable population I researched consisted of the elder population. Mrs. James was my subject. She is a 65-year-old widow who lives alone. She has become socially isolated with little to no support system. She has two sons who live out of state and very rarely keeps in contact with them. She does not work and has limited savings. Currently she relies on social...
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...Heritage Assessment Tool Stacey Howard Grand Canyon University 4/20/2014 Heritage Assessment Tool The Heritage Assessment Tool is useful in determining how connected an individual is to their specific culture which enables the culturally competent practitioner to identify health traditions, evaluate needs, and create appropriate plans for health maintenance, protection and/or restoration of the patient. Heritage and culture are interchangeable words that represent the concept of learned or inherited thought processes, ideas, and traditions that have been passed down from parentage, nationality and/or ethnicity. It is important for the practitioner to understand the beliefs of their patient to better facilitate treatment compliance and enhance rapport with the patient and family. As noted by Edelman, Kudzman & Mandle (2014), culture has an impact on a person’s health, healing, perceptions of wellness versus disease and attitude towards health practitioners. Many times important revelations regarding the patient’s health practices, traditions, and perceptions are gleaned not from the patient answering direct assessment question but from their relaxed conversation, ramblings, and casual remarks. The patient will not feel comfortable to converse with a practitioner they don’t trust or have a rapport. It is through cultural sensitivity, competence and appropriate assessment that practitioners are able to develop the trust and rapport needed to assist them...
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...Assessment Tool Analysis Joanna Przybyla NUR/440 June 4, 2012 Vicki Clithero Assessment Tool Analysis Nursing assessment is the gathering of information about a patient(Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia n.d.). It is a conversation with a patient, combined with an observation of the patient’s needs, signs, and symptoms of an illness, the patient’s social and medical history, and any other possible information. It is a difficult process, but at the same time, very important as it creates a basis in caring for a patient. Luckily, nurses have many assessment tools available to help them and to guide them through the process of assessment. What is also very important is knowledge of Watson’s model of nursing and how it is focusing on holistic care and establishing a relationship between patients and caregivers (De Chesnay & Anderson, 2012, Ch.6). In this essay I am going to describe three assessment tools that I have chosen and also how they can be used when caring for population I described in last week paper. The three assessment tools I want to present are the: Apgar Score, Finnegan Scale, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The Apgar Score was introduced in 1953 by the American doctor specializing in anesthesiology and pediatrics, Virginia Apgar (Kids Health, 1998). It was named after her and to this day doctors and nurses use it worldwide to evaluate how babies are doing after the delivery. It is the first test the newborn takes and it quickly allows......
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...customs, objects, places and values. (ICOMOS, 2002). Cultural Heritage is ones unique and unbreakable bonds to the root, it defines who they are and where their origin lie. Health care has to be specific with patients need and patients traditional and cultural values should be consider. Individuals here in United States came from different cultures, however they still sustained their deep culture, believes and tradition. To deliver high quality health care services to a wide diverse population, it is important to be culturally competent. In the United States where a big part of the population are immigrants coming from all over the world (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). This is where the Heritage Assessment Tool (HAT) becomes very appropriate. Heritage assessment is the most useful tool in the health care. It can provide better understanding of our patient’s culture. It help assessing one’s religious, ethnic and cultural heritage along with health traditions. With adequate knowledge, the health care provider will know how best to balance medical practice with the traditions patients holds (Spector, 2009).This will ensure that there is a balance and understanding between traditional and modern culture. Health care providers should respect the traditions and values of their patient and make sure to consider patient preferences and their needs. PAKISTANI HEALTH CULTURE: The writer is Asian American Pakistani by descent belongs to an extended family with 7 members. In......
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...RUNNING HEAD: CULTURAL COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT TOOL. Review of The Heritage Assessment Tool; A Cultural Competency Assessment Tool. Devin Rodriguez Grand Canyon University Literature Review Introduction The Heritage Assessment Tool is a simple form compromised of 29 questions that is used for identifying how a person views themselves; this tool is utilized for cultural competency in care of the individual (Spector, 2000). The questions focus on where your family originated, the size of your family and setting of your childhood. Family dynamics, religious preferences of self and family, participation in ethnic and religious activities, and language (Spector, 2000). This assessment tool has high face validity and questions are simple for the client to understand and answer the questions being asked of them. Abilities of the assessment tool based on three volunteer survey participants. The three individuals that completed the Assessment tool for this review was a Hispanic man 41 years of age, a 25 year old female of Caucasian background, and a 18 year old African American. Two of the individuals are geographically located in Arizona at this point in their life, one is located in Texas. None of the participants were born outside of the United States. Participant One The first participant was the 41 year old male of Hispanic background, he identified he was adopted and has no contact with his birth mother. He had 2 brothers and 3 sisters in his adoptive family....
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The Reliability and Validity of Assessment Tools
Reliability and validity are significant elements of any assessment tool. However thoroughly developed the tools are, if they are not valid or reliable, the research is doomed to fail. Reliability is the rate of consistency which involves the following methods: inter-rater, parallel forms, test-retest, and internal consistency. Validity is the extent to which an assessment tool is accurate and corresponds to the real world. Validity evaluation methods are: face, criterion-related, sampling, formative, and construct efficacy.
Inter-rater reliability is concerned with the stability of assessment tools when employed by different participants. This method is rather complicated since every person has a peculiar opinion on different things. When the assessment tool inquires for the participants’ opinions, its reliability is quite poor since the tool is subjective. However, if an assessment tool inquires for people’s answers about definite facts, reliability is enhanced as the tool becomes subjective. While the inter-rater method may be subjective, it is valuable since it presents an opportunity to compare diverse responses (Barrett, Wilson, & Woollands, 2012).
The method can be employed to check the Structured Observation and Assessment of Practice (SOAP).
This method presupposes the participants to answer the same questions two times in order to provide greater reliability. The method is successful if the correlation rates are high.
The disadvantages of this method include the necessity to obtain the participants’ agreement to take the same test twice and the difficulty in discriminating between the actual change and the deficiency of a trustworthy measure. In the time range between the two tests is too long, there may be a substantial change between the answers, and the equivalence will be low (Acock, 2008).
This method can be used to assess the Nursing Competencies Questionnaire (NCQ).
Internal Consistency Reliability
This is the most prevalent reliability measure for assessment tools. It is favored due to the simplicity of the application. This method demands one data sample which enables the estimation of the internal consistency reliability (Sauro, 2015). The approach evaluates the regularity with which the participants answer to one set of components. The method, which is often called Cronbach’s alpha, fluctuates from 0.0 to 1.0 (Sauro, 2015). The minimal allowed range of reliability is 0.70. However, especially important tests target for no less than 0.90 (Sauro, 2015). The more items there are in the questionnaire, the higher reliability it has. If the number of items cannot be high, reliability can be gained through the extension of the sample size (Acock, 2008).
This method can be employed to assess the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).
This method determines that the tool is assessing the predetermined construct. The stakeholders can easily estimate whether the test has face validity (Polit & Beck, 2008). If they consider that the test lacks it, they will not be interested in participating. While this type of validity is not very scientific, it is rather significant (Shrock & Coscarelli, 2007).
Face validity should be used for each of the assessment tools.
Criterion-related validity is applied for a prediction about the current or future outcomes (DeVellis, 2012). As well as face validity, this method is rather practical than scientific, but it is essential for the research. The approach is often called predictive validity as it does not involve comprehending the process but simply implies foreseeing it. The most essential feature of this method is the intensity of the empirical connection between the measure and the criterion (DeVellis, 2012).
The method can be applied to evaluate the Competency Assessment Tool (CAT).
There is a diversity of methods of determining the validity and reliability of assessment tools. While reliability is significant, it is not enough to consider the tool valid. Usually, one approach is enough to prove your tools as reliable and valid. However, to establish the most precise evaluation, a combination of several methods may be employed.
Acock, A. C. (2008). A gentle introduction to stata (2nd ed.). Texas, TX: Stata Press Publication.
Barrett, D., Wilson, B., & Woollands, A. (2012). Care planning: A guide for nurses (2nd ed). New York, NY: Routledge.
DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and application (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sauro, J. (2015). How to measure the reliability of your methods and metrics. Measuring Usability . Web.
Shrock, S. A., & Coscarelli, W. C. (2007). Criterion-referenced test development: Technical and legal guidelines for corporate training (3rd ed.). San Fransisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
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Assessment Tools in Nursing Report
Introduction, dysfunctional attitude scale, mini-mental state exam, adult life stress measurement.
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The assessment tool is intended to review the nursing requirements of an older person requiring long-term care. The tool is intended to summarize a methodical formulation to evaluation at the same time implementing specialized decision-making that takes place in the associations among a nurse and another individual. For this cause, the tool receives the assessment through an arranged approach, moving from a broad ‘narrative-based measurement of ‘domains’ of care need to a concentrated evaluation of features of possibility and complication.
Form A of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DASA; Weissman, 1979; Weissman & Beck, 1978) is a 40-item self-report feedback form intended to gauge the suppositions and attitudes connected with the cognitive content of depression (Beck, 1976). According to Beck’s hypothesis, these statements and beliefs reproduce fairly steady and lasting cognitive outlines that influence the association of previous experience, understanding of present experiences, and expectations about potential experiences. Dysfunctional models are assumed to take action as cognitive vulnerabilities that act together with pertinent ecological significance to set off and uphold clinical symptoms of the disease, especially depression.
The DAS-A is one of the most widely used measures of dysfunctional attitudes and has been frequently engaged to test Beck’s cognitive vulnerability stress model of depression (e.g., Hankin, 2005). It has also been used as a gauge of results for the management of depression (e.g., Blatt, 1995). Even though a large amount of this investigation employs the total score acquired from the DAS-A, more current studies (e.g., Blatt et al., 1995) has started on using subscales meant at tapping into further precise extents of cognitive susceptibility, particularly an accomplishment measurement (also pertained to as Performance Evaluation, Perfectionism, etc.) and an interpersonal dimension (Need for Approval, Dependency, etc.).
Since the DAS-A total score and subscale scores are so extensively used, it is significant to appreciate the feature organization of the DAS-A. Studies using a total score create the unspecified supposition that the gauge exhibit a common factor that accounts for the greater part of the whole discrepancy of the scale scores, therefore representing that the entire score is a measure of a particular construct (Revelle, 1979).
It is above all important to understand the DASA factor associations in an adolescent population where depression is frequent. Results from a 10-year longitudinal study demonstrate depression occurrence rates increasing from 3% at age 15 to 17% at age 18 (Hankin et al., 1998), and one more study illustrates an apparent and sharp point of variation in depression vulnerability rate curves between ages 15 and 19 (Burke, 1990). Particular in the increase in rates of clinical depression throughout this life stage, adolescent samples are perfect for studying the functions of detailed cognitive susceptibilities and environmental significance in the beginning and protection of depressive symptomatology.
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a generally used assessment tool for determining disease intensity and dementia development in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (Folstein, 1975). MMSE consists of stuff that assesses orientation, attention, working memory, executive function, language, and immediate and delayed verbal recall (Strauss, 2006). Every item is practically relying on understanding oral directions and reacting orally, by talking or writing. Studies have exposed that over time, patients with AD demonstrate a steady decrease in their MMSE scores (Apostolova, 2006). Though, there has been a modest investigation on the usefulness of this assessment to follow the development in non-AD dementias.
Numerous studies have used the MMSE to gauge the rate of cognitive diminution in patients with FTLD. One study establish that patients with bvFTD showed a standard yearly decline of 6.7 points on the MMSE, considerably better than the 2.3-point yearly decline displayed by patients with AD (Rascovsky et al, 2005). In contrast, additional studies have accounted that patients with bvFTD demonstrated fewer declines on the MMSE than patients with AD (Pasquier, 2004).In recent times, the amount of cognitive decrease calculated by the MMSE has been evaluated in the language and behavioral deviations of FTLD and AD patients (Chow, 2006).
Given some of the boundaries of the MMSE for determining the cognitive decrease in non-AD dementias, measurements of ADL may be more dependable in following disease intensity and development in these non-amnestic conditions (Kertesz, 2003). Even though several research have evaluated the rate of decline on the
MMSE among AD and the deviations of FTLD (Rascovsky et al, 2005), no studies have contrasted rates of decline in bvFTD and PPA as calculated by the MMSE against a gauge of ADL (Chow, 2006). Osher et al (2008) support and suggest that both the MMSE and ADLQ may be sufficiently measured to follow severity and disease development in bvFTD. Osher et al (2008), suggest that the MMSE is successful in identifying and staging the indications that go with frontal lobe worsening, which comprise behavioral disinhibition as well as, awareness, working memory, and decision-making functions insufficiency.
Stress is involving several factors and multifaceted perception, which involves a course caused by several factors (i.e. hereditary and environmental and their connections), and personality dissimilarities (i.e. prior vulnerabilities, capability to manage) and this process is the basis for change in hypothetical stability within physiological systems, which is normally seen as a contributor to disease (Le Moal, 2007).
To recognize this stress model and to build up well-organized involvement programs, significant and practical measurement methods are vital (Wietzman , 2004). There are numerous diverse measurement techniques, of which biochemical and physiological measures are often long and not easy to deal with and understand (Noble, 2002). Questionnaires may be the most complete method to assess stress frequently, and particularly in great samples. There are several questionnaires, measuring dissimilar features of stress (Cohen, 1997). Some of these questionnaires are inadequate by their duration and too much respondent load. Shorter instruments are particularly advantageous in clinical settings as well as in longitudinal studies, but these are less in amount (Coste, 1997).
To find out the value of a questionnaire, numerous diverse measurement properties such as internal consistency and construct validity are to be measured (Terwee, 2007). The time, effort, and additional burdens to be found on those to whom the tool is managed, or on those who administer the instrument, are also imperative (SACMOTA, 2002).
The Arnetz and Hasson Stress Questionnaire were developed as an open web-based instrument for normal individual evaluation (www.pql.se). The most pertinent areas were established to be present health status, capability to sleep, skill to concentrate, worldwide stress height, power, life has power over, and social existence.
The questionnaire includes Seven Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), one for every part. VAS is an easy technique for gauging personal experience and is particularly appropriate for measuring complex constructs known to change, such as stress (Hasson , 2005). Characteristically, respondents are required to put a mark on a 100-millimeter line attached at each end by differing statements relating to the least and maximum boundaries of the measurement being calculated. Because the Arnetz and Hasson Stress Questionnaire is composed of seven scales, the least score for the complete questionnaire is zero points, whereas the maximum score is 700 points.
Wholistic care is generally documented as a foundation of nursing practice. The standard of nursing holds completeness (Newman, 1997). It would be supportive to offer nurses and nursing undergraduates customary, as well as unconventional, practices and tools that possibly will improve their understanding of the profession’s holistic example.
Weissman, A. N. (1979). The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: A validation study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 , 1389B-1390B.
Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders . New York: International Universities Press.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107 , 128-140.
Hankin, B. L., Fraley, R. C., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2005). Daily depression and cognitions about stress: Evidence from a traitlike depressogenic cognitive style and the prediction of depressive symptoms in a prospective daily diary study. Personality Processes and Individual Differences, 88 , 673-685.
Blatt, S. J., Quinlan, D. M., Pilkonis, P. A., & Shea, M. T. (1995). Impact of perfectionism and need for approval on the brief treatment of depression: The National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program revisited. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63 ,125-132.
Revelle, W. (1979). Hierarchical cluster analysis and the internal structure of tests. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14 , 57-74.
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Last Updated 07 Jul 2020
Assessment Tools Analysis
Assessment Tools Analysis The vulnerable population of single low-income mothers and their children are at risk for poor health: physically, socially, and psychologically. As a nurse, I know the importance of performing a complete nursing assessment to provide the best nursing care. It is helpful to use available assessment tools to evaluate and fully assess the patient. Nurses need to be knowledgeable in assessment tools to expand the assessment process and evaluate clients in various stages and states of health, illness, stress, and life.
In this paper, I will discuss and analyze three assessment tools: The Beck Depression Inventory, The Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, and The Family Hardiness Index. Beck Depression Inventory According to the Center for Psychological Studies (2010), the BDI is used to measure the presence and degree of depression. This self-reporting questionnaire measures depression symptoms, such as headache, constipation, loss of appetite, backache or chronic fatigue (Viinamaki, Tanskanen, et al. , 2004). It is a straightforward, low-cost, easy to use, 21-item test presented in multiple-choice format.
The BDI is intended to be used in research and clinical settings to assess depression in adults and adolescents 13 and older. Administration of the BDI takes approximately five minutes. The test is either self-administered or verbally administered by trained personnel. Each item is a list of four statements about a particular symptom of depression, such as loss of appetite and sleep loss, and they are arranged in increasing severity. Validity and Reliability The BDI has been used for over 35 years to identify depressive symptoms and is reported to be highly reliable in being able to distinguish depressed from non-depressed patients.
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The new version showed improved clinical sensitivity, with the reliability of the BDI–II scoring higher than the BDI (Center for Psychological Studies, 2010). Recently, the BDI has been updated and the name changed to BDI-II. The BDI-II conforms more closely to the diagnostic criteria for depression and specifically assesses for depression by identifying the presence and severity of symptoms. This increased the validity. Nursing Even though mood disorders are common in the general population, many people suffering from depression remain undiagnosed (Viinamaki, Tanskanen, et al. , 2004).
Because many low-income single mothers lack self-esteem, self-confidence, and adequate coping skills, leading them to feel isolated and alone, this vulnerable population is especially at risk for depression. The nurse can use the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess each patient for signs and symptoms of depression. Using this tool within the nursing assessment will help the nurse to differentiate patients experiencing symptoms of depression. This will then allow the nurse an opportunity for teaching and information on therapy, counseling, or outpatient psychiatric follow-up can be provided to the patient.
Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire The Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire is self-administered, low-cost, and measures multiple dimensions of social support including affect, affirmation, and aide. Nine categories are used to determine sources of support, and size, stability, and accessibility of those sources are measured. “The Social Supports Questionnaire measures include: the kinds of help and support that the parent/caregiver and youth received from people in the past 6 months, and the kinds of people who helped the parent/caregiver and youth in the past 6 months” (Kernan & Morilus-Black, 2010, p. 258).
Adults and adolescents 13 or older are asked to list the first names or initials for each significant person in his or her life, such as spouse, relatives, friends, neighbors, etc. The patient then labels the kind of relationship he or she shares with each person listed Finally, the patient then rates and describes the amount of support available from each person on the list. The amount of social support can then be calculated. Validity and Reliability Reliability was assessed through analysis of consistency and test-retest measures taken a week apart. High levels of consistency and reliability were found.
According to a study published by UCSF School of Medicine (2005), the test-retest correlations were Affect, 0. 89; Affirmation, 0. 88; and Aid, 0. 86 and response bias, which ranged from 0. 01 to 0. 17, was not significant. Nursing The nurse must accurately assess the patient’s social support, especially in the vulnerable population of single low-income mothers. According to Campbell-Grossman, Hudson, Keating-Lefler, & Fleck (2005), “Inadequate social support is related to poor public health outcomes, particularly in conditions of stress such as poverty and single motherhood” (p. 242).
Nursing care of single mothers needs to focus on teaching, providing information on community resources, and providing support and encouragement. Family Hardiness Index Low- income single mothers experience many personal barriers to successful parenthood, usually because they suffer from the stress of new responsibilities with minimal resources to back them up. Major life changes can occur within the single parent household with family structure and function. Family and job demands, and family strengths, capabilities, and weaknesses all play a role in how families, including children, adapt to the current situation (Robinson, 2003).
The Family Hardiness Index (FHI) can be used with adults and children over the age of nine to assess family adaptation. “Hardiness is defined as the family members’ internal strengths and durability as characterized by an ability to work together to find solutions to difficulties, a view of change as beneficial and growth producing rather than threatening, and a sense of control over the outcomes of life events and hardships” (Leske& Jiricka, 1998, p. 383). The Family Hardiness Index is a 20-item questionnaire.
It measures four components families use to respond to stressful life events: confidence, challenge, commitment, and control (Leske& Jiricka, 1998). Patients indicate on a three-point scale how well the questions or statements apply to their life and their family situation, and the scores are calculated by adding the values of the responses. Validity and Reliability According to a study described by Leske & Jiricka (1998), reported internal consistency and reliability of the FHI is 0. 82, and validity is strong. This study was on a combined sample of 51 family members going through major life changes and challenges.
Alpha reliability was 0. 98 for the total resource scores of their study (Leske & Jiricka, 1998). Increases in scores were related to adequate resources, coping, problem-solving communication, and family adaption. Response bias is possible due to the self-report nature of the questionnaire (Leske & Jiricka, 1998). Nursing The nurse needs to assess the whole person; sometimes this includes the family as one unit because children are a part of the vulnerable population too. Studies of parenting have shown that low-income families with maternal hardships impede the children’s cognitive and societal abilities (Mechanic & Tanner, 2007). Family deprivations also increase the probability of abuse and neglect of children, who then seek to escape the household early, associate with inappropriate peers, form tenuous sexual partnerships, have early pregnancies, and often replicate the pattern of inadequate parenting they experienced as children” (Mechanic & Tanner, 2007, p. 1223). The nurse can use this low-cost questionnaire to assess family functioning and family hardiness. Integrating Watson’s Theory of Human Caring Watson believes nursing should focus on health promotion and treating the whole person: body, mind, and spirit.
The transpersonal caring relationship builds when the nurse shows concern about the whole person and fully commits to protect and enhance the person’s human dignity. The nurse’s caring consciousness essentially allows a deeper connection between the person and the nurse, in which each person involved can understand the others perspective (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2009). The discussed assessment tools enhance the assessment phase of the nursing process, allowing the patient and nurse an opening opportunity for conversation, leading to a caring moment, and improving the quality of health care delivered by the nurse on a personal level.
Conclusion The Beck Depression Inventory, The Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, and The Family Hardiness Index are three tools available to assist the nurse in completing a fully assessment of the patient and families. These tools can be used with many different age groups, are low-cost, straightforward, and easy to use. Researching the tools for this paper has helped me to understand the importance of fully evaluating clients in various stages and states of health, illness, stress and life. These tools improve the quality of health care delivered by the nurse by enhancing the assessment phase of the nursing process.
References Campbell-Grossman, C. , Hudson, D. , Keating-Lefler, R. , & Fleck, M. (2005). Community Leaders' Perceptions of Single, Low-Income Mothers' Needs and Concerns for Social Support. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 22(4), 241-257. (doi:10. 1207/s15327655jchn2204_6). Center for Psychological Studies. (2010). Beck depression inventory. Retrieved from http://www. cps. nova. edu/~cpphelp/BDI. html Kernan, J. , & Morilus-Black, M.. (2010). Social supports for youth and families. Community Mental Health Journal, 46(3), 258-64. Retrieved August 20, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Complete. (Document ID: 2026204261). Leske, J. S. & Jiricka, M. K. (1998). Family well-being and adaption after critical injury. American Journal of Critical Care, 7(5), 383-392. Retrieved from MEDLINE with Full Text database, University of Phoenix Research Library. Mechanic, D. , & Tanner, J. (2007). Vulnerable people, groups, and populations: societal view. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 26(5), 1220-1230. Retrieved from MEDLINE with Full Text database. Robinson, M. B. (2003). Family hardiness index- Methodology for use with children. Ph. D. dissertation, Saint Louis University, United States-Missouri. Retrieved from ProQuest Nursing & Allied Heath Source, Publication No.
AAT 3130049. UCSF School of Medicine. (2005). Summary of psychometric testing of the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Retrieved from http://nurseweb. ucsf. edu/www/NSSQ-Psychometric. pdf Viinamaki, H. , Tanskanen, A. , Honkalampi, K. , Koivumaa-Honkanen, H. , Haatainen, K. , Kaustio, O. , et al. (2004). Is the Beck Depression Inventory suitable for screening major depression in different phases of the disease? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 58(1), 49-53. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Watson Caring Science Institute. (2009). Transpersonal caring and the caring moment defined. Retrieved from
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Conclusion The Beck Depression Inventory, The Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, and The Family Hardiness Index are three tools available to assist the nurse in completing a fully assessment of the patient and families. These tools can be used with many different age groups, are low-cost, straightforward, and easy to use.
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