AP psych free response (sleep and dreams)

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A heat pump supplies heat energy to a house at the rate of 140 , 000   k J / h 140,000 \mathrm{~kJ} / \mathrm{h} 140 , 000   kJ / h when the house is kept at 2 5 ∘ C 25^{\circ} \mathrm{C} 2 5 ∘ C . Over a period of one month, the heat pump operates for 100 hours to transfer energy from a heat source outside the house to inside the house. Assume a heat pump receives heat from two different outside energy sources. In one application the heat pump receives heat from the outside air at 0 ∘ C 0^{\circ} \mathrm{C} 0 ∘ C . In a second application, the heat pump receives heat from a lake having a water temperature of 1 0 ∘ C 10^{\circ} \mathrm{C} 1 0 ∘ C . If electricity costs $ 0.085 / k W h \$ 0.085 / \mathrm{kWh} $0.085/ kWh , find the maximum money saved by employing the lake water rather than the outside air as the outside energy source.

The introduction to this chapter described the search for genes that determine pattern baldness in humans. In 1916, Dorothy Osborn suggested that pattern baldness is a sex-influenced trait (see Chapter 5) that is dominant in males and recessive in females. More research suggested that pattern baldness is an X \mathrm{X} X -linked recessive trait. Would you expect to see an independent assortment between genetic markers on the X \mathrm{X} X chromosome and pattern baldness if (a) pattern baldness is sex influenced and (b) if pattern baldness is X \mathrm{X} X -linked recessive? Explain your answer.

The equilibrium constant K c K_{\mathrm{c}} K c ​ for the reaction

I 2 (   g ) ⇄ 2 I ( g ) \mathrm{I}_2(\mathrm{~g}) \rightleftarrows 2 \mathrm{I}(g) I 2 ​ (   g ) ⇄ 2 I ( g )

is 3.8 × 1 0 − 5 3.8 \times 10^{-5} 3.8 × 1 0 − 5 at 72 7 ∘ C 727^{\circ} \mathrm{C} 72 7 ∘ C .

Calculate K c K_{\mathrm{c}} K c ​ and K P K_P K P ​ for the equilibrium

2 I ( g ) ⇄ I 2 (   g ) 2 \mathrm{I}(\mathrm{g}) \rightleftarrows \mathrm{I}_2(\mathrm{~g}) 2 I ( g ) ⇄ I 2 ​ (   g )

at the same temperature.

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2.9 Sleep and Dreaming

5 min read • january 6, 2023

Jillian Holbrook

Jillian Holbrook

Dalia Savy

AP Psychology   🧠

The Circadian Rhythm

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Summary of the Sleep Stages

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AP® Psychology

Explaining harold's sleep problems.

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AP Psychology : Biology of Sleep

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ap psychology, all ap psychology resources, example questions, example question #1 : consciousness.

In which stage of sleep do we typically dream?

REM sleep (REM stands for "rapid eye movement") is the stage of sleep in which we dream. As the name suggests, our eyes move rapidly in different directions while in this stage. The other 4 stages of sleep are called "non-REM" sleep.

Example Question #2 : Consciousness

What does a delta wave on an EEG scan signify?

An extreme emotion, such as anger or sadness, occurring at the time of the reading

The accessing of spatial information

Slow wave sleep, or non-rapid-eye-movement sleep

The subject is working through a problem involving math

A painful sensation experienced during the reading

A delta wave is a wave with a high amplitude (height on graph) and has a frequency of 0-4 Hz (fairly slow). Delta waves are helpful to note on a scan because they can help characterize how deeply a person is sleeping; in certain disorders (such as alcoholism) delta waves are disrupted by other wave forms, showing that a person is not getting the type of rest required by the body. 

Example Question #3 : Consciousness

What stage of sleep is most strongly associated with dreaming?

Rapid-eye movement (REM) is the stage during which most dreaming occurs. It is the last stage in the cycle of sleep and gets longer and more frequent the longer you sleep.

Example Question #4 : Consciousness

Which hormone is most closely associated with sleep?

Testosterone

Melatonin is released by the pineal gland in response to circadian rhythms and other environmental clues, like darkness. It causes drowsiness and helps induce sleep.

Example Question #5 : Consciousness

During which stage of sleep do night terrors occur?

Night terrors are characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. Stage 4 is our deepest sleep stage, so it is difficult for those with night terrors to escape their terror by waking up (unlike nightmares).

Example Question #6 : Consciousness

Which brain waves are associated with deep sleep?

Alpha waves

Delta waves

Gamma waves

Delta waves occur during deep sleep (stage 4) and are associated with dreaming. In contrast, alpha waves are relatively slow brain waves that occur during a relaxed, awake state.

Example Question #7 : Consciousness

What is the average amount of sleep adults get each night?

The average amount of sleep an adult gets is 8 hours. Everyone is different, however; where some adults function off of 6 hours, others need at least 9 hours or more to feel healthy and awake.

Example Question #8 : Consciousness

What functions are directly related to circadian rhythm?

Mental functioning, hormones, and physical fitness

Heart, intestinal, and skin health

Blood pressure, metabolism, and body temperature

Hair and skin health, weight, and muscle restoration

Circadian rythm is responsible for the cycles of our blood pressure, metabolism, and body temperature. It contributes to our levels of energy throughout the day and is responsible for our descension in sleepiness as night falls. 

Example Question #9 : Consciousness

What is stage 2 of the sleep cycle?

None of these

Phase 2 sleep happens 90 minutes after you fall asleep and corresponds to deep, resorative REM sleep

Light sleep phase, during which a drop in body temperature occurs

5-10 minute phase, during which we can be easily awakened

After stage 1, which lasts about 5-10 minutes, is stage 2 during which we slowly enter deep sleep. This stage is still considered light sleep, corresponds to a drop in body temperature. We can still be woken up fairly easily. Stage 3 is when we enter heavier, deep sleep.

Example Question #10 : Consciousness

Which of the following can occur during REM sleep?

Intense dreams 

Quickened heart rate

All of these

Quickened breathing

REM is arguably the most important stage of sleep, and it is the last stage of our sleep cycle until it repeats all over again. Due to the heightened activity in our brains, we may have more intense dreams during this period. Also during this time, our heart rate and breathing quickens, and our body restores itself.

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