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Exam Study Expert

70+ Connective Words To Power Up Your Essays [COMPREHENSIVE LIST]

by Kerri-Anne Edinburgh | Aug 5, 2021

When you’re writing an essay or assignment, you need to use every trick in the book to maximise your marks. And one of the best tools for radically improving your writing is the power of connective words .

Used correctly, connective words can give your writing new depth and meaning, improve readability (important for your examiner!) and demonstrate the logic of your arguments.

Luckily for you, we’ve got plenty of categories, definitions and connectives examples to help you get started…

Psst – this article uses loads of connectives. See if you can spot them in use: we’ve italicised the best examples!

What are connective words?

Simply put, connectives are words – or phrases – that link parts of your writing together.

You’re probably familiar with the most common connective words: and, as, because, but, if, or, so . In fact, I’ve used a few of them already – did you spot them?

Don’t limit your essay writing to the basics though, because there are hundreds of connectives that can help you to demonstrate different ideas, such as cause and effect , or the chronology of events .

We’re going to explore ten types of connectives below, but first , here’s a quick refresher on the grammar behind connective words:  

Definitions: The grammatical bit

Understanding the grammar behind your writing might not be your thing – but bear with me, because remembering these six definitions will help you know which connective to use when, and where to place them!

(If you’re just looking for examples of connectives, feel free to skip straight past this bit!)

Connectives fall into three grammatical categories: conjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs.

Using adverb and preposition connective words adds specific meaning – and thus clarity – to your writing. They are particularly useful for successful essay signposting .

connectives for argumentative essays

Definitions part 2: Connectives in sentences

When using connectives, it’s also important to remember that not all sentences are created equal in importance . And so , when connecting them into longer sentences, different types of connectives create different results:

On the other hand,

A useful type of subordinating connective for essay writing is the:

And that’s your grammar refresh done!

If you’re struggling with essay-writing grammar, a great tool for checking your writing is Grammarly * – we use it at Exam Study Expert because it catches a broad range of mistakes. Their blog is also a great place to learn how to use conjunctions , prepositions , adverbs and more.

How to use connective words

So how do you go about using connectives?

In this section, we’re going to discuss the where, what and how …

connectives for argumentative essays

Where to add connectives:

As we’ve seen , connective words are often found in the middle of a sentence, joining two clauses. But don’t forget you can also use them at the beginning of a sentence to link two consecutive sentences – OR two ideas within your paragraphs (did you see what I did there?).

Some of your connectives will even be linking entire paragraphs and sections – these are often examples of signposting to guide the reader through your section or argument.

What’s more , many connectives are not just single words but phrases. These connectives are particularly useful for essay writing and academic vocabulary. For example: as well as, for an example of this, for instance, in addition to, on the other hand, such as .

What to use connectives for:

When you’re writing an essay or assignment there are plenty of tasks you need to achieve: presenting evidence, making arguments and more.

Happily, connectives can help you achieve all these tasks by clarifying your meaning. You can use connectives for:

It’s a long list! So master using connectives and you’ll drastically improve the readability of your writing across all sections of your essay.

How to add in useful connective words:

You’re probably already using basic connectives in your writing.

But if you want to get serious about the benefits to your grades, make sure you’re systematic about how you add them during your essay construction – and (later) proofreading to check they make sense on a large(r) scale!

From experience, I would suggest that the best method for choosing and adding effective connectives is to:

And for that purpose, we’ve compiled four lists of connective words for you – including the TOP 70 connectives for effective essay writing! So read on…

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Types of connective words

So let’s get down to the really useful stuff: examples of connectives you can use in different situations in your essays!

There are three main types of connectives that we’re going to explore in turn:

Comparative connective words

These helpful words and phrases are perfect both for comparing similarities in data and arguments, and for pointing out their differences and oppositions. Use them to compare, discuss and argue.

When comparing points, you’ll often be adding to your argument, so these connectives are used for “ addition ”. The most common connectives for addition are: and, also, furthermore, moreover .

Here are some examples in practice:

On the other hand , you might need to demonstrate and contrast your argument with the opposing point of view with a connective for “ opposition ”. The most commonly used are: alternatively, except, however, unless .

connectives examples

These examples all demonstrate opposition:

Causal connective words

Causal connectives are effective for discussing cause and effect – relationships that have logical links that you want to point out and prove.

As such , academic writing is often full of causal connectives, and many of them demonstrate a very academic vocabulary (great for bonus points in your assignment!).

Most essays and assignments have a section (or several sections!) where you need to draw together your facts, ideas and arguments and point out the connections. These are the connectives to turn to at those moments!

The most commonly used are: as such, as a result (of), because, consequently, therefore, thus .

connective words

Here are some examples:

Temporal connective words

Whether you’re explaining the sequence of events that led to a historical battle, or demonstrating the steps in your experiment, temporal connectives are a highly valuable tool.

They’re all about discussing time and the chronology of events – what happened before, during and after . Therefore , they make for great signposting words too!

temporal connective words

These examples explore each of the four sections in our temporal connectives lists:

The TOP 70 connective words for effective essay writing!

To make sure that you’ve got the tools you need to improve your grades, we’ve compiled this epic list of all the best connectives to use in academic writing.

This is just a selection from the hundreds of connective words and phrases available. So there’s no need to make your essay stale by over-using the same one or two!

If there’s nothing else you grab when you’re ticking off Step #4 from the connectives methodology above – make sure you grab this list!

It covers all the stages of essay structuring and writing, from introduction to conclusion . And includes lists of connectives for:

We’ve highlighted the best and most commonly used connectives for each section to ensure you’ve got THE best resource to improve the quality of your essay immediately.

connective words list

To finish off , here are some examples to get your essay-writing inspiration flowing:

Good luck with your essay!

Now you’ve mastered adding effective connective words to your essay you’re ready for the next step. Be sure to check out our guide on proofreading your assignment before you hand it in. Good luck!

And for more expert, science-backed study resources, sign up to the Exam Study Expert newsletter right here:

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How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 6, 2021.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

Table of contents

When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

See an example

connectives for argumentative essays

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2021, December 06). How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips. Scribbr. Retrieved March 6, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/argumentative-essay/

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essay connectives

50 Persuasive Examples of Essay Connectives In Use Today

Essay connectors are words or phrases used to show the logical relationship between the points. They help to achieve an essay flow – preventing the essay from appearing as a loose collection of points, among which the reader ‘jumps about’ randomly. An article without essay connectives may lead to a disconnect of the reader from what the writer intended.

Connectives to use in an essay are carefully assembled and creatively applied to achieve a top-notch piece. The writer should ensure that the sentences make sense to him/her first before settling on special connectors for essays.

In the following extensive paragraphs, we are going to explore some of these top connective words and phrases. Where possible, a sentence example may be added for each connector to give you an idea of how to use the connectives in speech.

Connectors Showing Reason and Cause

They are used when justifying why an action or an event seemed possible or appropriate. Some of the top connector words for reason or cause include:

Example in a Sentence: Because of the government directive, we decided to stay at home.

Connective Words for Adding Information

When writing your essay, you can use such paragraph connectors to emphasize a point. The following are some top-class connectives used to add information.

Model in a Sentence: Apart from washing hands, we can prevent Corona Virus by using a face mask and social distancing.

Connectives for Succession

One can use these transitions for essays when showing the progression of actions or events. They include the following:

Example in a Sentence: To begin with, you have to get your hands, then apply soap, wash for at least 20 seconds and finally dry your hands.

Showing Comparison and Contrast

Connectives in speech used here show either differences or similarities expressed in a particular essay. Examples include:

Model in a Sentence: Although he stayed indoors, he still contracted the dreaded COVID-19 and died.

Connectives for Expressing Personal Opinion

These are essay connectives used to show a personal view or attitude towards a particular subject. They include:

Example in a Sentence: As far as I am concerned, wearing a sweater on a cold day may not be practical as wearing a trench coat.

Connectors for Explaining

Such transition words are used when making an essay idea clear to the reader. One may opt to use the following transition words list.

Example in a sentence: Basically, different types of face masks need a doctor’s authorization before use.

Summarizing Essay Connectors

They are used to mark the conclusion of your essay. The readers can ascertain the finality in your article when such a summarizing connector is used. They include:

Connective words ensure clarity and conciseness as much as possible. It can only be achieved when the right words are used to convey your argument.

Do you need writing help to achieve a smarter paper, without generally detracting from your ideas? Contact our able team of professional writers today.

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A good plan will not only help you to make decisions about what material to include and in what order, but will also aid in developing the logical links that form your argument. Once you have assembled your material, this technique provides a way of thinking about the logical order in a way that you can then articulate clearly in your writing. Unless the links are clear to you as writer, and to your reader, the essay will not 'flow' - that is, it might appear as a loose collection of points, among which the reader 'jumps about' randomly.

Step one: Assemble your material

The first step, assembling your material, can be done however best suits your working preferences, whether you prefer to use mindmaps, bulletpoints or quotations from primary material. This technique is best used at a later stage of the essay writing process, and can be combined with one of the other strategies for earlier stages of developing your points.

As you will be working with the order of your ideas, it might be helpful, when collating your material, to do so in a flexible format, whether using a word processor, small whiteboard, post-it notes or postcards.

Step two: Using connectives

Once you have assembled your points, try and arrange them in an order which feels that it makes sense to you. Once you have done so, experiment with connective words and phrases to express the logical relationship between the points. There are different types of relationship between points that combine to make up an argument, and various synonyms for expressing them, for example:

Adding similar points or going into more detail:

Sequencing points:

Contrasting points:

Giving causes, reasons or results:

If you find that you are using connective words and phrases that predominantly express the relationship of addition (and, moreover, in addition etc) then it may be that your argument is not as complex or well-developed as it could be.

You could also use this technique when editing a draft for structure - check each paragraph (especially the first couple of sentences) and experiment with different connective phrases to see what the link between them is, and then whether your writing reflects this. Ultimately, the connective words will become embedded in your writing to signal your structure. See the later section on Communicating your structure effectively  for more guidance.

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Connectives List

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Making your essays clearer

Improve your work and make your assignments easier to understand with clear writing.

Writing clearly and structuring your assignments can help make your work clearer and improve your grades.  

Writing clearly involves using good sentence structure and using connectives to link your ideas. Using connectives properly makes your work easy to read and understand, but using them unnecessarily can confuse readers. 

Language choices 

Different assignments in your degree may need different styles and encourage different word choices. Your university assignments will usually use an academic and formal style. You should choose your words carefully to demonstrate your point clearly and succinctly. 

Tips to improve word choices in your writing:  

Connectives and transition signals

Connectives link sentences, phrases and ideas in your writing to guide your reader through your work. Transition terms are a type of connective that specifically indicates some kind of change or development.

Connectives can demonstrate your analysis and criticality, the flow of your work, the development of your material, or a different angle or change in direction.

Connective examples: 

Appropriate assertion

Avoid stating that something is 'definite' in your work because you probably can't explore all potential outcomes of the statement in your essay. Use academic caution to suggest conclusions in your writing, and avoid terms like 'obviously', 'undeniably', 'certainly' and 'definitely' (unless you're quoting someone else).

Instead of using casual terms like 'surely' or 'everybody knows', you should use phrases like 'It is common knowledge' or 'It is generally accepted...'.

You could use these phrases:

Cautious language

Academic caution is about not making absolute statements of fact. 

Example of cautious language:

Challenging arguments 

You can express doubt about or challenge your evidence, an argument, or a claim in your resources. You can also express doubt about something you've said. 

Five examples of phrases to express doubt:

Using evidence

Evidence can come from a range of sources. Your field will have specific requirements and reputable sources. Your evidence could come from data, results, findings, newspapers, databases, documentaries, or sound logical thinking and argument.

Examples of phrases to introduce evidence:

Remember that writer implies something, and the reader infers something, when making your word choices. 

Expressing what comes first or is most important

When you need to highlight a key point in your word you could use phrases like: 

Expressing sequence

Your reader should be ware of where they are in your work. It's easy to lose your place when reading extended writing so you should include some guidance in your assignment. Expressing sequence also demonstrates that you're thinking logically and systematically to present your points or argument, and keeping in touch with how elements relate to each other.

Examples of terms to express sequence: 

Expressing finality

Your conclusion will usually summarise the information in your essay. You can use terms like: 

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Essay Connectors

Did you know that there are many linkers and connectors that will allow you to use the English language more powerfully? Today, we will examine linkers with different meanings and give example sentences established with each linker. In this way, we believe that you can use these linkers much more easily in your essay works.

8 Tips On Writing An Effective Essay , Writing Essay Tips

When you use these connectors, which will give the meaning of contrast to the sentence, one half of the sentence and the other half should contain contradictory and unexpected statements. Let’s examine it on the example.

Reason and Cause

When you use essay connectors indicating the reason and cause in a sentence, two different clauses must be related to each other.

You can see that purpose connectors are usually used in sentences with an aim theme that contains information about the reason for any action. These have extremely powerful meanings and make your essay richer.

When we are lining up information in a sentence or paragraph or trying to pass an event stream to the reader, we often need to use succession specifiers among the essay connectors. For this, we have the chance to benefit from the following alternatives:

Paragraphs that indicate result in any subject can usually indicate cause and effect.

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Connecting ideas in writing

Suggestions for connecting ideas at the sentence and paragraph level in academic writing.

In academic writing, it is important to present an argument clearly and cohesively. In addition, you may be required to discuss and evaluate existing research or ideas about the topic under discussion. Often you will be assessed on your ability to do both. Developing the language to connect ideas in academic writing will help you with both these tasks. The appropriate use of ‘discourse markers,’ that is, words or phrases that signal a relationship, can reveal and reinforce the direction that your argument is taking, and make clear the relations between sections of your writing.

Here we provide suggestions for sentence openers, ‘linking words’ within sentences and between paragraphs, and alternative vocabulary choices you might use when connecting ideas in writing.

Connectives used in and between sentences

Connectives allow us to be more precise about the relationships between statements in a sentence or between sentences. Particular phrases and words serve different functions in connecting ideas and arguments. For example, different clauses or words can signal or ‘signpost’ additional or similar information, opposition or contrast, concession, cause or effect, emphasis, clarification, or a relationship in time or sequence. Some useful examples of each are categorised by function below.

Note that most of these terms can also be used to start new paragraphs. However, some of them need to be incorporated into fuller sentences to be effective as paragraph openers. For example, if you use notwithstanding as a paragraph opener you may have to add other content words to provide more information such as “Nothwithstanding a lack of natural resources, the region has…”

Additionally, and, also, apart from this, as well (as), in addition, moreover, further, furthermore.

If, in that case, provided that, unless.

Correspondingly, equally, for the same reason, in a similar manner, in comparison, in the same way, on the one hand, similarly.

Alternatively, although, but, conversely, despite, even so, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, on the contrary, contrary to, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, on the other hand, rather, still, though, yet, whereas, while.

Again, in fact, interestingly, indeed, it should be noted (that), more important(ly), most importantly, to repeat, (un)fortunately, unquestionably.

A further instance of this is..., an example of this is…, for example, for instance, such as, thus, as follows.

In other words, more simply, namely, simply put, to put it differently / another way, such as, that is.

A / the consequence of, because, due to, for, the effect of …, since, the result of …

Accordingly, as a result/consequence, consequently, for this reason, hence, so, therefore, thus.

Admittedly, although, clearly though, even though, however, indeed, obviously.

As a rule, for the most part, generally, in general, in most cases, normally, on the whole, usually.

First, second, third (etc), next, before, earlier, finally, following, given the above, later, meanwhile, subsequently, then, to conclude, while.

A note about presentation and style

Check a usage guide for exact rules for punctuation. Many introductory phrases have a comma after them. For example, 'therefore,' and 'in addition,'.

Connecting paragraphs

Apart from using the linking words / phrases above, showing the link between paragraphs could involve writing ‘hand-holding’ sentences. These are sentences that link back to the ideas of the previous paragraph. For instance, when outlining the positive and negative issues about a topic you could use the following:

Example (from beginning of previous paragraph):

When you are ready to move your discussion to the negative issues, you could write one of the following as a paragraph opener:

It is always important to make paragraphs part of a coherent whole text; they must not remain isolated units.

Checking for paragraph links in your own work

When you are editing your next written assignment, ask yourself the following questions as you read through your work (Gillett, Hammond, & Martala, 2009):

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Argumentative essays.

Argumentative Essays – Tips & Tricks

A counter argument could be “ Social media is required for teenagers, it forms a platform for conversations, discussions and sharing valued information “.

Disputing this counter argument “ Although it does provide a medium for communication, teenagers waste most of their precious time in procrastinating since they needlessly read comics/have useless discussions. Social media is one of main reasons why teenagers procrastinate. “

You can also add the fact that other mediums of communication such as e-mail, messaging are also available.


Here is a great website concerning words and expressions. Do read it.

Difference b/w Discursive and Argumentative Essays:

In Discursive essays, you present a balanced argument that contains ‘for’ and ‘against’ points. You do not state your opinion.

In Argumentative, you give your opinion and convince the reader on your point of view.

Example Argumentative Essay:

Some people say that the Internet does more harm than good. What is your view? To majority of teenagers and working adults, the Internet has been regarded as one the most innovative achievements of humankind. Since the invention of the internet, its pervasive and life-altering influences can be felt in many aspects of people’s daily lives. While mostly beneficial in areas such as communication, trade and research, the internet has also caused a proliferation of vices such as pornography and hacking. Despite the negativity associated with the internet, I strongly believe that Internet does more good than harm.

Communication all over the world has been considerably improved thanks to the Internet. With the widespread availability of messengers and social networks like Yahoo and Facebook, people can easily communicate irrespective of their geographic locations. Gone are the days when international communication meant a delay of several days to months. Today, interaction through the Internet is not only much cheaper and more convenient than traditional modes of communication, it also has options to allow face to face interaction such as through the use of Skype. Now, family members and businesses can not only have instantaneous communication, they can also have the added personal touch even if they are in different continents or in any remote part of the world.

The Internet is one of the key contributors to the global free trade. When the transnational corporations want to open business in the other countries, they first have to contact partners in those countries before officially making a deal. In such case, the Internet certainly does a great job. Furthermore, the internet is instrumental in reducing operation costs for businesses where employees can be easily hired from developing countries and work remotely from their native land. For example, many transnational companies set up call centres in countries like Philippines or India where workers are cheaper to employ. The same benefits are applied to people’s daily lives. With the omnipresence of online shops, many people are able to save their precious time shopping. Instead, they have more time to do other important things such as helping their children do homework or having a short visit to their parents’ house.

On the other hand, objectors of the Internet argue that it spoils the young generation by spreading pornography and violence, which is considered rampant nowadays. There is no doubt that pornographic websites and violence videos are ubiquitous online, but whether the young is spoilt by it depends on the young themselves. Owing to the continual warning of using the Internet on many cyber education programs, the youths are supposed to know about all the boon and bane effect of surfing webs. Thus, once they have heightened awareness, there is likelihood that they will not be attacked by cyber hackers. Moreover there is a variety of information for their researches on line. Instead of spending hours of flipping over hundreds of books in the libraries, one may easily obtain necessary documentation within a second of mouse click.

Similar to any other technological inventions, the Internet has both pros and cons; nonetheless, its benefits far outweigh its harms. With recent upgrading Internet security software and substantial improvements on its use, I am firmly convinced the Internet is more a blessing than a curse.

Here are some pointers from the IGCSE Examiner Tips:


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how do you differentiate between the two topics?


I have only one confusion that at the end of all 3 body paragraphs we are supposed to write a counterargument or only in the last body paragraph?


It is often looked upon, that “reflective writing” contains, opinions, on a specific topic, while argumentative contains “real solid ‘arguments’ “, that is you argue on a specific idea, generally a stereotype. That being said, the sample provided, concludes, upon argumentative, and reflective, if the two aren’t to be referred to as one “body”, while referring to the sample. Accordingly, should it be then taken up from this, that argumentative can allow, opinions, perhaps that reflective sums up to the creative writing, partially?

Zhou TT

It is just awesome Sir/Ma’am. It is really helpful. Even though it is good but I have a confusion, I have researched from different websites but no one has talked about the word limit and that how much words should be in one paragraph. It would be so nice of you if you can answer this question. Looking forward for your reply. Again it is a superb work piece. Thank you !


There is no set limit for the number of words in a particular paragraph. The word limit for the entire essay is mentioned in the question prompt — try to adhere to that given word limit and make sure that paragraphs are of almost uniform length.

I hope this answers your question.


Respected Sir/Maam I have a question that do the word limit matters?? like if it is 300 to 450 than is it compulsory to write in between them and also what if we cross the words limit..?? will our marks be deducted?? or does it matters to take care of this?? I shall be very thankful to you ….. Thanks for the entire essay writing tips…


1. Intro 2. For 3. For 4 .against and refute. 5. Conclusion Why is there two “for” para. ? This is the only doubt i have.

Hi! I am definitely not that good or capable to reply you’er question but in my point of view I think we write 5 paragraphs from which,

1.Intro 2.Now it depends that are you going for the topic or against it. For example if you want to go against the topic so you will write 2nd and 3rd para for against points and vice versa. 3.Again if you go with against so you will write this para accordingly. 4.According to the example I have given we will write “f or ” the topic whatever it is. 5.Conclusion. I hope this was helpful. I explained it in the simplest words I could.


u will be given a choice of 3 which r argumentative, narative or, descriptive

Daksh Arora

If I would write this in my exams…I will get at least 19/20 by the ICSE Examiner…Lol

Asia Bukhari

dear your sentence structure is not correct.


Exquisitely explained!


Commendable effort👍


This is really helpful..


how do I know from the question if I should write openion or argumentative essay

Good question, Answer: it will ask to state your opinion and there must be two sides, this would give you the judgement to chosse argumentative essay or writing atleast what im aware of doing 511 english as second lang. IGCSE CAIE, to test this view cheack the past papers of your subject code whether 500 first lang. Or whatever cheack the past papers avalable to test this view, normally multiple past papers

but can you tell me that what is the correct way of writing an Argumentative essay that what should be the best way to give a better starting and ending??

connectives for argumentative essays

How to Write a Standout Argumentative Essay

Matt Ellis

An argumentative essay is a piece of writing that uses factual evidence and logical support to convince the reader of a certain way of thinking. Although many types of essays aim at persuading the reader to believe a specific point of view, argumentative essays rely heavily on hard evidence, drawing on other studies and sources to prove their argument is best. 

Don’t let the name fool you: Argumentative essays don’t have to be aggressive or combative. Rather, it gets its name from the style of arguing, whereby the writer presents sufficient research to both support their own claim and invalidate opposing perspectives. When you’re writing an argumentative essay, remember that the goal is to show that your thesis is the only logical conclusion. 

Give your essays extra polish Grammarly helps you improve academic writing Write with Grammarly

Argumentative essays are only as good as their argument, and structuring good arguments requires a little more than just being stubborn (even if it helps!). Below, we run through the most useful techniques for writing the perfect argumentative essay. But don’t take our word for it—our evidence speaks for itself! 

What is an argumentative essay? 

Like persuasive essays and other types of essays , the point of argumentative essays is to convince the reader of a particular point of view. What makes an essay argumentative is the method of convincing: An argumentative essay uses fact-based evidence and unquestionable logic to prove that its thesis is true. 

Persuasive essays do this, too, but tend to be more emotional and less formal . Argumentative essays focus more on concrete empirical data, whereas persuasive essays appeal more to the reader’s emotions. In other words, argumentative essays favor quantitative support, while persuasive essays favor qualitative support. 

Likewise, it’s easy to confuse argumentative essays with expository essays , which rely heavily on fact-based evidence and copious research. The main difference is bias : Argumentative essays presume one point of view is correct, whereas expository essays usually present all sides of the argument and leave it to the reader to make up their own mind. 

Another distinction of argumentative essays is that the thesis is not obvious . It usually has strong enough opposition to necessitate an explanation of why it’s wrong. For example, “the sky is blue on a sunny day” would be an awful thesis for an argumentative essay. Not only would it be redundant, but also far too simplistic: Your evidence may be “look outside,” and that’d be the end of it! 

The idea is that an argumentative essay leaves no doubt that its thesis is accurate, usually by disproving or invalidating opposing theories. That’s why argumentative essays don’t just talk about the writer’s own thesis but discuss other contradicting points of view as well. It’s hard to name one perspective as “true” if you’re ignoring all the others. 

Basic argumentative essay structure

Because your entire argumentative essay depends on how well you present your case, your essay structure is crucial. To make matters worse, the structure of argumentative essays is a little more involved than those of other essay types because you also have to address other points of view. This alone leads to even more considerations, like whose argument to address first, and at what point to introduce key evidence. 

Let’s start with the most basic argumentative essay structure: the simple five-paragraph format that suits most short essays. 

This simple structure serves you well in a pinch, especially for timed essays that are part of a test. However, advanced essays require more detailed structures, especially if they have a length requirement of over five paragraphs. 

Advanced argumentative essay structure

Some essays need to support more complicated arguments and more definitive rebuttals than normal. In these cases, the three major formats below should serve your argumentative essay for a variety of needs. 

Aristotelian (Classic)

When to use it: making straightforward arguments

The Aristotelian or classic argument is a default structure for a clear argument, more like an extension of the simple five-paragraph structure above. It draws on credibility ( ethos ), emotion ( pathos ), and reasoning ( logos ) to prove its points, all of which can be adapted for virtually any argument. In form, it follows a direct and logical path: 

1 Introduce the problem.

2 Explain your perspective.

3 Explain your opponent’s perspective. Refute their points one-by-one as you go. 

4 Present your evidence.

5 Conclude your argument.

When to use it: presenting complex issues with no clear truths or when your thesis is a rebuttal or counterargument. 

The Toulmin method was developed to analyze arguments themselves, so it makes sense to use it for essays. Because it’s steeped in logic and deep analysis, this approach best suits complicated issues that need unraveling, but also works well for refuting an opposing point of view piece by piece. 

In form, it includes six main areas, but you’re free to organize them in whatever order works best for your essay. Keep in mind that your claim can itself be a rebuttal of another argument, so your entire essay could be disproving another thesis rather than presenting your own. 

1   Claim: your thesis or argument, stated clearly

2   Reasons: your evidence, including data or generally accepted facts

3   Warrant: the connection between your claim and reasons (requiring you to state assumptions explicitly so there’s no confusion)

4   Backing: additional evidence to support your claim

5   Qualifier: the limits to your own claim, including concessions

6   Rebuttal: addressing opposing viewpoints and criticisms of your claim

When to use it: showing both sides of an argument as valid or when presenting to a mixed audience.

The Rogerian method is simply a middle-ground approach, where you acknowledge the validity of both your thesis and the opposition’s viewpoint. It’s the least confrontational and most respectful, which helps in convincing readers who are naturally biased against your main claim. In form, it follows a five-step structure: 

2 Explain your opponent’s perspective first. Validate their points when correct. 

3 Explain your perspective. 

4 Bring both sides together. Present a middle ground where both viewpoints coexist. 

5 Conclude your (balanced) argument.

How to write a good thesis

The thesis, or argument, is the cornerstone of any good essay. If your thesis is weak or full of holes, not even a perfect essay structure can save you. 

The thesis itself should be the one takeaway you want your readers to leave with. What are you trying to convince them of, or what do you want them to remember after reading? Knowing this informs all other aspects of writing your essay, including the best structure and format, not to mention which evidence to collect. 

For starters, choose a topic you feel strongly about (if it’s not already assigned). It helps if your argument is specific; having a broad or general argument means more facets to examine, which can make for a wordy essay. 

It also helps to consider your audience. You don’t always have to tell readers what they want to hear, but their biases should influence how you write your essay, including your wording and how much credit to give the opposition. 

Above all, choose a thesis with sufficient evidence. Argumentative essays thrive on factual proof from credible sources, and you don’t want to waste time searching for data that doesn’t exist. If you can’t find enough facts to back up your thesis, maybe you shouldn’t argue that point in the first place. 

How to write an argumentative essay: the writing process

Argumentative essays follow the same recommended writing process as other kinds of writing, albeit with more emphasis on researching and preparing. Here’s a brief overview of how to adapt the process for argumentative essays: 

1   Brainstorming: If your argument is not provided in the assignment, take some time to think up a good thesis based on our guidelines above. 

2   Preparing: This phase is for collecting all the evidence going into your essay, as well as writing an outline . Because proof is key to argumentative essays, set aside ample time for research until you have all the support you need. It’s also a good time to outline your essay, answering questions like when and how to discuss opposing viewpoints. 

3   Drafting: Write a rough draft of your essay. It helps to include any data and direct quotes as early as possible, especially with argumentative essays that often cite outside sources. 

4   Revising: Polish your rough draft, optimize word choice, and restructure your arguments if necessary. Make sure your language is clear and appropriate for the reader, and double-check that you effectively made all your points and rebuttals. 

5   Proofreading : Go through your draft and focus exclusively on fixing mistakes. If you’re not confident in your grammar skills or diction, use Grammarly . 

Although optional, it always helps to have a fresh set of eyes on your essays before finalizing it. See if your argument is strong enough to convince your friends!

Argumentative essay writing tips

Our tips for writing better essays apply just as well to argumentative essays as any others, so that’s the best place to start if you’re looking for additional guidance. For tips specific to argumentative essays, try these: 

Support your argument with concrete facts

Although similar to persuasive essays, argumentative essays are in some ways the exact opposite. While persuasive essays appeal to the reader’s emotions, argumentative essays appeal to the reader’s reason. That’s why hard facts work best. 

Do plenty of research until you have enough data to support each of your main points. Feel free to cite other sources or studies to improve your credibility as well. Try to withhold your personal opinions and feelings as much as possible—let your evidence speak for you. 

Be proactive about language

In an argumentative essay, tone and style are more important than you may think, especially if you’re criticizing another person’s perspective. Be respectful when choosing your words and phrasing. Using an aggressive tone reflects worse on the writer than the target, even if rebutting a despicable point of view. 

Use aids for style and grammar

Even the smallest typo can derail the most carefully planned argument. The problem is, it’s hard to formulate the best possible argument if you’re distracted by spelling and grammar. 

Grammarly finds all of your writing mistakes for you so you can stay focused on what’s important. It even checks your tone and clarity to make sure your true argument always shines through and comes across as intended. See how Grammarly can help your next writing project by downloading it now.

connectives for argumentative essays

English Tutor Lessons

English tuition years 11-12, persuasive writing sentence openers and connectives for primary level students, why use sentence openers and connectives that persuade when writing persuasive language texts at primary level.

It is important to use sequence words and phrases as sentence openers and connectives that persuade when writing persuasive language texts at primary level to link or connect your sentences, ideas and whole paragraphs together.  Connectives (linking words) should be carefully chosen in persuasive writing to make sure your paragraphs are linked logically.

Below is a table of persuasive writing sentence openers and connectives that you can use for primary level English:

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Persuasive writing Activities Bundle (12 Products + 1) and BONUS FILE!

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Stage Two Writing Persuasive Devices/Quick Writes Unit - Two Weeks Duration

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Persuasive Writing Example Texts! (WAGOLLs)


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Opinion Writing Prompts 3rd Grade and Recounts, Informational Writing BUNDLE


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Persuasive Writing Ruberic/Matrix

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Creative, Persuasive & Information Writing COMPLETE UNIT (9-14 years)

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Persuasive / Opinion Essay Writing Resource Pack

Persuasive / Opinion Essay Writing Resource Pack

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{{item.title}}, my essentials, ask for help, contact edconnect, directory a to z, how to guides, teaching strategies, text structure – connectives and conjunctions.

Cohesion in texts includes the use of connectives and conjunctions and more sophisticated texts effectively use a variety of referring words, substitutions, word associations and text connectives to improve the flow of the writing. It refers to the use of linguistic devices to join sentences together, including conjunctions, reference words, substitution and lexical devices such as repetition of words (or synonyms), collocations and lexical groups.

Students need to connect ideas in logical ways in order to display and build precise factual knowledge, develop their ideas to persuade more convincingly and express more complex relationships in their speech and writing.

Referring words: set up links by referring to sentences or the context that has just been mentioned to maintain continuity and avoid repetition. Other referring words include:

Activities to support the strategy

Activity 1: fill in the gaps.

Note: activity 1 is a prerequisite for activity 2.

Students decide which label bests extends the topic sentence to add further information.

For example:

problem, issue, topic, question, aspect, solution, approach, fact, argument, view, point, situation, position

What do you think of animal rights? That’s quite a big ______________ We are running out of funds. How do you propose to solve the__________? Is there life on other planets? This is a _________ nobody has answered yet. You can do your presentation on any _______ you prefer. Iceland has taken the banks to court. This new ____________ to tackle the crisis is quite unusual.

Activity 2: growing paragraphs using referral words

Students write a sentence about the HSIE or Science content they are currently studying with a partner or small group.

They then match the sentence with a suitable label from the following:

This then allows students to add further information through the use of referral words.

Activity 3 : growing paragraphs using referral words

Discuss words which replace verb, noun groups, and whole clauses using the following examples.

Students use the text below or an to draw coloured lines and highlight the noun the referring word replaces:

'To Laurie - at fifteen, transplanted by his parents from the country to the inner suburbs, wandering his new streets, marveling at the unearthly blue of the jacarandas and the fleshiness of the suspended mangoes - the man appeared as a sign. He was going somewhere.

The move to the city had been a success. He felt he should acknowledge his friend, his fellow explorer - just a nod of the head. But he never did'.

Australian curriculum

ACELA1763: Text structure and organisation: Understand that the coherence of more complex texts relies on devices that signal text structure and guide readers, for example overviews, initial and concluding paragraphs and topic sentences, indexes or site maps or breadcrumb trails for online texts.

NSW syllabus

EN4-3B: Outcome 3: uses and describes language forms, features and structures of texts appropriate to a range of purposes, audiences and contexts (EN4-3B) - Understand and apply knowledge of language forms and features: understand that the coherence of more complex texts relies on devices that signal text structure and guide readers, for example overviews, initial and concluding paragraphs and topic sentences, indexes or site maps or breadcrumb trails for online texts.

Hack EAL: Writing

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Improve Writing In EAL / EFL

Lesson ideas and worksheets to help intermediate and advanced students improve their writing

Are you looking to help ESL students' enhance their writing skills? Check out this collection of resources and unlock the secrets to writing a good essay.

Master linking words

Linking words, connectives and conjunctions Game

Linking words, connectives and conjunctions Game

Linking Words-Connectors Crossword Puzzle

Linking Words-Connectors Crossword Puzzle

Word lists on opinion and statements and on linking arguments

Word lists on opinion and statements and on linking arguments

Master discursive and opinion essays.

EAL/ESL Discursive Writing Unit - Kensuke's Kingdom

EAL/ESL Discursive Writing Unit - Kensuke's Kingdom

Discursive Essay Based on Kensuke's Kingdom

Discursive Essay Based on Kensuke's Kingdom




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    Connectives (linking words) should be carefully chosen in persuasive writing to make sure your paragraphs are linked logically. Below is a table of persuasive writing sentence openers and connectives that you can use for primary level English: Private Online Tutoring of English using Zoom

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    Too often my students would use 'firstly, secondly, thirdly and finally' when writing an exposition or persuasive paragraph. Not anymore! I have made 3 posters to help start off each of their argument paragraphs: - Connectives for 1st Argument - Connectives for 2nd and 3rd Argument and, - Connectives for Concluding Paragraph

  24. Text structure

    Cohesion in texts includes the use of connectives and conjunctions and more sophisticated texts effectively use a variety of referring words, substitutions, word associations and text connectives to improve the flow of the writing. It refers to the use of linguistic devices to join sentences together, including conjunctions, reference words ...

  25. Argumentative Paragraph Writing CONNECTORS

    Here you will find the most common Argumentative Paragraph Writing CONNECTORS organized by topic sentence, supporting sentences and closing sentence. Enjoy!! ... Conjunctions (aka connectives, e.g. and, but, or, so, then) Argumentative Paragraph Writing CONNECTORS. rosand2001 2012-10-17 04:29:06. Downvote. 22. Upvote. Full screen. 7933 Downloads;

  26. Hack EAL: Writing

    Linking words, connectives and conjunctions Game. FREE (22) ... Scaffold the structural components of a Persuasive Essay with this comprehensive pack of interactive notebook templates, posters, anchor charts, and graphic organisers. FOCUS OF SCAFFOLDED LESSONS ON: \* Lesson activities feature the sample text, Fast Food . ...